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REYNOLDS HISTORICAC 
GENEAL0":Y 'COLLECTION 



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GENEALOGY 
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1910 
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PENNSYLVMIA-GERMM 

VOLUME ELEVEN PART TWO 

1910 

JULY-DE CEMBER 



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Vol. XI 



JULY, 1910 



No. 7 




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CONTENTS: 



Brother Albrecht's Secret Chamber 

John Eakly and His Desce>'dants 

KASrWR Haidkl and His Prtmitivh Tannery 4. • 

A Noteworthy List of SuE--scRit<EKS .:..-; 

''Rsgihter' * Plan for Gkxealogies 41 3 

German Street Watchman Seventy Years Ago -Iir, 

First Protest^vnt Sermon IN THE New WcRLP 117 

PiCTURESqUE CHAii.VCTERISTICS OF PENNSYLVANIA GeKVANS V^ 

The K::v. Joseph Henry Dujbs D. D., LL. D., An ArpRECiATTON ... 31S 

Lndian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 4>2 

Traditions of Kreut.z Creek Vallei 424 

The Typical Berlin Haesfrau- A Myth ? .126 

Hessian Research Fund 4!:8 

Rev. John Caspar D.tll 4.?1 

Die MuTTi^RSPRocH 433 

Reviews and Notes 435 

Historical Notes and Nev/s 4G8 

Gemealogical Notes and Queries 440 

The Forum 443 

Editorial DEPAiii ment 446 

StjBSCRiPTioNS Received 44S 



Publishers; THE EXPRESS PRINTING CO. Editor: H. W. KRIEBEL Utiti, Pa. 

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Brother Albrecht's Secret Chamber 

A Legend of the Ancient Moravian Sun Inn at Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, and What Came of It 
• By James B. Laux, New York 

(CONTINUED FROM JUNK ISSUE) 

HE old inn brilliant with nity of bearing about him as there was 

about Louis XIV, /e grande jnouarque, 
whose high French heels were relied 
upon to give him increased stature 
and royal carriage, or e\en as tliere 
\\'as a certain assumed, studied air of 
majesty about an immeasurably great- 
er French ruler, the mighty Xapoleon, 
who studied dignity and pose under 
Talma, the celebrated French trage- 
dian. Washington towered above 
ordinary men with his six feet and two 
inches, and was as straight as an In- 
dian's arrow, and when he walked was 
grace personified. 

In a voice of great dignity of expres- 
sion mingled with much kindliness of 
manner and courtesy he acknowledged 
the salutations of the company. Xo 
one who has ever read any of Wash- 
ington's letters, or State papers, can 
fail to be impressed with these quali- 
ties even when addressing people who 
merited his wrath and indignation. He 
was as dignified in his expressions of 
contempt for his enemies as he was in 
those of friendship. 

He said: *'It is a great pleasure to 
be once more in vour town ; to 



lights shining from every . 
casement with the rich fa- 
miliar music of the famous 
trombone band pouring- 
its sweet, almost human 
notes upon the summer 
air wrought such a change 
that one soon lost sight and sense of 
time and generation, and was not sur- 
prised therefore when ushered into the 
great drawing-room with a grand cere- 
mony by Brother Albrecht, who, by 
the grace of Colonel ^Morgan became 
the major-domo of the evening. 

The beauty, culture and refinement 
of all the Bethlehems and other points 
in the Lehigh Valley, decked in its 
most becoming fashion, had already 
gathered in the spacious dining-room 
converted for the evening into a grand 
salo7z, and the hum of conversation 
was at the highest pitch when a sud- 
den hush came upon the company as 
Brother Albrecht, with a low obei- 
sance, and in a trembling tone of voice 
announced: "His Majes- Excellency, 
General George Washington, President^ 
of the United States, and Lady Wasli- 
ing;-ton." Brother Albrecht had almost 
said: ''His Majesty!" for which he 
could well be pardoned for no King 
who ever sat on a throne could com- 
pare with General Washington in 
majesty of figure, or in stately bearing. 
Most kings would look like footmen 
in his company. "His was a form in- 
deed, where every god did seem to set 
his seal to give the world assurance of 
a man." He possessed in an eminent 
degree a native dignity and nobility of 
manner that required no adventitious 
ornament, or studied pose to make his 
presence imposing. There was no 
mark of the fictitious, tailor-made diiJ- 



acknowledge again to a later genera- 
tion the great services rendered the 
cause of liberty by the devoted Mora- 
vian brethren and their neighbors, 
during the dark days of the struggle 
for independence. I can never forget 
the kindness bestowed upon my 
wounded and sick soldiers who found 
an asylum here among their most 
cherished possessions and sacred asso- 
ciations, nor the succor of food and 
raiment so cheerfully sent to those 
who hungered and suffered in the 
dreadful winter at Valley Forge. 
These services were inestimable and 
patriotic in the highest degree for 



BROTHER ALBRECHTS SECRET CHAMBER 



S87 



they were self-sacrificing-, the kind of 
service acceptable to the ^lost High." 

Lady Washington, whose gentle de- 
meanor captivated the hearts of all 
who came into her presence, leaning 
on the General's arm received the 
respectful greetings of the assembly, 
with a graceful inclination of the head, 
and smiling gravely; a most fitting 
consort for so great a man. 

By an intuitive sense the companv 
at once assigned to these two the place 
of honor, creating, as it were, ''the 



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BENJ.VMIN FRAX^vI.IN 

presence" to which homage must be 
given by all who entered. None re- 
fused that token oi respect to Wash- 
ington, not even those who wore his 
enemies, for even a number of those by 
some miserable contretcrnps were later 
in the evening found to be present. 

But a few moments ehipsed alter 
the remarks of Washington when "His 
Excellency, Doctor Benjamin Frank- 
lin" was announced by Brother Al- 
brecht. A short tiiickset man, with a 



great round head covered with a pro- 
fusion of hair silvered with age nest- 
ling in great curls about his sturdv 
neck, out of whose smooth-shaven face 
beanied two large eloquent eyes, step- 
ped into the room, and made' haste to 
reach the side of Washington, who 
met him with outstretched hand, greet- 
ing him most heartily, and exclaiming: 

"To what kind Providence am I in- 
debted for this happy meeting, mv 
dear old friend and philosopher, P.x>'r 
Richard, without whose shrewd judg- 
ment and diplomacy our long strusfgle 
for independence would have bee^ii a 
failure. Ah, my friend, it was the 
French money and the French alli- 
ance, you secured that gave us the vic- 
tory." 

"Xay, nay," cried F>anklin, "neither 
French gold or the French alliance 
would have availed without the master 
mind. It was you and your great 
genius and fortitude in war that al-.-ne 
made it possible for me to obiair. 
either gold or the much needed alli- 
ance.'* 

And so these two illustrious men 
continued to remind each other oi the 
great trials of the colonists in the 
building of the Xation. both disclaim- 
ing any special credit for the part they 
took in the great struggle, all of which 
conversation commanded the greatest 
attention from the listeners. 

The friendly debate was interrupted 
by the entrance of the Marquis de La- 
fayette, whom Brother Albrecht had 
just announced. 

"Your presence is most opportune 
to settle a ditterence oi opinion." cried 
Franklin, "our honored General will 
have it that to me is Awii the credit for 
bringing about the loan of French 
giMd and the French alliance during 
the groat war. and thus securing our 
indcpenilonce. while I as firmly insist 
that but for his leadership in the war. 
as well as his great firmness. I wou!i 
have failed in my mission. I leave it 
to vou. dear ^^a^quis. to say who is 
right." 

.\ftcr a most cordial greeting: from 
Washington. Lafayette replied: 






THE PENxN'SYLVANIA-GERMAN 



''Alas, my dear Doctor, I was too 
long a member of General Washing- 
ton's military family; was too closely 
identified with his plans, his struerirles, 
and disappointments; knew too well 
his supreme courage in the midst of 
the most discouraging circumstances 
to say that he is right, and that you 
are wrong in your contentions. I do 
most heartily agree with you. But for 
his splendid leadership, patriotism, the 
French would never have c<jmc to 
your assistance. It was victories like 
that of Trenton, that won for you the 
aid of France.'' 

The conversation now began to wax 
warm and animated ; \Vashington 
showed his delight in meeting La- 
fayette again. The young French sol- 
dier twent\'-li\'e years his junior, the 
same age as Hamilton, another of his 
proteges had from the tirst day they 
met at the beginning of the war. wun 
his heart, and never was man more 
true or loyal than Lafayette to W'asli- 
ington. After inquiring after the health 
of the Marquise de Lafayette, Wash- 
ington asked : "And how is my name- 
sake, your son?" Lafa}'ette had named 
his only son after his American 
friend. It was a custom begun long 
before the close of the Revolution, 
and is likely to continue to the end of 
time. 

Unlike most men of the French n^. 
tion Lafayette was tall and pi;nverfull\' 
built, with broad shoulders and deep 
chest. Mis features were large and 
strongly marked. He had much dig- 
nity of ma'nner, and was of a quiet and 
self-possessed disposition. It has been 
said of him : "among all the eminent 
Frenchmen of the French Re\-oluti« Hil- 
ary period, he was perhaps the only 
one in whose career there is nothing 
to be really ashamed of." 0{ his abso- 
lute devotinn to the American cause 
and fidelity to Washington there can 
be no (juestion whatex'cr. and history 
records no nobler friendship that that 
which e.\'isted between thvse eminent 
men. 

"Le Che\alier le Marcpiis de Uliastel- 
lux" came from the li]>s of r)rother 



Albrecht. The attention of all in the 
assembly was drawn to the notable 
figure that now stepped up to General 
and Lady Washington to whom he 
seemed to be well-known and from 
both of wIkjui he received a warm wel- 
come. The amialjle •jualiiie> i»i the 
Chevalier, aside from his services in 
Roch am beau's army, endeared him to 
Washington, for that great man was 
not all austerity. He harl a taste, in 
fact, a lunging for the lighter touches 
(jf human interc'turse, the diversions 
that made him for the moment forget 
the weight <j1 the grievtjus burden he 
was bearing. Many of his letters an<l 
the anecd(»tes ^A him that have c«:»nie 
down to us show the intensely human 
side of his character. The chat with 
de Chasteilux was much of this order. 
not-withstanding the fact that the 
Che\alier was a close observer and 
grave student of the institutions with 
which he can in contact. Washiiigion 
often rallied him on his falling in !• 've 
and becoming a ''married man as he 
had frequently said that he would 
ne\ er be other than bachelor. 

The greeting from Franklin was no 
less warm. It soon transpired that he 
and the Chevalier hail been for years 
c^\\ the most intimate terms. Franklin 
corresponding with him in the I'rench 
language. In complimenting him on 
language. In complimenting him *.>n the 
p u 1)1 i cat ion of ]'oya<::es dims CAmerique 
Scftoitriouiilc one of his recent works, 
Franklin laughingly toi»k occasion to 
sav "the portrait you have made of our 
country and pe»»ple is what in naintinij 
is callctl a handstMue likeness t<^r which 
we are much obliged to you." Then 
IVanklin slipping his arm through that 
yA the ».hevalier drew him asi»le some 
little distance from the company 
where they were ipnckly cngai^-cd in a 
wh.isnered coin ersaiii^n in which much 
quiet laughter lound a place, the char- 



"In reu.iinjf yotir friendly uml acc«rtab)« J#lt»r.- 

I was Hs w«» mny wrll suppi^e. n.»t !c»5 (IHiirht<tl than 
surrri.voi to niifl tbr plain .■\n;t>ru-an >ftords: rr»v »i<*! a 
wiff ! woU tMv .ioar Marjui*- I i"»'' hardly rrfr»>n from 

smiliniT to find uo .ire cautrht at last •- So your dajr 

has at length come. I am clad of it. «ith all my h««rt 
anil soul. It i.H \\n\\v ^r^xni enough for >-ou." 



BROTHER ALBRECHTS SECRET CHAMBER 



3^9 



acter of which may be suspcctc<l from 
the following- words from the hps of 
FrankHn overheard by a ])as>er-bv : 

"ChevaHer, dare I confess tri von 
that I am your rival, witli Machime 

G ? I need not tell you that 1 am 

not a dangerous one. 1 perceive that 
she loves }'ou \-ery much and so d(je.<5 
^ny dear friend, vour hund:)le servant." 

V^ice-President, John Adams, who 
had been announced soon after W'ash- 
. ing-ton's entrance, found himself close 
to P>anklin and de Chastellux, one of 
"whom had been his colleague in 
France. He was conversant with 
Franklin's popularity with the ladies 
of France, and created a ripple of 
amusement as he maliciously inquired 
after the health of '''Madame Helvetius, 
for evervone knew how Madame Hel- 
vetius threw her arms about the neck 
of ce cher Franklin at Passy. Adam's 
extreme and coldblooded tempera- 
ment was never agreeable to Franklin, 
and he never forgave him for the man- 
ner in which he was ignored in the 
negotiations for the Treaty of Peace 
with England in 1783. Franklin re- 
torted by asking him if he was still 
taken for his cousin Samuel Adams, 
who was regarded as a hero by the 
French Court for his Cato-like demand 
upon the British to get out of Boston 
in 1770. French society immediately 
lost interest in John Adams when it 
discovered that he was not the great 
rebel, Samuel Adams. It will be re- 
membered that Franklin won distinc- 
tion as a gallant at the Court of \'er- 
sailles as well as a diplomat. He was 
ever a great admirer oi the ladies. 

Just then Joseph Reed, President of 
Pennsvlvania, who had entered the 



"This lady I dine<l with at Dr. Franklin's. She entered 
the room with a careless, jaunty air; upon seointr Iadit*3 
■who were strancrors to her. she bawUxi out. "Ah .' Moti 
■dieu. where is Franklin? Why did you not tell me there 
were ladies here? How I Uxik!" She ran oui of the 
room: when she returneil. the Doctor entered at one d^xir. 
«he at the other; upon which she ran forward to him. 
■cau^'ht him by the hand. "Hila.-^! Franklin:" then rave 
him a double kiss, one upon each cheek and another upon 
his forehead. When %ve wont into the room to dine. ."«he 
-was piaceil between the Doctor and Mr. .\dam^. She car- 
ried on the chief of the conversation at dinner. fre\;utntly 
lockLD>r her hand into the Doctor's and sometimes sprcdd- 
inj? her arm.^ upon the backs of both the >rontiem»'n 3 
chairs, then throwing her arm carelessly upon the lH>c- 
tor's neck." 
Letters of Mrs. John Adarns pp .\':-3 



rrK)m a few moments htion:. alter pav- 
ing h\> respects to W'ashin^aon. came 
straightway tu where the two were 
standing. I'ranklin presented the 
Chevalier as "a soldier, a gentleman. 
and a man of letters" — one who had 
discovered the secret of pubhc happi- 
ness which he confided tf» the world 
that it might be benefitted by his bene- 
faction. Reed at one time was a i^reat 
favorite of Washington, which meant 
a great deal ; honor, merit. patri« aic 
service — all these it took to become be- 
loved of W'ashing^ton. He became his 
military secretary after he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Conti- 
nental army. Perhaps his devotion to 
Washington was nowhere better 
shown than in the matter of the at- 
tempted negotiations by the British 
Admiral Howe in July 1776. who was 
appointed a special commissioner to 
treat with the Americans. Colonel 
Reed represented Washington at the 
meeting, which t^^ok place under a flag 
of truce, but inasmuch as the com- 
munication from Howe was addressed 
to **Gec)rge Washington. Esquire" he 
declined to receive it. His reply also to 
the British Peace Commis>ioners when 
they attempted to bribe him with an 
offer of £ 10.000, together with any of- 
fice in the Colonies in the gift of King 
George slu^ws the stuff he was made 
of. He said. "I am not worth pur- 
chasing, but such as I am. the King of 
Great Pritain is not rich enough to do 
it." Fvery schoolboy in former days 
knew this incident by heart. Are our 
boys and girls as familiar with it now 
in this Age of Graft? 

There was a note oi real downright 
pleasure in the next aimouncement as 
P.rother Albrecht gave it in sonorous 
German : *' I^er Freiherr Fredrich 
Adr.lph von Riedesel und die Freiher- 
rin. ' This adilition to the company 
was of ratlier a remarkable character 
as they were the first of the Inn's in- 
voluntary guests ti> accept the invita- 
tion to Colonel Morgan's reception. 
They were heartily welcome for their 
own sake: the Baron for his admirable 
traits of character, and the Baroness 



390 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



for her charming personality and great 
goodness of heart and charity as well 
as for her beautv. Both had been 
guests of the Inn, as prisoners of war 
after Burgoyne's surrender at Sara- 
toga. They w^ere favorably known to 
many that were present this evening. 
The Baron after paying his respects to 
Washington and Lady Washington, 
was introduced to the rest of the com- 
pany^ among them to Franklin, when 
this interesting conversation took 
place. The Baron addressing Franklin 
began : 



I have the great honor to meet here 
tonight, succeeded in defeating the 
Fnglish armies." "Xevertheless," he 
continued, assuming a grave air of in- 
quiry, "I want to remind you Doctor 
Franklin, that you made my life mis- 
erable lor a time with your ingenious 
and I must confess successful at- 
tempts to disorganize my Hessian 
regiments in inducing them to desert 
with your confounded, cleverly worded 
and printed messages in the German, 
which you managed to scatter through- 
out my camp. They did desert for they 




/ 



BARON' RIKDESEL 



"I have often wished for an oppor- 
tunity like this that I might have 
speech with you. First, let me say, 
now that the war in which I was your 
enemy has long been over, I am hearti- 
ly glad that you were victorious for 
I became convinced before I left 
America that the war was an unjust 
one and the position I was in an 
ignoble one — that of a mere merce- 
nary — the creature of a Prince, wlu^^ 
had" sold my services and the lives of 
the soldiers under me to a foreign 
ruler. I have rejoiced therefore many 
times that the illustrious soldier whom 



hail no heart in the war to begin with, 
and less when they discovered that 
thev were fighting fellow Hessians, for 
manv of your Pennsylvania anil Mary- 
land Germans were oi Hessian blood, 
and moreover when they learned that 
the old Baron von Steuben. Frederick 
the Great's aide-de-camp, was drilling 
\-our army it was /f//m ftufcl mif 
AWa'/> Cii'org dcr lirifw alter that. I 
wouldn't iie surprisevl to find de- 
scendants oi these same deserting 
He>sians present here ti^iight. for I 
am told that they and their sons be- 
came intUiential citizens, and acvjuired 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CH.\.MBER 



Ml 



substatntial wealth. I desire to con- 
gratulate them in spite of the sleepless 
nights they occasioned me." 

A hearty laugh followed this out- 
burst of the Baron von Riedesel in 
which Washington quietly joined for 
he had a hand in this scheme of Frank- 
lin's when it was first proposed. The 
merriment increased when the Baron- 
ess turned to Landlord ]\Iorgan, who 
had just come in from an adjoining 
room with an armfull of beautiful 
flowers which he had commenced to 
distribute among the ladies, Lady 



to learn whether you have advanced 
the prices for accomodations here in 
like proportion. 1 shall never forget 
the Sun Inn board bill presented by 
Ilerr Just Jansen, and I thought him 
such a nice man, too, and a Moravian 
as well. What has become of him?" 

Unexpected as this sally of the 
Baroness was, Colonel Morgan was 
not at a loss for a reply. 

'' G^iaedigc Freiherrin:' he said, pre- 
senting her with a beautiful bouquet 
of roses, ''if I were permitted to 
charge one-half as much as old Jansen 





fer--^. 



4 



Mm 






BARONESS RIEDESEL 



Washins^ton being the first to receive 
this delicate compliment. 

''Herr Colonel 2^Iorgan,'' cried the 
Baroness, "will you do me the favor 
to tell me what the charges are at this 
Inn, at the present day? 1 ask this 
out of a pardonable curiosity, 1 am 
sure, for the last time I was a guest 
here in company with my husband 
and children, besides General rhilli;>s. 
and a small cnUnira^xc we had to pay 
$32,000 for six weeks' board and loi lin- 
ing. I have heard so much of the 
enormous increase in the cost of living 
at the present day that I am anxious 



maile vou pay, I would own one-half 
o{ I'othlehem. and be buying back 
some of my ancestral acres, and a 
castle o!i the banks of the Rhine. My 
charges, I assure you, arc quite 
reasonable as you shall sec if you will 
honi^r this ancient inn with your 
presence again." *Terhaps." replied 
the r»aroness. "we may be tempted to 
spend a sunnner here in the future. 
Aside from the scUrccklidu board- 
bill, my recv^llections of Bethlehem. 
are most pleasant. The eating: and 
drinking were all that the most fas- 
tidious could ask for. and you know 



392 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



we Germans insist upon having- ,o-(x>cl 
food, and plenty of it." 

"Major- General Daniel Morg-an" 
came in stentorian notes the announce- 
ment of the arrival of the famous rit1e-. 
man of the Revolution. The entrance 
of General ^Jorg-an created something 
of a sensation, particularly among the 
ladies, who always adore a hero, and 
when that hero is also one of the hand- 
somest of men there is no limit to the 
incense burned by them in his honor. 
Like Washington of whom he was a 
close rival in manly dignity he was 
over six feet in height and weighed 
over two hundred pounds, and pos- 
sessed of magnificent strength and en- 
durance while in beauty of features 
and expression he was equalled by feu- 
men of his time. His manners were 
quiet and refined ; his bearing was 
noble, and his temper sweet, though 
his wrath was easily aroused by the 
sight of injustice. His conduct through- 
out life, like that of A\'ashington. was 
reg-ulated by the most rigid code of 
honor. It was not surprising, there- 
fore, that he was a man after Washing- 
ton's own heart, and that the welcome 
he received from him was something 
far above the perfunctory greeting u- 
sual at gatherings of this sort. Though 
born in Xew Jersey, he became a \'ir- 
ginian by adoption, and made the ac- 
quaintance of Washington, during the 
ill-fated Braddock expedition, where 
he assisted greatly in bringing away 
the wounded from the terrible disaster 
that overtook the British Commander. 
The acquaintance then begun ripened 
into the deepest friendship during the 
Revolutionary war by reason oi Mor- 
gan's quick march with his famous 
riflemen to the succor of Washington, 
at Boston ; the splendid part he took 
in the battles of Freeman's Farm and 
Bemis Height, the counterpart oi the 
services rendered by the heroic Herki- 
mer at Oriskany. resulting in the sur- 
render of Burgoyne at Saratoga, and 
the crowning glory of his career at the 
battle of the Cowpens. which enableil 
General Greene to drive Cornwallis t<'> 
bav at Guilford Court House, leadiui^ 



finally to ihc coup de ^^race by Wash- 
ington at Vorktown. 

1'here was a note of affection as 
grasping with both hands the extended 
hanrl of Morgan, Wasliington ex- 
claimed, 

"Vou are most welcome my gallant. 
loyal friend. 1 am rejoiced to see you 
here tonight, to have again the "op- 
portunity after many years to recount 
in your presence the inestimable ser- 
vices you rendered the cause of liberty. 
lielieve me the memory of Dem'is 
Heights and the Cowpens lias never 
faded from my heart. Von and Herk- 
imer and Stark, and poor Arnold first 
reversed the gloomy scene in the open- 
ing years of the Revolution." 

Morgan's fine face flushed like a 
boy's at such i)raise. and in a low tone 
of voice replied, 

*'You give me overmuch credit: I 
did but my duty which God vouch- 
safed me to see clearly and to do fully. 
The humblest of my riflemen did as 
much and loved his country in no 
smaller measure. I am grateful, bc- 
lie\e me, my venerated C<»mmander, 
for this expression of your friendship. 
X'(i reward ^\ as ever so coveted as 
your word of commendation. Believe 
me, I shall cherish forever the memory 
of this meeting here in this quiet, 
beautiful Moravian town." 

While this unusual greeting of Wash- 
ington's was going on, the company 
crowded close abv^ut these two splen- 
did figures. Admiration shone from 
every eye while hearts swelled with 
pride at the thought that these two 
were the embodiment of the spirit 
that revolted against tyranny and fin- 
ally achieved inilependence. Many 
and eager were the liands that touched 
with warmest grasi^ those oi the fa- 
mous ritloman, and with it many a 
fine, sincere word of welcome. 

lUu now. as if to cap the climax of 
this ovation to General Morgan. 
l'>rother Albrecht announced the name 
of Morgan's old cotnmander in the 
southern campaign : 

"Maii-T-General \athanicl Greene. 
Ladv Greene, and the Misses Greene." 



BROTHER ALHRECIITS SECRET CfLAJMHER 



393 



Then there was a commotion, for 
Greene was very popular and ranked 
in military ability and achievement 
next to Washing-ton. and has even 
been considered by some as his super- 
ior in the hi^i^her qualities of military 
genius. His campaigns ha\e been 
compared with those oi Turenne and 
Wellington for the masterly strategy 
he displayed in forcing the movements 
of Cornwallis's army. Of Quaker pa- 
rentage his career as one of the great- 
est fighters in the Revolutionary army 
w^as an anomaly, and excited heated 
comment in Quaker circles resulting 
eventually in his withdrawal from the 
Quaker Society. Like Weir Mitchell's 
"'Hugh A\'ynne," he was a ''fighting 
Quaker'' as were many others at that 
time, and as many ?vIoravians have be- 
come since the days when they were 
non-combatants. The militant spirit 
became pronounced in our Civil \\"ar 
when many of the Pennsylvania regi- 
ments were recruited from among the 
Moravians and officered by them, 
many winning great distinction. The 
meeting between Greene and \\'ash- 
ington was most impressive, and more 
so that it was in the company of ^NTor- 
gan. The pleasure of Washington at 
such a reunion of his generals was un- 
mistakable, and the way they talked 
and listened and gesticulated, an on- 
looker would have thought that a coun- 
cil of war was in session debating 
some strategic movement of the ut- 
most importance. 

"I have just expressed my great 
pleasure in meeting the hero of the 
Cowpens again," said Washington to 
General Greene, ''and I am sure all I 
said in praise of that brilliant victory 
and the subsequent forced marching to 
effect a junction with your forces 
would have been fully seconded by 
you. Our friend is as modest as he is 
brave." 

Greene putting his arm about Mor- 
gan replied, "Xothing, General, that 
you can say in the highest praise «>f 
of this my old and trusted friend and 
comrade can be otlierwise than de- 
served, and would meet with my 



warmest endor>emLni. He and his 
riflemen were Paladins. Vou remem- 
ber what Purgoync said to him at 
Saratoga after tlie surrender: "My 
dear sir, you command the finest regi- 
ment in the world." 

He had guod reasi^n ti< >ay all «»t 
that. Then Washington turning to 
where Lady Washington was deep in 
conversation with Lady Greene and 
her daughters he expre>se<l his delight 




.\ OK.NTI.EMAX OF THt OLD SCHOOL 

at hieeting her again, and that she had 
not forgotten to bring her beautiful 
daughters with her." 

"And which one is >Liriha. and 
which. Cornelia?" One oi General 
Greene's daughters was named after 
Lady W ashington. and both were pu- 
pils at the -\ioravia!\ seminary after 
the close oi tlie Revolutii»n as were 
other daughters of Rcvohilionary sol- 
diers and staie>men. 

Lady Greene wa^ tall and **of a state- 
Iv diirnitv*" and dressed in rich brocade 



394 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



and lace with a long sweeping- train 
making a striking figure; she was, as 
one who saw her once in the old davs 
of Bethlehem ; *'a pattern lady of the 
old school," a fit companion for a 
"gentleman of the old school." 

It seemed as if Colonel Morgan, onr 
hospitable landlord, had in mind to 
give A\'ashington one of the most 
pleasurable evenings of his life, and 
most admirably did he succeed, for 
nothing could have given the old Com- 
mander-in-Chief so much enjoyment as 
this reunion of his old comrades in 
arms. It was the antipodes of the sad 



men of the cAd high-born German race. 
There was strong within him the old 
Teutonic pride of blood and birth, a 
trait that is dominant to this day in 
descendants of the forefathers of this 
interesting localiy. Many of the lead- 
ing men in the Pennsylvania German 
churches and communities were men 
of gentle birth and culture — the peers 
of the best in other Colonial settle- 
ments, a fact that is slowly making its 
way to the knowledge of present-day 
historians of the United States. The 
horizon of American historv has been 
vastly enlarged since the days of Ban- 



,i-.-*l,\'V i '.% \ 



■ 1"H V 



:-**. 

S'^?*:. 



r.' 










THt: DAUGHTERS Ot^ BARONESS KIEDESEL 



parting at Fraunces Tavern, in \e\v 
York City, so many years ago, the only 
Inn, by the way, that can in any way 
be regarded as a rival in historic in- 
terest and associations to the Sun 
Inn. 

There ^vas a brc^ad sir.ile on the hon- 
est German countenance oi r)rothor 
Albrecht as in his finest German accent 
he announced ; "der Freiherr und Gen- 
eral, Friederich W'ilholm \on Steu- 
ben." 

It seemed to do the old Thuringian 
Seneschal a w«)rld of go<.)(l to usher in 



croft and llildreth. The discov- 
erv has been made of the existence of 
oihcT races thati that of the English 
who played as great a part in the mak- 
ing oi the Xation. a part that any race 
mav be proud i^i, anil one worthy of 
emulation in the centuries to come. 

Of all the foreign military men who 
otTered their services to the struggling 
re\olutionists. r.aron vtMi Steuben was 
bv far the ablest, and the services he 
rendered of the greatest value to the 
American cause. In a spirit of grand 
self-abnegation, antl an unselfish love 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CH.VMEER 



85S 



of liberty he assumed the thankless 
temper-trying task of a drill sergeant of 
the American army. One of the most 
inspiring sights in the whole series 
of events during the Revolutionary 
period is the familiar one seen in the 
reproductions of the historic painting : 
"Steuben at Valley Forge." In tlie 
midst of a dreary, snowclad landscape, 
dotted with the soldiers' rude log huts 
is seen Steuben before a detachment of 
half-clad and half-starved solrliers with 
rifle in hand exemplifying the manual 
of arms. In that awful winter began 
a systematic course of drilling and tac- 
tics, something quite unknown pre- 
vious to his advent that was eventually 
extended throughout the entire Ameri- 
can forces and which bore ample fruit 
in future campaigns as at the Battle of 
Monmouth, where Steuben rallied the 
retreating and discorganized troops of 
, the blatherskite General, Charles Lee. 

Plamilton who witnessed the steady 
action of the troops under Steuben" 
said : "He had never known till that 
day the value of discipline." 

In spite of Steuben's choelric temper 
often provoked to the explosive point 
by the awkwardness of the recruits, he 
was beloved by the soldiers for his 
kindness towards them and the sym- 
pathy he showed for them in caring for 
them in their sufferings. As Carnot 
was Napoleon's great organizer of vic- 
tory so was Steuben, Washington's 
great organizer and disciplinarian. 

Steuben wrote the first Manual for 
the order and regulation of the United 
States army, and subsequent manuals 
are an evolution from this work of the 
old drill master. 

The meeting of Washington and 
Steuben was a sight long remembered 
by the guests of that memorable even- 
ing. There was a long, silent hand 
grasp with deep emotion plainly visible 
on their strong impassive counte- 
nances. There was ever between these 
two soldiers the profoundest respect 
for each other's great ability: both of 
noble nature and given more to deeds 
than to speech. The conversation that 
ensued was carried on in subdued 



tones by both. The Baron in his broken 
English expressing his great pleasure 
at meeting his old Commander again, 
and Washington in nc) wise behind 
him in showing his own delight. One 
may be assured that in the long winter 
at Valley Forge Washington and Steu- 
ben had manv confidential hours. A 
seasoned veteran of the great Freder- 
ick was too valuable an acquisition not 
to be made the most of, and Washing- 
,ton was never reluctant to learn of 
anyone where his own knowledge 
could be bettered. 

General Greene also showed his 
pleasure at meeting the old Baron for 
Steuben was one of his greatest lieu- 
tenants in the great Southern cam- 
paign. He exclaimed, "Baron, it does 
my soul good to meet you again ; it 
seems like the old days in the trenches 
before Yorktown, when so many of us 
here who are present to-night were 
making the last victorious fight for 
this beloved land : Lafayette. Morgan^ 
and the rest. We must fight the bat- 
tles all over again to - night," he 
laughingly continued. 

Steuben replied, 'T would have been 
better satisfied with ought else than 
keeping that scoundrel Arnold in 
check, with my handful of rifiemen, 
while you were carrying out \'in 
orosscs Kn't'irfs s/>it/'—h\ which 1 had 
some experience while serving under 
the great Frederick." 

"Believe me, my dear Baron." re- 
plied Greene, "no other man could 
have done what you did in aiding me. 
in playing as you call it. the grand 
game oi war for it meant the close of 
the great struggle and the glory of it 
was as much yours as mine; the glory 
is everlasting for all who did their 
dutv in the part assigned them in those 
heroic days. Vou never failed, dear 
r.aron. in doing yours, never." 

General Greene had hardly finished 
speaking when Brother Albrecht was 
heard announcing: "The Count Casi- 
mir Pulaski." There was a real thrill 
of excitement as the picturesque K»k- 
inq- fif^ure of the young Polish noble- 
n-ian stepped up to General Washing- 



396 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



ton. He was another of Washing-ton's 
young- proteg-es, a distinction eariied by 
the most brilliant service. His expe- 
rience abroad had been of the most va- 
ried kind. A revolutionist in Poland, 
^nd failing in his efforts to free his 
country from the thralldom of Russia, 
and after wandering about Europe, his 
estates confiscated, and himself de- 
■clared an outlaw, he found himself in 
1777, at the early age of twenty-nine, 
on American soil where he at once ar- 



il is Legion formed some time after 
this, became fanuni.s duriiij:,' the short 
period he was permitted to fierht in the 
cause of liberty. He died from the re- 
sults of a wound received in the siege 
of Savannah in 177(;, mourned by all 
who knew his worth as a soldier and 
as a man. 

Washington's welcome was of the 
most flattering- nature. He had learned 
to respect the great ability of the dash- 
ing young officer, and .\vmpathized 



"^r^^^tisr-* 



f^ 



\ 



I 



. \ 



X 



?\ 



SISTER BllXAOK 



tached himself to the American cause 
becoming- a member of Washington's 
staff, taking- part soon after in the P.at- 
tle of Brandy wine, where he quickly 
proved his abilitv as a soldier. His 
military capacitv and swift action fa- 
-cilitated the retreat oi the American 
forces for which service he was re- 
warded with a Brigadier-Generars 
Commission, and placed in charge of 
the cavalry. 



with him in tlie efforts he made t«»rthe 
emancipati»Mi oi his native land. In the 
C(^n\ersation that folKnveil many refer- 
ences were made to tlio sojourn at \'al- 
ley Ftuge. Franklin also joined in giv- 
ing him a pleasant welcome for it was 
he who reallv induced Pulaski whom 
he met in Paris, to enroll himself un- 
der the baimer of the American Col- 
onists. The friendly greetincrs that 
were showered upon him o!i e\ory 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



397 



side ^ave the young Polish soldier a 
delig"htfnl experience. 

In the midst of these greetings the 
sound of low, sweet music was heard 
as if at a great distance, but becoming 
more distinct every moment, and 
swelling in volume when the music 
began to be accompanied by singing. 

As Brother Albrecht stepped aside at 
the entrance of the salon, a procession 
of ^Moravian sisters led by the Sister 
Benade entered, carrying a crimson 
silk banner beautifully em.broidered, 
and singing as they approached Pu- 
laski the following hymn : 

"Take thy banner ! May it wave 
Proudly o'er the good and brave. 
When the battle's distant wail 
Breaks the Sabbath of our vale. 
When the clarion's music thrills 
To the hearts of these heroic hills. 
When the spear in conflict shakes. 
And the strong lance shivering breaks. 



Take thy banner I and beneath 

The battle-cloud's encircling wreath. 

Guard it. till our homes are free! 

Guard it I God will prosper ihce! 

In the dark and tryinj^ hour. 

In the breaking forth of p«:>\ver, 

In the rush of steeds and men. 

His right hand will shield you then."* 

The sensation this entry of the 
Moravian sisters made was most in- 
tense. All recognizcfl the crimson 
banner as the one embroidered by the 
.Moravian sisters during Pulaski's so- 
iotirn at BethlehL-m. while he was plan- 
ning the formation of his famous Le- 
gion and where he was also visiting La- 
fayette, A\ ho lay there wounded. The 
quaint garb of the sisters was most 
impressive in the midst of the gay an<I 
fashionably dressed assembly making 
a picture and a contrast never to be 
forsfotten. 



*Compo^e(l by Honry W. I^.n.r'«ll'>\*. 
(TO BE COXTIXUED) 










.-398 



John Early (Johannes Oehrle) and His Descendants 

John William, Thomas and the Daughters 

By Rev. J. W. Early, Reading, Pa. 




OHN William Early, Esq. 
was the second son by 
the second wife. In the 
family he was generally 
known as "Der William." 
Much that is without any 
reasonable foundation of 
fact has been published 
-about him. Although it has been pro- 
•claimed that he married a woman 
named Elizabeth ]\Iolar at Harper's 
Ferry, the known facts of the case 
-prove conclusively that he never re- 
sided there, and that he was a married 
man from six to eight and even pos- 
sibly ten years before that Harper's 
Ferry marriage was to have occurred. 

It is most unfortunate that no au- 
thorized record of his marriage can be 
found. The fact that it probably oc- 
curred about the time when Rev. ^lels- 
heimer left that section and Rev. Wm. 
Kurtz took his place, may account 
■for it. It is therefore impossible to 
tell when it did happen. The date as 
well as the fact of marriage are only to 
be inferred from other clearly estab- 
lished facts. The Bindnagel Church 
Record plainl}^ shows that in 17S5 he 
was still a resident of Londonderry 
.and a member of his father's family. 
In that year he and ^Mary Bindnagel 
-appear as sponsors at two baptisms, 
-one in August, the other in November. 
Both are designated by their middle 
names, viz. : Wm. Early and Barbara 
Bindnagel. But they are not desig- 
nated as single persons, according to 
the usual custom. So that it is at 
•once evident that they were supposed 
"to be betrothed, or that every one ex- 
pected they would be. This is the last 
time that either name appears on the 
Record. 

Four years later, January 28. 1700 
his brother John gave him a bond for 
40 pounds which is in the writer's pos- 
session. It is made payable from John 



Early of Londonderry township to 
William Early, of Armagh township, 
Mifflin county, Pa. Although the proof 
is not absolutely conclusive, appar- 
ently, he was already married and a 
permanent settler there. This is seen 
from the fact that in 1792 his name ap- 
pears on tax lists of that county as a 
married man. He must therefore have 
been married before that time. 

April 1st, 1794, he sold a tract of 
land of I02>< acres to Samuel Mc- 
Crory, Berks county; November 16, 

1796, another of 200 acres in Potter 
township to John Watt, and May 2^, 

1797, II acres and 20 perches to Law- 
rence Grossman, also of Potter. The 
deeds are executed by Wm. Early and 
wife. In the same year he sold two 
tracts, one of 162 acres to Henr}' 
P.oal, the other i6jS acres to Conrad 
Dillman. a brother-in-law. by the way. 
These last two are entered in Centre 
county. In these deeds the names are 
given, Wm. Early and wife Barbara, 
From all this it will be seen that he 
had been married at least five years. 
and apparently ten or eleven years 
before 1796. the date oi the reputed 
Harper's Ferry marriage. 

In the ''Records of Emanuel's at the 
Loop." in the case of the baptism oi 
his own children, and when he and his 
wife stood sponsor for others, the 
names are invariably Wm. Early and 
wife Barbara. In the Communion lists 
of the same church they appear under 
the same names. In one case she is 
simply Squire Wm. Early's wife. In 
another the names are Wm. Early. 
Barbara and George, the son. L'nfortu- 
nately there is no definite date in this 
latter case. But as it occurs between 
1S04 and iSoT^ it was 1S05. most prob- 
ablv. But even if it were lS<y> it would 
be evident that they were married by 
or before 17^70. and that is six years be- 
fore the alleged marriage to the Molar 



JOHN EARLY AND HIS DESCENDANTS 



SM 



woman took place. From all this it is 
evident that if there was a \Vm. Early 
at Harper's Ferry, it must have been 
quite a different man, although we con- 
fess to a lurking suspicion that the 
whole story was an invention, possibly 
gotten up with the expectation of gain. 
We are inclined to this latter opinion 
because of the fact, that that the party 
whoever she may have been, managed 
to include in the genealogy some of his 
actual relatives. 

The additional fact that the son, 
George, apparently was a married man 
already in' 1811, as will be seen clearly 
hereafter, makes it all the more likely 
that he was married before he left his 
father's home in Londonderry in the 
spring or summer of 1786, possibly al- 
ready in the preceding fall, 1785. 

Presumably a mistaken tradition has 
had much to do with this matter. The 
Earlys and the Ernsts were close 
neighbors, occupying adjoining farms. 
The fathers were brothers-in-law. 
There was a William in each family. 
One of these was known as the 
*'Rover." Unfortunately tradition con- 
ferred this title, which really belonged 
to Wm. Earnest, on J. Wm". Early. 
Those who accepted the tradition 
thought, of course, it would be useless 
to trace and find out the history of a 
"Rover." That of Wm. Ernst has not 
yet been traced. \\'ill it ever be? The 
last heard of him was when he accom- 
panied J. Wm. Early from Centre to 
Bedford county. It may be best to 
p-ive the exact statement. In deposi- 
tions taken at the house of Christian 
Mease in Potter township, this occurs. 

William Kerr, J. P., John Keen cC Paine's 
twp. (should it not be Penn or tlaines?) 
being sworn testified: "that some time in 
the spring of 1S07 William Early, then of 
Potter township. Centre county moved his 
family from Peun's Valley, — that he had a 
"Wagon and team with a considerable quan- 
tity of household goods and other property, 
— that the said William Early told depon- 
ent, that himself. William Earnest and his 
brother Thomas had purchased a tract of 
land in Porter or Porter's township in Bed- 
ford coi^nty" etc. 

While residing in Potter township. 
Centre county, part of which, a \ cry 



small part we are told, was taken from 
Armaugh, Miffin county, Wm. Early 
was appointed, December i, 1800, a 
Justice of the Peace. He was an ac- 
knowledged leader of the German cle- 
ment which was quite strong. In fact 
his own relations and neighbors whom 
he had brought along from the Bind- 
nagel section would have been numer- 
ous enough to people a tov/nship. Ja- 
cob Sichcle, his uncle and three grown 
sons, his brother Thomas Early and 
wife, John Bindnagel. his brother-in- 
law, Conrad Dillman another brother- 
in-law with his family and Michael. 
Breitenbach, am)thcr brother-in-law. 
the Mucnchs. the Weiss, the Hennigs. 
the Hendricks, all relatives. Besides 
there were. Peter Eisenhauer, another 
brother-in-law, the Bcrgcrs. the Em- 
richs, the Germans, the Hauts. or 
Ploutz, the Kraemers. the Mavers, 
David Xelson and family, the Peters. 
the Rt'inharts, the Schmidts, the 
\\'underlings, also related to Sicheles. 
the Wilhelms, the AX'olfs, the Youngs 
fjung), the Bishops, Cornmans. 
Fleischer, Kratzer. Xeu. The Ziglers. 
^^'ielands, \\'aages. Truxels. Troestcrs. 
Stams. Schmehls. Schaeiers, Sowers. 
Sontags, StautYer. Spcngler. Stover. 
Schaever, Rhcem. Rossman. Ran. 
Rover. Xies, Xcei. Maas. Mies. Miller. 
Eescher. Kurtz. Keller. Homan. Isch- 
ler. Halui. T^aust, Grossman. Fronun. 
Fev. Dcininger, Durst. Deckert. Diel. 
Bittner, Batdorf, Bohl. Apfel. .Ann- 
engast, Abel, Anspach. cither came 
later, or from other sections. But all 
resided in the vicinity of the Loop, by 
which that section is known even at 
the present da v. 

J. Bkiir Linn, in his history of Cen- 
tre county relates an amusing incident 
which tradition has handed down con- 
cerning Squire Wm. Early's early ex- 
periences. Before he had provided him- 
self with proper forms, a couple came 
to be married. But the new Squire 
was equal to the occasion. After prv>- 
pounditig the usual questions: John 
will you have Mary? and Mary will 
vou have John: he added: "In the 
name of God Almighty anil Judge Pol- 



400 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



ter I pronounce you man and wife'' 
and the ceremony was ended. 

Being" possessed of considerable 
landed property, he donated a tract of 
land for the erection of a church in 
1797. The church generally known as 
''Emanuel's at the Loop," was subse- 
quently erected ui)On it. It is not 
known precisely when the congrega- 
tion was organized. But the first bap- 
tisms recorded were performed earlv 
in 1 80 1. That therefore probably is 
the time when a pastor first came 
among them and when they built their 
church. This is about seven }ears af- 
ter the Lutherans at Aaronsburg dedi- 
cated their first church. At first it was 
known as the Early's Church. It was 
so entered upon the records of Synod. 
About two miles north of the church 
and immediately west of the Old PY^rt, 
about half a mile south of Centre Hall, 
he also laid out a town which bore his 
name until about forty years ago. In 
the year 1897, one hundred years after 
it was laid out, a single log building, a 
mere cabin, one of the original hc^mes 
in Earlytown, was still standing. 

But having become financially em- 
barassed, he sold out and renujved to 
Bedford county where he purchased a 
tract of about 300 acres. Soon after he 
sold a little over 100 acres to his 
brother Thomas. The facts of the case 
indicate that his brother John of Lon- 
donderry ttnvnship, afterwards bought 
William's share. For after his (John's) 
death, his son J. \Vm. Early, Jr., one 
of the administrators, went to Bedford 
county to settle up matters. He pre- 
sented a bill dated April 9, 18 10. just 
about five weeks after his father's 
death, containincf thirtv-six items of 



expense, amountnig to £4. 



(Si 1.3:0 



He evidently spent about two weeks 
in that neighborh<i(^(l as is sl"H)wn by 
^he following receipt : 

"Received of William Pearly, administra- 
tor of the Estate of John Early deceased, 
eighty-three cents for recordins: one Deed 
from William Early and Barbara his wife to 
John Early, $0.So. David Mann." 

The Itinerary during this trip was 
to Bedfcud, to h>anksli)wn, rence\ille 



(Pennsville) and Huntingdon. June 
4th of the same year he look another 
trio. The bill of expenses includes 
(jnly nineteen items and the amount is 
£2 8s. lod. (S7.40). We are naturally 
led to ask, was Eckestown or Akes- 
town or Akestown ( Achestaedlel), 
ever known as Pennsville or Ptnce- 
ville. Can the place be located? 

I>ut it seems that Thomas Early was 
not satisfied with the settlement of the 
administrators. He brought suit 
against their sister Margaret. Mrs. 
David Ernst. Two notices of the suit 
are in the writer's possession. Thev are 
signed by Samuel Laird, attrjrney for 
the defendants, and dated March 26. 
1811. We simplv give the vital points. 
It is entitled Thomas Early vs. W'm. 
Early et. al. Administrators of John 
Earlv. It is a notification that deposi- 
tion of witnesses will be taken by the 
defendants, "at the house of Ilcnry 
Mean, innkeeper, in Potter town-hip 
in the county of Centre on the 61I1 day 
of April next, and at the h»>use 01 
George Early in Eckestown, Iluniinj^- 
doh county, on the ninth day of the 
same mrnuh."' The second is a separ- 
ate notification "to appear at the house 
of George Early in Eckestown on the 
9th of April." 

This we think shows clearly as cir- 
cumstantial evidence can show anv- 
thing, that George Early was a mar- 
ried man residing at Eckestown. There 
is also a receipt, showing that Sal)ina 
lu'irlv the wife oi Thomas, accepted 
tight d(^llars from the administrators 
for signing a release. If allowed a 
conjecture about t!ie inaiter. we vv'uiiM 
say, that eviilently W'm. Early, snr. 
finding that he neeilcd mt»ncy to settle 
u}) his affairs applied to his brother 
John, who advanced the same and ac- 
cepted the land, nearly JOO acres. wliich 
his brother \\ in. still owns. The 
youngest stni oi John, known as J. 
W'm. Early suhsenucnily. promptly 
had the deal rec«>rded and thu< prc- 
ventcil his uncle Thinnas irom secur- 
ing it, as he seems to have thoujjht he 

could. 



JOHN EARLY AND HIS DESCENDANTS 



401 



From Bedford, Squire Wm. Early, 
as he was generally known, moved to 
New Philadelphia, Ohio, thence to 
Coschocton. Finally he settled at 
Manchester, Stark county, Ohio. Both 
he and his wife are buried there. Fie 
died about 1823 and she about 1832. 

Many of these facts were obtained 
from Mrs. ^lary Barbara Walch, who 
spent the first nine years of her life 
with her grandmother, ]\Jrs. Aviary Bar- 
bara (Bindnagel) Early, for w'hom she 
was named. Her statements agree per- 
fectly with the known facts legally 
proven b}^ the deeds and Church Re- 
cords. 

Wm. Earl}^ and wife were the par- 
ents of ten children. George, the old- 
est, of w^hose family no trace can be 
found, unless James Early, Strasburg, 
some of whose descendants e. g. John 
FL Early, Sharpsburg, Md., and other 
in Fulton county, but can not be traced 
further back than the grandfather 
James Early, should be a descendant. 
It will not be necessary to repeat the 
evidence given above that he was al- 
most certainly a married man and had 
attained his majority in 181 1. The fact 
too that he was a communicant mem- 
ber of the church at the Loop 1805 or 
1806 shows conclusively that he was 
born by or before 1790. 

Thomas the second son never mar- 
ried. He died and was buried at New 
Philadelphia. 

William, the third son, married a 
Miss Albert. They had one daughter, 
Barbara. He is buried at Bucyrus, O. 

John, after his father's death, "made 
a home for his mother and Mrs. Lam- 
berson, his sister." They then moved 
from Manchester to Bucyrus, Craw- 
ford county, about 188S. l-'ive weeks 
after settling there John died of 
cholera. Both he and ^Irs. Lamberson 
are buried at Bucyrus. 

Rachel (was not her name really 
Regina? for that was Wm. E.'s 
mother's name) died a single person. 
The name of Regina. a daughter of 
Wm. E. is also found in the baptismal 
record. Catharine was married to a 
Mr. Yockey. They moved to Wiscon- 



sin. But it is not known to what sec- 
tion. 

Elizabeth, was married to Samuel 
Lamberson from Virginia. They had 
four children. One of these was Mrs. 
;Mary Barbara Welch, b. January 27, 
1823, who was still living about ten 
years ago at the age of 80. vShe was 
married to Wm. R. Welch of Winches- 
ter, Virginia. They had seven chil- 
dren : John Early, Vir. Lamberson, 
Sarah, ]\Iary, Lind, Hannah and Hat- 
tie. Both sons died unmarried. 

"Leah, (Oehrle) of Wm. and Bar- 
bara, was born November 2, 1901." 
This is the first entry of a member of 
this family in the Church Record, and 
therefore the first definite date of the 
birth of any of Wm. Early's children. 
But this being the eighth child would 
show almost conclusively that the par- 
ents were married more than ten years 
before. She evidently died before 
they reached Ohio, as her name is not 
even known there. Lydia (given also 
as Lida and Leda) oi "Wm. and Bar- 
bara Early was born April 3. 1S03." 
She also died unmarried. There was a 
tradition, apparently unfounded, that 
she was the betrothed of Bishop Lei- 
bert of the Evangelical Association. 
The records i. e. the "Life of Bishop 
Leibert and the History of the Evan- 
gelical Association,'' show that he 
made a hasty trip to Ohio at the time 
of her sickness and death. 

John Jacob, the youngest son and 
youngest child was born February 22, 
1806. Here too tradition has indulged 
in some strange freaks. J. Blair Linn, 
in the History of Centre County upon 
the authority of tradition tells us that 
this youneest son "an eminent physi- 
cian at New Philadelphia. Ohio.'Thor- 
ough investigation shows that most 
probably the man never lived there at 
all. He certainly never was a physic- 
ian. Not only does Mrs. Welsh make 
this statement, but the "History of the 
Evangelical Association by Rev. W. 
W. Orwig," and "the Landmarks oi the 
Evangelical Association" by Bishop 
Breyfogel." tlistinctly place him among 
the Itinerants, and afterwards among 



402 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



the Deacons, ordained by them. In 
1825 he was placed as an itinerant at 
Orwigsburg-, SchuylkilT county. The 
next year, liaving been ordained a Dea- 
con, he was placed on the Lake Circuit, 
embracing w^estern New York and 
northwestern Pennsylvania. For five 
years he was in the list of Deacons as 
given by their Bishop. And by the 
way, one of the Sichleys, either a half 
cousin or a second cousin, is found on 
that same list for many years. But af- 
ter the five years his name disappears. 
Mrs. Welch sa3's : 

"Uncle Jacob Early was a Methodist Epis- 
copal Minister, went abroad, but visited 
home just before grandmother died. I never 
saw him afterwards. Was in some R. R. 
speculation and was shot, I think, in In- 
dianapolis, and my impression is, left two 
sons. This occurred some thirty-five or 
forty years ago." 

It wnll be seen that the proof is quite 
plain that as to the main facts this 
statement is correct. He certainly was 
an ordained minister. He had gone 
abroad — for he labored in Schuylkill 
county, Pa. and in the regions around 
Buffalo and Erie at the time indicated. 
The time his mother died was about 
the time his name disappears from the 
official list of the Evangelical Associa- 
tion. Probably at that time he turned 
over to the Methodist * Episcopal 
church. i\Irs. W. may be slightly at 
fault as to the time and circumstances. 
Forty years before would have been 
immediately before the War of Rebel- 
lion (1858). But a few years need be 
added to brine:;- us to the Lovejoy riots 
in Indiana. Jacob Early certainly had 
German blood enough in him to be in- 
tensely hostile to slavery. Could it be 
possible that he was in some wav con- 
nected with those exciting events? Un- 
less memory is greatly at fault, quite a 
number of people; and if we mistake 
not, ministers among them, lost their 
lives in that disturbance. 

Quite a number of J. Wm. Early's 
relatives accompanied him to Ohio. 
Most of them settled in the same vic- 
inity. We have already referred to 
Jacob Sichcle an uncle, who, with his 
three grown sons accompanied him. 



Conrad Dillman married to his (W. 
E.'s) wife's sister also settled there. 
He (Dillman) laid out a private bury- 
ing ground where many of the rela- 
tives are buried. Although there is no 
direct record of the fact it is evident 
that Wm. Earnest, his cousin also 
went with him. The father, Christo- 
pher Ernst, seems also to have fol- 
lowed. The ]Mosers. Kendricks, Kline- 
felters and ]\Iuenchs were also in some 
way. related to him by marriage, and 
some of these families accompanied 
him. 

Concerning Thomas Early, the 
youngest son of John Early, snr.. born 
November 4, 1767, very little is known. 
It is known that about 1803, he also 
moved to Potter township, Centre 
county. Apparently he also left that 
section about the same time his 
brother William, 1807. He certainly 
bought a part of the Bedford tract and 
apparently moved thither. He had 
married about the year 1795 or a short 
time before. His name together with 
that of his wife Sabina appears at that 
time as sponsor in baptism at the 
Bindnagel's church. No amount of in- 
quiry and investigation has availed to 
decide what the wife's maiden name 
was. Some, and that again is tradi- 
tion, think it was Boal or Bohl. Un- 
fortunately that name is not found in 
the Bingnagel region. 

When the writer visited Centre 
county, in 1S97, ]Mr. Bohl. one of the 
very old men of the section, over So 
years of age, whose memory should 
have carried him back almost to the 
time when Thos. Early left Centre, de- 
clared most emphatically that there 
never was any such relationship. Mrs. 
Weiss, a grandnice of Wm. Early. 87 
years of age, was equally emphatic in 
declaring that the Bohls and Eariys 
were never intermarried. 

The writer, without ever having 
found any direct proof of the fact, has 
since been inclined to believe that her 
name was Ensminger. That certainly 
was a well known family in the Bind- 
nagel region. It is the only family in 
that section in which he has ever found 



JOHN EARLY AND HIS DESCENDANTS 



403 



Sabina as a given name. There it is 
found. Besides, in the old papers 
given the writer by his uncle Joshua, 
they were the papers connected with 
the settlement of the estate of John 
Early, second, the name Ensminger is 
found mixed up with Bomberger, 
Ernst and others, all relatives of John 
Early. Somehow or other that name 
is continually found along with the 
others. Now we admit that this is no 
legal proof, but it looks as if this 
might be so. Before moving to Cen- 
tre Thomas had bought his father's 
orig-inal homestead, near the Bind- 
nagel church. Here he seems to have 
remained until about the beginning of 
1803. He had however already pur- 
chased some land in Potter township. 
Centre county, as early as 1797. Evi- 
dently he left this section almost im- 
mediately after his brother. For he 
not only bought land in Bedford, but 
he evidently lesided there. How long 
he remained we cannot tell. But it is 
plainly evident that he did not go with 
or even follow his brother to Ohio. 

A grand nephew, D. L. Early, Har- 
risburg, now deceased, remembered a 
visit he (Thomas) paid to his nephew 
J. Wm. Early, Esq., of Londonderry. 
But the grand nephew was quite 
young, certainly not over seven years, 
and therefore his recollections are not 
very distinct. He describes Thomas 
as a short heavy built man. He must 
"have been between 60 and 70 years 
old at that time. 

The tradition is that he moved to 
the vicinity of Freeport, Armstrong 
county, Pa. Having made inquiry, 
Rev. J. K. jNIelborn, Lutheran pastor 
there about forty of fifty years ago, 
says he has an indistinct recollection 
that his name was mentioned as a 
resident there. Rev. W. O. Laub, 
having charge there some twenty-five 



or thirty years later, says some of the 
older people remember the name and 
the man. The statement generally 
was that he settled where the salt 
wells were. This must have been at 
Salzburg, Indiana county or Freeport. 
Armstrong county, as these were the 
points at which salt wells were found. 
But he died childless and so this 
branch of the family has died out. 

Anna Catharine, born July 7, 1772. 
was married to Michael Breitenbach 
(Bradcbach). Potter township, Sep- 
tember 5, 1803. Their first child was 
born in Centre. They evidentlv ac- 
companied \\'m. Early to Ohio. They 
are recalled by Mrs. Welch, who 
states that after the husband's death, 
the widow took up her residence with 
an adopted daughter, or **a young 
woman whom they had brought up.'" 
They left no descendants, the daugh- 
ter having evidently died in infancy. 

Anna Margaret, born February 29. 
1779, was married to Peter Eisenhauer. 
Bethel township, August 24. 1795. It 
is said that they had quite a large 
family. There is an entry of the fol- 
lowing, in the Bindnagel's Record: 
Regina born August 27, 1797; Thomas, 
born January i. iSoo; in Emanuel's at 
the Loop. Elizabeth born June 15. 
1802; Sabina born August 3, 1S04. 
Here records end. 

It is also said that they moved to 
Iowa. There all trace oi them seems 
to have been lost. This ends the his- 
tory of the descendants oi John Early. 
The writer would certainly be greatly 
obliged to any one who could give him 
any information concerning any de- 
scendants of George Early, if any 
such can be found and also in refer- 
ence to an}' descendants of Rev. John 
Jacob Earh-. For if there are none to 
be found this branch of the family has 
also died out. 



404 



Kaspar Haidel and His Primitive Tannery 

With a Brief Account of the Schuylkill Indians 
O. A. Richards, Bethlehem, Pa. 



By 




URIXG the Christmas sea- 
son of 1908 I spent a few 
days most pleasantly 
Avith an old-time friend at 
my former home Ham- 
burg, Berks county. 
\Miile there I discovered 
among- the library of my 
friend a volume entitled "The History 
of the Indians in Berks County, Pa,'' 
published in 1881, by Prof. ' D. B. 
Brunner, at one time Superintendent 
of the public schools of Berks county. 
Born and reared in "Old Berks," it 
was only natural that I should feel a 
strong desire to learn something of 
the early history of my native county. 
I borrowed the book, and, after my re- 
turn home, I read its contents care- 
fully. 

The accounts of the cruel barbarities 
and horrible massacres perpetrated by 
the savages upon the white settlers, es- 
pecially on those of the northern por- 
tions of the county, although not any 
too desirable reading, interested me 
exceedingly. The numerous illustra- 
tions representing the crude imple- 
ments used by the Indians gave evi- 
dence that Prof. Brunner spared no 
pains to make his history as complete 
and as instructive as possible. In short, 
his history is interesting throughout. 
But the part that interested me most. 
and recalled to mind a tradition that 
had, after an interval of more than 
forty vears, almost escaped my .mem- 
ory, is contained in the paragraph un- 
der the caption "Blue Rocks." found 
on page 74 of the History. It reads as 
follows : 

"Blue Rocks. — 'There is a reputed Indian 
burying ground a few hundred yards west 
of the Blue Rocks in Windsor township, 
about four or five miles east of Hamburg. 
When I heard of this a few years ago, 1 en- 
gaged Mr. Samuel Burkey. of Reading, who 
spent the early p>art of his life in the house 
nearest the place, to conduct me to the 



spot. We made the first tour in the Spring 
of 1875. We could not get the necessary 
digging tools in the neighborhood, because 
the farmers were engaged in repairing their 
roads; we examined the ground for a con- 
siderable distance and found a number of 
artificial mounds, fifteen or twenty, quite 
close together. The external appearance 
was what a person would imagine to be an 
Indian burying ground. This place is near 
the base of the Blue :\Iountains, and about 
two hundred yards in the woods. Not being 
able to make an investigation of the mounds 
we ascended "Pulpit Rock," the most con- 
spicuous point — on the mountains in Wind- 
sor township, from which we admired for a 
long time |the grandeur and sublimity of the 
works of nature, and after passing over the 
famous Blue Rocks, we returned to Reading 
the same day. 

"In the Fall of 1S76, I made arrange- 
ments to visit the place again, but my co- 
laborer failed to make his appearance, and 
the day happened to be extremely hot., noth- 
ing was accomplished. 

"In the Spring 01 1ST7, I visited the place 
a third time, in company with Messrs. Amos 
S. and Alfred S. Greenawalt. of Albany. We 
were prepared to do a large amount of ex- 
cavating, but it was in April, the ground 
was naturally full of water, and a fine 
spring in the midst of the mounds, we were 
not able to dig sntTiciently deep on account 
of the abundance of water. We left again 
without any satisfactory results. 

"On the 29th of October, 1S79. I visited 
the place the fourth time. This time I was 
accompanied by Dr. C. G. Loose, of Center- 
port, to whom I am greatly indebted for his 
assistance in examining one of the mounds. 
^Ve selected one of the most prominent 
ones, and one that had been dup up at a 
former visit. We dug down until we came 
to the solid ground, and widely enough to 
discover whether anything was buried 
there. We found nothing and decided that 
no Indians were buried there, but we left 
the place without being al>le to determine 
how those mounds were produced. If there 
were only se\oral of them, they might be 
heaps of ground made by trees that had 
been blown over, but there are too many 
close together. They lie irreg»ilarly. the 
ground is loose, and generally free from 
stones, and is scraped up on both sides. The 
origin of these apparently artificial heaps of 
ground is a mystery." 



KASPER IIAIDEL 



405 



I must confess that I admire the 
Professor's efforts, and have no desire 
to detract anything- whatever from the 
repeated attempts made to ascertain 
and verifv the statements made to 
him by some persons of the existence 
of the "reputed (Indian) burying 
grounds" there. He acted, no doubt, 
in good faith upon the information he 
had obtained, since there was in the 
long ago a belief among some persons 
living in that section, that the Indians 
who at one time lived in these parts 
had chosen this spot for the resting- 
place of their dead. 

From the years 185 1 to 1868 I re- 
sided at Hamburg and during the lat- 
ter years I frequently visited these 
^'Rocks" and also saw the peculiar "ar- 
tificial mounds," of which the Profes- 
sor writes. The last time I was on the 
spot (in 1864), an elderly gentleman 
who was returning home from the 
mountains where he had been picking 
berries, approached and greeted me 
with the words : '' Bist die aivh aimer 
fun denna dolida Lncha sucker r' I 
asked him to explain what he meant. 
He told me that some persons said 
these mounds were the graves of for- 
mer Indians. Inquisitiveness prompted 
me to learn the true source of these 
mounds. At diilerent times I visited 
a number of the older residents in that 
locality, to ascertain their true origin 
and history. From several sources I 
obtained the information that it was 
"supposed to be an Indian burial 
ground." This supposition was, how- 
ever, not generally accepted, and for 
tentative reasons, which I will explain 
later. 

From the better and more reliable 
sources, I ascertained that after the 
termination of the War of Indepen- 
dence, a man named Kaspar Haidel. a 
Hessian soldier who had come with 
the Hessian troops hired by the Brit- 
ish, settled here about the year 1784, at 
the base of the Blue Mountains. He 
built for himself a log cabin. Here he 
lived for about forty eyars. At first he 
subsisted by hunting and trapping 
wild animals. He was a tanner bv 



trade, we are told, for he soon built a 
crude taniiery near his cabin and car- 
ried on the work of tanning the skins 
of the wild animals secured in the 
chase. His tanner}-, no doubt, was a 
primitive affair, but it is related that 
he did considerable in this line of work. 
Besides tanning the skins he secured, 
the settlers of his neighborhood also 
brought the hides of their slaughtered 
cattle and sheep to him to be tanned. 
At some distance west of his place 
(about a mile east of Hamburg), at 
the base of the mountains there was. 
tradition says, a large Indian village, 
which he often visited. Soon friendly 
relations sprang up between him and 
his brown neighbors. He told the In- 
dians that the skins which they made 
into clothing and shoes would be much 
superior for the purpose if prepared by 
his method. They soon discovered the 
advantages of having them tanned by 
him. As a result, they brought the 
skins of the wild animals to him and 
he prepared them. In payment for 
these services they gave him corn, etc., 
as also some oi the skins. These he 
tanned, and exchanged with the white 
settlers for such necessaries of life as 
he could not otherwise procure. Thus 
he lived and labored until old age 
obliged him to relinquish his vocation. 

Xow comes the solution to the Pro- 
fessor's "Mystery" of those "artificial 
mounds." 

In the meantime the Indians of the 
village had removed (about 1820^ 
north over the Blue Mountains. When 
Kaspar Haidel retired from his occu- 
pation, some years later, tradition says, 
he also went to live with them. Be- 
fore he abandoned the place oi his long 
activity, in order to prevent any acci- 
dent by falling into the vats oi his tan- 
ner}-, he filled these with earth, and, so 
as to allow for the settling of the new 
ground, he covered the holes much 
higher than the surrounding surface. 
But the heaped up earth did not settle 
sufficiently low enough to become 
level with the original surface. In th.e 
course of time these mounds became 
fixed and were overgrown with the 



KASPER HAIDEL 



407 



chief, who was subject and reported to 
the chief sachem of the Delaware na- 
tion. Of these the Minsi or "Wolf" 
tribe extended over the southeastern 
part of the State, and consequently in- 
cluded the Indians of Berks county. 
These were the Schuylkill Indians, a 
subordinate tribe of the Wolf Indians. 
They had their principal hunting 
grounds and villages on both sides of 
the Schuylkill river, extending north as 
far as the Blue Mountains. 

From what has been written by Prof. 
Brunner in his Piistory concerning the 
fearful depredations and murders com- 
mitted by savage hordes in Berks 
county during the years between 1754. 
and 1763, the period of the war be- 
tween the French and English, for the 
supremacy of the western territory 
claimed by both nations, it might be 
inferred that these Schuylkill Indians 
also took part in those atrocities. Such 
an inference, however, would be a 
mistake, and would do them a great in- 
justice. They were the descendants of 
that tribe which two centuries and a 
quarter ago made that memorable 
treaty of peace with William Penn. 
They never violated that unwritten but 
sacred pact, made by their fathers. 
Their principal hunting grounds in 
earlier years had been in the interior of 
the county; but as the white settlers 
began to encroach upon their lands, 
they quietly sought other hunting 
grounds farther north, until they ulti- 
mately located at the base of the Blue 
Mountains. Here they remained un- 
molested for many years. 

The Indians who were engaged in 
that cruel warfare against the white 
people of Berks came from the nc^rth. 
They were the allies of the French, 
who had by gross misrepresentations 
and promises of laree rewards induced 
them to become the enemies of the 
white peo|)le in the settlements oi the 
English. After the unt«^rtunate defeat 
of the British commander. General 
Braddock. the French became so bold 
as to send these savage hordes south. 
to pillage the English settlements. 
Some of them crossed over the moun- 



tains into Berks county. They, how- 
ever, confmed their cruel warfare al- 
most entirely to the settlers in the 
n(jrthern portions, along the Blue 
^Mountains, in Albany, Windsor, Bern, 
Tulpehocken and Bethel. For fear of 
being overtaken and captured by the 
whites, they did not often venture far- 
ther south into the interior and more 
thickly populated portions of the 
county. Hence the northern sections 
suffered most by destruction of prop- 
erty and loss of lives. At times, how- 
ever, some of the more blood-thirsty 
of these savages would come farther 
south, but after having perpetrated 
some dastardly deeds, they always 
would quickly flee to the mountains 
again and thus escape. While many 
of the white people were crueUy but- 
chered and their homes laid in ashes, 
but few of these hostile Indians were 
captured or killed. During these 
troublesome years the Wolf Indians, oi 
which the Schuylkill Indians were a 
sub-tribe, inhabited the interior oi the 
county — Oley, Exeter. Amity and ad- 
joining territory. They did not come 
in contact with these hostile allies oi 
the French and remained loyal to their 
white neighbors. \\'hile they lived 
here they were often visited by Mora- 
vian and other missionaries, who 
preached to them. Through the be- 
nign teachings oi the missionaries 
many of these Indians became some- 
what civilized and acquired habits of 
industry. 

After the hostilities between the 
French and English had been ended 
with the treaty at Paris in 1763. there 
was also a treatv made, in this State, 
between the Indians and the white 
people. This important treatv took 
place at Easton. in Xorthampton 
county, in the fall of the same year. At 
that meeting there were representa- 
tives from the Mohawks. Senecas. 
Oneidas, Onondagoes, Mohicans and 
other tribes from the Xorth. The 
Delaware tril^e was represented by 
some oi the I'nami. L'nalachtgos and 
Minsi olreis. Xo less than five hun- 
dred Indian chiefs, women and chil- 



KASPER HAIDEL 



407 



chief, who was subject and reported to 
the chief sachem of the Delaware na- 
tion. Of these the Minsi or ''Wolf" 
tribe extended over the southeastern 
part of the State, and consequently in- 
cluded the Indians of Berks county. 
These were the Schuylkill Indians, a 
subordinate tribe of the Wolf Indians. 
They had their principal hunting 
grounds and villages on both sides of 
the Schuylkill river, extending north as 
far as the Blue Mountains. 

From what has been written by Prof. 
Brunner in his History concerning the 
fearful depredations and murders com- 
mitted by savage hordes in Berks 
county during the years between 1754. 
and 1763, the period of the war be- 
tween the French and English, for the 
supremacy of the western territory 
claimed by both nations, it might be 
inferred that these Schuylkill Indians 
also took part in those atrocities. Such 
an inference, however, would be a 
mistake, and would do them a great in- 
justice. They were the descendants of 
that tribe which two centuries and a 
quarter ago made that memorable 
treaty of peace with William Penn. 
They never violated that unwritten but 
sacred pact, made by their fathers. 
Their principal hunting grounds in 
earlier years had been in the interior of 
the county; but as the white settlers 
began to encroach upon their lands, 
they quietly sought other hunting- 
grounds farther north, until they ulti- 
mately located at the base of the Blue 
Mountains. Here they remained un- 
molested for many years. 

The Indians who were engaged in 
that cruel warfare against the white 
people of Berks came from the north. 
They were the allies of the French, 
who had by gross misrepresentations 
and promises of larsre rewards induced 
them to become the enemies of the 
white people in the settlements of the 
English. After the unfiutunate defeat 
of the British commander. General 
Braddock. the French became so bold 
as to send these savage hordes south, 
to pillage the English settlements. 
Some of them crossed over the moun- 



tains into Berks county. They, how- 
ever, confined their cruel warfare al- 
most entirely to the settlers in the 
northern portions, along the Blue 
Mountains, in Albany, Windsor, Bern, 
Tulpehocken and Bethel. For fear of 
being overtaken and captured by the 
whites, they did not often venture far- 
ther south into the interior and more 
thickly populated portions of the 
county. Hence the northern sections 
suffered most by destruction of prop- 
erty and loss of lives. At times, how- 
ever, some of the more blood-thirsty 
of these savages would come farther 
south, but after having perpetrated 
some dastardly deeds, they always 
would quickly flee to the mountains 
again and thus escape. While many 
of the white people were crueUy but- 
chered and their homes laid in ashes, 
but few of these hostile Indians were 
captured or killed. During these 
troublesome years the \\'olf Indians, of 
which the Schuylkill Indians were a 
sub-tribe, inhabited the interior of the 
county — Oley, Exeter. Amity and ad- 
joining territory. They did not come 
in contact with these hostile allies of 
the French and remained loyal to their 
white neighbors. AX'hile they lived 
here they were often visited by Mora- 
vian and other missionaries, who 
preached to them. Through the be- 
nign teachings of the missionaries 
many of these Indians became some- 
what civilized and acquired habits of 
industry. 

After the hostilities between the' 
French and English had been ended 
with the treaty at Paris in 1763. there 
was also a treat v made, in this State, 
between the Indians and the white 
pec^ple. This important treatv took 
place at Easton. in Northampton 
county, in the fall of the same year. At 
that meeting there were representa- 
tives from the Mohawks. Senecas. 
Onoidas. Onrtndagoes. Mohicans and 
other tribes from the Xorth. The 
Delaware tribe was represented by 
some oi the I'nami. Unalachtgos and 
Minsi clrefs. Xo less than five hun- 
dred Indian chiefs, women antl chil- 



408 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



dren, attired in the grotesque Indian 
costumes, were present at that memor- 
able gathering. Space does not allow 
me to enter into a detailed account of 
that event. Suffice it to say that the 
occasion was a red letter day for Eas- 
ton. Such an assemblage of Rednien 
had not been seen in this S^ate since 
the days of Penn. Then, too, this 
throng was increased by an immense 
concourse of people from the surround- 
ing country and by visitors from every 
section of the State. After the repre- 
sentatives of the Wolf Indians, espec- 
iallv the Schuylkill tribe, had returned 
to their villages, the white people often 
expressed their gratefulness to them 
for the words and deeds of friendship 
during those eventful councils at Eas- 
ton. They had throughout those try- 
ing proceedings shown themselves the 
ardent and loyal advocates of peace 
and friendship. At that treaty they re- 
newed the solemn pact made by their 
fathers years ago with William Penn. 
Gradually, after tranquility had been 
restored, the white population began 
to increase, so that the lands of these 
friendly Indians soon were occupied. 
Instead of asserting their rights, as 
they might have done with justice, 
they moved farther and farther north- 
ward, until after many years they 
reached the Blue ^lountains. Here 
thev built villages on both sides of the 
Schuvlkill river. Unmolested by white 
settlers they lived here for many years. 
But eventually the advent of settlers 
also compelled them to pull stakes and 
peacefully, although, no doubt, reluc- 
tantly, seek other hunting grounds. 
They then crossed over the mountains. 
and finally located in the wilds of the 
Allegheny Ranges, along the West 
Branch of the Susquehanna river, in 
Lycoming county. Here they soon 



joined other friendly Indians and be- 
fore long they lost the distinctive tri- 
bal, name, by which they had been 
known these many years. However, 
not all of these Indians migrated over 
the mountains. A number of the older 
families of the tribe elected to remain 
here and spend the rest of their years 
among the scenes and haunts of their 
youth. These, scattered along the 
base of the Blue ^Mountains, from the 
banks of the Schuylkill to the extreme 
western borders of the county, built 
themselves log cabins. Through the 
constant intercourse with the white 
people these many years, they had 
adopted many of the domestic modes 
of living and also formed habits of in- 
dustry, although they still followed 
the chase to some extent. The forests 
of the mountains and the streams of 
the valleys supplied them with an 
abundance of game and fish. Besides, 
during the busy season of the year 
they assisted their neighboring farm- 
ers in the work of planting and har- 
vesting the crops. For this service 
they received an ample supply of pro- 
visions for the long winters. But as 
the years went by. they grew old and 
feeble, and in their last years thev 
were unable any longer to properly 
support themselves by the labor of 
their hands. The people among whom 
they had lived so long, however, had 
not yet forgotten the friendship and 
loyalty of their fathers in the past. In 
the declining years of this remnant of 
of the tribe, the white people always 
thoughtfully and generously cared for 
them, so that those who yet remained 
suffered neither from hunger or cold, 
till finally the messenger oi the Great 
Spirit summoned them to the happy 
hunting grounds in the Endless Be- 
vond. 



409 



A Noteworthy List of Subscribers 



NOTE. — We published in our May issue an 
article on Early GeriJiaii Bibles in which 
reference was made to the Baer folio Bible 
of 1819 (see page 303). The following list 
of subscribers found in said Bible and of 
great value to students of Genealogy is pub- 
lished at the suggestion of a subscriber who 
wrote the following. We are indebted to the 
Baer Printing Company of Lancaster for 
permission to transcribe the list from origi- 
nal Bible in their possession. 

"As I read the article in the Penna.-Gor- 
nian for May last, German Bibles in Ameri- 
ca, by Mr. Daniel Miller of Reading, I was 
deeply impressed with the importance of 
securing the prompt publication of that list 
of subscribers to the issue of 1819, by John 
Baer of Lancaster, if it can be located; 
moreover as I read the article it seemed to 
indicate that the said list was published in 
that book, and Mr. Miller distinctly states 
that he has a copy of that book, therefore I 
understand that he has a copy of the said 
list. 

. "These 1420 names will represent the 
heads of families just as certainly as the 
Census Reports of 1790, and will be in great 
demand, I am certain. You know that the 
Census Bureau was astounded to find what 
a much larger demand there was for that 
issue than even they had dreamed possible 
even from the numerous requests that had 
gone to them prior to the publication. — 
Cora C. Curry." 

LANCASTER C AUNTY 

STADT L.\XC.\STER 

Ehrw. Christian Endresz, Ehrw. Johann 
Heinrich Hoffmeier, Ehrw. Jacob Strein, Jon- 
athan Foltz, Henrich Langenecker 2, Adam 
Reigart, Esq., Heinrich Keffer, Christian 
Rein, David Langenecker, Johann Riddel, 
Johann Erben, Col. George ^Layer. Johann 
Mumm, Johann Jiingling. JohannVena. Sam- 
uel Kling, Benjamin Bren^isen, Henrich 
Miller. Bnchbinder S, Nathaniel Hansch. sen.. 
Johann Getz, jun.. Johann Schaubel, Na- 
thaniel Hansch, jun., Johann Treyer, Abra- 
ham Gibbs, Wilhelm Goring. Jacob Backen- 
stosz, Johann Ehler, Abraham Erisman. 

MAX HEINE TAUXSCHIP 

Friederich Schafer, Johann Rohrer, Peter 
Lehn, Jacob Adam, Johann Gebel, J. Kauf- 
man, jun., Johann Stehman. Christian 
Leib, Daniel Prick. Friederich Stauffer. 
Jacob Frick, Benjamin Reyer. Abraham 
Prick. Jacob Wiszler. Michael Ranck. Chris- 
tian Frick. Johann Landis. David Meyers 7. 
Christian Metzler, Jacob Blocher. Christian 
Tschoop. Abraham Stibgen. David May. 
Johann Baszler. Jacob Meyer, Johannes 
Steiner, Jacob Landes. 



STKA5BURG TAUXSCHIP 

Martin Eschelman, Fanny Eschelman, Jo- 
hann Roth, Johann Helm. Johann Weigtrt, 
David Eschelman, Andreas Zimmerman. 
Jacob Echternacht, Johannes Herr, jun., 
Johann HoU, Strasburg, Peter Holl, Jun., 
George Keszler, Johann Mayer, Strasburg, 
Johann Voder. 

SALISBURY TAUXSCHIP 

Johann Kurtz, Michael Martin, Magdelena 
Wanner 2. 

HEMPFltLD TAL'XSCHIP 

Joseph Gochnauer 2, David Neff, Johann 
Neff. Johann George Braun, Johann Roh.'-er, 
Johann Huber, Jacob Scheirich, Jacob Bru- 
bacher. Johann Landis, Jacob Meyers, 
Petersburg, Conrad Hahnlen, Petersburg. 
David, Gottschall, Petersburg, Joseph Pet- 
ers, Petersburg, Christian Meyers. Peters- 
burg, Christian Eggert. Petersburg. Hen- 
rich Mayer. Petersburg, Nicolaus Lutz. Sam- 
uel Minnig. Jacob Weiland. Jacob White. 
Jacob Johnson, Johann Kinsch. Johann 
Shucker, Ludwig Becker, Johann Becker. 
Johann Eberlein. Columbia, Christian Bru- 
bacher, Jacob Munich, Jacob Karle, Ben- 
jamin Bar, Henrich Musselman, Christian 
Musselman. Christian Hoffman. Christian 
Mosser, Martin Greiter, Abraham Hersche. 
!\Iichael Kauifman 2, Henrich Bar, Martin 
Schwahr, Peter Schwahr. Jacob Huber. 
Jacob Briibacher, Johannes Kauffman. 
Johannes Johns. Johannes Brubacher. 
Christian Landes, Johannes Landes. jun., 
Johannes Landes, sen.. Andreas Kauffman. 
David Kauffman, 

LEACOCK TAUXSCHIP 

Jacob Bar. Henrich Biir, Johann Schafer. 
Castwirth, Peter Landis. Johann Reyer, 
Christian Winger, Abraham Rohrer. Michael 
Hesz 3, Wilhelm Mehrig. Johann Herschy. 
David Martin. Jonathan Reyer. James Rog- 
ers. Johannes Lapp 3. Ephraim Bar. Sarah 
Lapp, Christian Weidman 4, Samuel Ztut- 
meyer, .lohann Kling. 

MAUTICK TAUXSCHIP 

Christian Hesz. Daniel Hesz. Elisabeth 
Kindig 2, Johannes Lein. Abraham Huber. 
Jun. 

LAXCASTEK TAUXSCHIP 

Andreas Schenck 2. Henrich Schench. 
Jacob Hostetter. Sen. 

MOUXTTOV TAl XSCHIP 

Philip Albert. Friederich Schafer. 

MAXOK TAUXSCHIP 

Christian Herr. Davids Sohn. Abraham 
Herschy. Gottfried King. Johann Frantz. 
Johann Wiszler. Abraham Herschy, Chris- 
tian Grosoh. Jacob Berg. Esq.. 2. Jacob 
Schock. Henrich Schock. Johann Schock. 
Elisabeth Herschy, Johann Miller, Christian 
Wiszler. Andreas KaufTman. 



410 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



LAMPKTER TAUNSCHIP 

Martin Forre, George Meek, Franz Herr, 
Abraham Landis, Jacob Weber, Johann 
Raub, David Walter, Xicolaus Walter, 
Johann Meek, Jacob Meylin, Johann Haury, 
jun., Jaob Vegtli, Johann George Fricker, 
Martin Meylin, Johann Rohrer, Philip 
Meek, Jacob Buschong, Johann Lange- 
necker, Daniel Lefever, Jacob Eeiler, Jacob 
Weber, sen., 2, Martin Harnisch, Jacob 
Weber, jun., Henrich Amsler, Christian 
Hauser. 

ELISABETH TAUNSCHIP 

Johann Elser, George Elser, Michael 
Klein, jun., Johann Scherb, Henrich Appel, 
Peter Weidman, Samuel Maintzer, Johann 
Eberle, George Zahm, Wilhelm Weidman. 

DOXEGAT, TAUXSCHIP 

Andreas Hiestand, Jacob Oberlin, Ludwig 
Lindemuth, Johann Goptert, Christian Hum- 
mel, Joseph Horst, Johannes Seybel, George 
Miller, Maytaun, Michael Gantz, Johann 
Alleman, Maytaun, Herman Lang, Jacob 
Spohn. 

RAPHO TAUXSCHIP 

Johann Mische, jun., Christian Brubach- 
er, David Martin, Anton Dcrnbach, Wilhelm 
Frey. 

EARL TAUXSCHIP 

Marx Groff, Christian C. Martin, George 
Schaffer, Johannes ^Meyers, Ephraim Reyer, 
David Groff, Marx Sohn, Henrich Sraufier, 
Christian Meyer, Samuel Meyers, Johann 
Groff, Abraham Grebill, Wilhelm Dietrich, 
Neuholland, Jacob Zimmerman, Johann 
Wolf, Peter Braun, Johann Winters. David 
Stein, Peter Martin, Wilhelm Dritsch, Simon 
Nagel, Johann Wanner, Daniel Mayer, 

COCALICO TAUXSCHIP 

Joseph Dietrich, Abraham Bollinger, 
Christoph Scherb. Andreas Riem, Ricms- 
taun, Michael Raser, Riemstaun, Michael 
Schnerer. 

COXESTOGO TAUXSCHIP 

Abraham Harnish, Michael Hesz. Johann 
Bachman, sen., Martin Brenneman, Henrich 
Dietrich 2, Johann Huber, Johann Holl, 
Johann Hesz, Martin Harnisch, Johann 
Bachman, Jun. 

WARWICK TAUXSCHIP 

Samuel Keller, Johann Zug. Daniel Gtii- 
bill, Matthias Kamerer. Gottlieb Eichler. 
Litiz, Johann Schrantz 2. Peter Holl. Jacob 
Maas, Johann Thunmia. Gottfried Triiger, 
Litiz, Jacob Rack. Lititz. Michael Badarff, 
Doctor J. F. Rudolphi. Litiz, Peter Phelis. 
Christian Frantz, Christian Erb, Johann 
Kreider. 

BART TAUXSCHIP 

Christian Hnber. 

BRECKNOCK TAUXSCHIP 

Daniel Wann, Philip Vonieda. 



ADAMS C AUNTY 

Peter Diehl, Jacob Schwartz, Jacob Mil- 
ler, Friederich Bayer 2, Conrad Mardorf, 
Johannes Goszler, Thomas Erhard, Johan- 
nes Hersch, Johannes Klein, Conrad Nie- 
mann. 

ALLEGHENY CAUNTY 

Leohard Bayer, Johannes Maurer. 

BERKS CAUNTY 

Gerhard Bechtel, Joel R. Weidman, Sam- 
uel Lotz, Philip Herzog, Georg Gehman, 
Johann Gehman, Jacob Metzler, Adam 
Mensch. 

BUCKS CAUNTY 

Abraham Clemens, Henrich Landes. Ab- 
raham Geiszinger, Jacob Meyer, Ehrw. Sam- 
uel Gehman, Isaac Dirstein, Henrich Dir- 
stein, Leonard Detweiler, Andreas Schwartz, 
Jacob Metzler. Wilhelm Subehuhl, Ehrw. 
Nicolas Mensch 2, Conrad Overpeck, Michael 
Fackenthal, Jacob Follner, Tobias Gruver, 
Christoph Trag-er, Christian Trager, Jacob 
Trager, Michael Dech. Heinrich Miller, 
Kilian Junken, .lohannes Fuchs, Johannes 
Schneider, Georg Schneider, Georg Weiker, 
Heinrich Weiker. Abraham Weiker. Jacob 
Knecht, Friederich Hillpot, Heinrich Hill- 
pot, Nicolas Schv.-artz, Samuel Nicholae, 
Peter Bernts, Michael Weisel, Johannes 
Keller, Michael Keller, jun.. David Weit, 
Johannes Dieterly, Jacob Nonamacher, Peter 
Gruber, sen.. 3, Johannes Gruber, Johannes 
Hoffman, sen., Adam Schmetzer, Johannes 
Hoffman, jun.. Johannes Bliim. 

BUTLER CAUNTY 
Jacob Haberling, Harmouie. 

CAMBRIA CAUNTY 
Jacob Sala 6, Jonathan Schaup, Jacob 
Stutzman, Johann Mineely. 

CENTRE CAUNTY 
Ehrw, Ludwig Albrecht W. Ilgen. Aarons- 
burg, Sebastian Moser. Aaronsburg.Thomas 
Fiirst. Anton Wolf, Adam Stober. Johann 
Hostcrnian, Catharina Mo.-er Wittv.-e. Peter 
Nies, Philip Moser, Philip Schuck. Wilhelm 
Lang. Joh;inn*-s Platner. Johannes Willman, 
Henrich Hausmann. Wilhelm Bertius. Nico- 
laus Breszler. jun.. Johannes Miller. Lorenz 
Grossman. Johannes Anspach. Friederich 
Reinhard, Christian Keller. .lohann Wieland. 
Johann Hennig. Georg Minnig. David Weis, 
Jacob Jung. Peter Dorst. Jacob Hering. Esq., 
Johann Friederich Albrecht. Henrich Meyer, 
Esq., .Melchior Purman. Michael Walborn, 
Johannes Ia^scIi. .Tohanne? Scholl. Johannes 
Schiifer. Georg Georg. Johannes Gramly, 
Daniel Otto. .lohannes Waoker. Johannes 
Albrecht. Ludwig Frescher. Ovorg Fiirst. 
Jacob Kehl. Franz Gramly. Bernhard Hes- 
sel. Nicolaus Schiifer. Johannes Froscher. 
Johann Adam Gust. Michael Kottner. Mar- 
tin Brunngart. sen.. Johannes Ruhl. Johan- 
nes Stober. sen.. Daniel Kramer. Daniel 
Spicker, Johannes Schuck. Georg Hesz. 



A NOTEWORTHY LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



411 



Philip Banner, Joh. Michael Hesz, Henrich 
Schafer, Martin Kronenmiller, Joh. Nicolaus 
Meckel, Johannes Freyberger, Jacob 
Kreider, David Oswald. Georg Gensel, Hen- 
rich AVorcking, David Grosraan. Michael 
Grosman, Johann Kramer, Ludwig Swin- 
hardt, Jacob Grosman, Felix Daihl, Jacob 
Runckel, Abraham Wolf, Peter Keller, 
Adam Stamnn, Christoph Kunstman, Adam 
Neidig, Johannes Schmitt, Simon Georg, 
Paul Wolf, Esq.. Benjamin Weiser, George 
Kramly, Johannes Hessel, Henrich Meyer, 
jun., Salomon Kratzer, Joh. Mathias Beuck, 
Esq., Nicolaus Presler, Conrad Platner, 
Bernhard Ricky, Friederich Stober, Sen. 

CHESTER CAUNTY 
Johann Beitler. 

COLUMBIA CAUNTY 
Jacob Guth 10, Jacob Gaumer, Friederich 
Bauer, Johann Adam Di/.^her, Johann Fried- 
erich Engel. 

CUMBERLAND CAUNTY 
Ehrw. J. Wilhelm Heim, Friederich Dom 
3, Friederich Breiner, Georg Rumbel, Sam- 
uel Schumacher, Daniel Stambach, Abra- 
ham Billman, Jacob Metz, Engelart Wiirmle, 
Henrich Schumacher, Johannes Billman, 
Johannes Wiirmle, Michael Ley, Georg 
Klein, Philip Fosselman, Georg Ley, Daniel 
Ritter, Andreas Treszler, Jacob Hamman, 
Jacob Arnold, George Scheible, Elisabeth 
Reiszinger, Friederich Albrecht, Jacob 
Lang, Andreas Vogel, Jacob Ulsch, Henrich 
Ernsts Christian Allstorf, Thomas Merz, 
Georg Fleischer. Peter Otto, Henrich Sasse- 
nian. Heinrich Wentz. Samuel Kiihne, Dan- 
iel Wentz, Conrad Ernst, Henrich Zimmer- 
man, Valentine Brickie, Johannes Stambach, 
George Ernst, Abraham Bauer, Samuel 
Ickes, jun., Ehrw. Benjamin Keller, Carleil, 
H. W. Peterson, Carleil, Johann Thuma, 
Carleil, Jacob Konig, Carleil, Wilhelm Leh- 
man, Johann Musselman, Abraham Higanell. 
Johann Ernst, Peter Kemp. Emanuel Neu- 
schwander 7, Carl Bernhard Traugott Wag- 
ner, Johannes Wiszler, Abraham Schneider, 
Johannes Reinschmidt, Casper Wolf. Jona- 
than Lang, Johannes Schneider. Johannes 
Miller, Johannes Dunkelberger, Stephanus 
Keck. 

DAUPHIN CAUNTY 
Georg Balschbach, Johannes Balschbach, 
Henrich Balschbach. Philip Niterauer. 
Johannes Bersch. Peter Balschbach. Wendel 
Fackler, Daniel Miller. Joseph Schupp, 
Martin Walhurn. Harrisburg. Johannes 
Paul. jun.. 2, Jacob Dietrich, jun., Johannes 
Dietrich. Jacob Frantz. Johannes Hoffman. 
Jun., Johannes Schneider, Georg D. Hoff- 
man. Dauiel Hoffman. Johannes Riegel. 
Andreas Riuel. Jacob Rigel. Michael Sallade. 
Simon Sallade, P< ter Werner, Isaac Paul. 
Wilhelm Schneider. Johannes Hoffman. 

FAYETTE CAUNTY 
Henrich Schmidt. Jacob Neukommer. 



Lorenz Reiter, Jacob Difenbach, Jacob 
Klenmier, Joseph Bauers, Jacob Bar. 

FRANKLIN CAUNTY 
Philip Ried, Joseph Mickey, Joseph De- 
muth. F. W. Schopflin, Chambersburg, 
Joseph Schnebely 3, Lorenz Hock, Georg 
Braun, Heinrich Keylef, Jacob Nicols,. 
Georg Miller, Johann Burkholder, Johann 
Schneider, Jacob Schneberger. 

HUNTINGDON CAUNTY 
Christian Gast, sen., Georg Henny, Chris- 
tian Barhart. 

INDIANA CAUNTY . . 

Andreas Wimmer. 

LECHA CAUNTY 

Philip Knausz, Jacob Biery, Henricb 
Waldman, Charles A. Ruhe, Allentown» 
Henrich Elbner, Allentown, Johann Romig» 
Samuel Butz, David Stachler. Johann Dove, 
Marie Jackel, Solomon Knausz. Michael 
Fenstermacher, Peter Knausz, Salomon 
Butz, Jacob Romig, David Spinner, George 
Keck, Esq., Abraham Mayer. Johann 
Knausz, Solomon Steckel, Daniel Mayer, 
Christoph Seibert, Daniel Burkholder. Peter 
Steckel. Christian Schanon. Daniel Knausz, 
Valentin Weyder, Joseph Knausz. Johannes 
Weisz, Michael Propst, Peter Schneider, 
Henrich Weisz. Johannes Weisz. jun.. Peter 
Weisz, Jacob Schneider. Leoiihard Miller 2, 
Martin Wiichter. Adaia Henning, Geors'e Rau, 
Christian Hartman, Jacob Hartman. Conrad 
Bilman, Johannes Bitner. David Bachman, 
Andreas Bachman, Wilhelm Peter. Johannes 
Sensinger. Michael Kistler. Jacob Minger, 
Joseph Borkhalter. Abraham Butz, Andreas 
Kuerr, sen.. Johannes Gutekunst, Michael 
Landes. David Mack, Jacob Landes. Samuel 
Mayer, Jacob Hillegass, George Hillegass. 
Peter Yoder. Henrich Landes. Jacob Bach- 
man. jun.. Ehrw. Georg Wartman. Ehrw. 
Joseph Diiring. Johannes Sieger. Anthony 
Musick, Esq., Allentaun. Valentin Fasold, 
Philip Steininger. Heinrich Mink. Nicolaus 
Rabinold. Heinrich Kuntz. Jacob Schaniz. 
Nicolaus Liitzenberger. Johannes Lichten- 
walter. Johannes Scherer. Andreas Bittner,. 
Jacob Hausman. Peter Hollenbach. Henrich 
Busze. Nicolaus Werly. Johann Biittner, 
Abraham Griiuewald. Henrich Miller. Philir> 
Knausz. Jacob Schneider. Daniel Roth. Jo- 
hannes Handwerk. Daniel Neuhardt. Michael 
Keck. Samuel Kiistler. Ph. Kiistler. Andreas 
Steigerwald'. Johannes Haupt. Jacob Landis, 
jun.. Johann Romig. Michael Landis. Peter 
Yotter. Abraham Yottor. David Mack. Jacob 
Yorter. Samuel Meyer. Jacob Bachman. jun.. 
Abraham Hottel. Johann Jung. Johann 
Weber. Abraham Meyer. 

LI RAN ON CAUNTY 
Joseph Hartman 3. Benjamin Bittner, 
Daniel Miller. Wilhelm Oehrle. Johann Ging- 
rich. Samuel Embich. Johann Speck. 



412 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



MIFFLIN C AUNTY 
Samuel Zug,, Johannes Niemand, Daniel 
H e i s z e r, Friederich Rausch, Peter 
Schwartz, Johannes Schneider, Jacob Hoff- 
man, Jonathan Joder, Christian P'osch, 
Ehrw. Michael Funck, Heinrich Orth, Johan- 
nes Orth, Georg Markle, Elisabeth Markle, 
Johannes Reyer, Philip Hautz, Jacob Marx, 
Samuel Nieniand. Moses Patterson, Jacob 
'Reisz, Johannes Weimer, Philip Rank, 
Johannes Wagner, Mattheis Frey, Jacob 
Breiner, Samuel Eisenbeis, Jacob Orth, 
Jacob Kebner, Christian Huber, Joseph 
Kingerich, Valentin Weishaupt. 

MONTGOMERY CAUNTY 
Henrich Hunsicker, Johannes Hunsicker, 
Isaac Hunsicker, sen., Abraham Greter, 
Henrich Bien, jun.. Jacob Detweiler, Philip 
Bosenberger, Samuel Landes. Joseph ReifC, 
Benjamin Alderfer 4, Jesse Lewis, Henrich 
"Clemens, Jacob Clemens, Johann Schott, 
Abraham Klemer, Jacob Berge, Jacob 
Berge, Jacob Landis 3, Ludwig Greder, 
Adam Gottwalls, Jacob Seibel, Johannes 
Ijeidy, Jacob Leidy, Georg Schneider, Fried- 
erich Ratzel, Benjamin Rosenberger, Philip 
Dell, Joseph Oberholzer 2, Johannes Kin- 
■dig, Johannes Wiszler, Johannes Wasser, 
Jacob Hunschberger, Isaak Wiszler, Johan- 
nes Funck. Hannel Wiszler, Jacobus Jocum, 
Michael Schumacher. Johannes Fried, 
Johannes Berge, Abraham Delb, Jacob Gott- 
schall, Abraham Benner, Joseph Schwerdtle, 
Johannes Neisz, Johannes Landis, Philip 
"Schwerdtle, Wilhelm W. Ziegler, Johann 
Bieber. 

NORTHAMPTON CAUNTY 
George H. Kleinhans, Johannes Lerch. 
Friederich Unangst, Abraham Mensch, 
Philip Vctterman, Johann Adam Eyer, 
■Christian Micksch. Nazareth. Christian Eb- 
becke. Nazareth, Daniel Michael, Nazareth, 
Christian Clewell, Nazareth, Christian Jacob 
Hiitter, Easton, 12, Joseph Clewell, Emaus, 
Job, Schneckenburg, Bethlehem, Abraham 
Hiibner, Bethlehem, Wilhelm G. Demuth, 
"Nazareth. Johann Friederich Micksch, Naza- 
reth, Christian Eppeke, Daniel Clewell, 
Henrich Jung, Daniel Steckel, Johana Riel. 
Peter Ritter, Salomon Rinker, Jacob Lau- 
bach, Wilhelm H. Lang. Henrich Unangst, 
Johann Miller. Jacob Beitz, Johannes Busch. 
Joseph Weber. Jacob Unangst. Peter 
Scheimer, Karl Scheimer, Rudolph Oberly, 
George Weber. Henrich Algerd. Johan Lohr. 
Adam Keller, Johann Georg Korell, Adam 
Dietrich. Jacob Dietrich, Ludwig Beck. 
Peter Lang. Maria Elis. Ludwig. Christian 
Mensch, Valentin Philips, Philip Schoch. 
Samuel Stemm, Henrich Schoch. Jacob 
Best. Henrich Herzel, Christian Stein. 
Johannes Arnhold. Bast Ian Brang. Peter 
Butz, Rudolph Drach. Philip Darrant. Georg 
Keller. Jacob Kiimmerer. Peter Koster. 
Friederich Miiller. Joseph Rinker. Jacobus 
Schafer, Johannes Williams, Joseph Keller. 



Johannes Hohenschild, Henrich Edinger, 
Philip Kresge. Jacob Huthmacher, Ehrw. 
Thf-odor L. Hoffeditz, Jeremias Hesz, Jacob 
Eilenberger, Michael Schoch, Christoph 
Keller, Conrad Kammerer, Elisabeth 
Klinker, Adam HufTschmidt. Abraham 
Meisch, jun., Johann Keller, jun., Philip 
Schrader, Esq., Philip Hoffman, Joseph 
Hauszer, Andreas Eilenberger, Johann 
Jeiszley, Johann Trausu, Jun., Georg Mesz- 
inger. 

SCHUYLKILL CAUNTY 
Johann Rader, Peter Schelhemer. Jacob 
Bachert, jun.. Jacob Bachert, sen.. Wilhelm 
Hegeman, Jonathan Stauifert, Tobias Wehr. 

UNION CAUNTY 

Moses Patterson, Herman Schneider. 
Georg Schneider, Jacob Krebill, Ehrw. 
Johann Krebill, Ehrw, Johann Leiber, 
Christoph Siebold, Esq., Neu-Berlin, George 
Mitchell. Neu-Berlin, Nicolaus Roody, Neu- 
Berlin, Henrich Frock 5, .\eu-Berlin, Sam- 
uel Baura. Neu-Berlin. Wilhelm Keszler, 
Neu-Berlin. Baulty Schneider, Neu-Berlin, 
Georg Miller, Neu-Berlin. Henrich Specht, 
Neu-Berlin, Jacob Eisenhuth. Neu-Berlin. 
Johannes Reeg, Esq., Mifflinsburg, Christian 
Dr3rr, Mifflinsburg, .Michael Schoch. Miff- 
liugsburg. Johannes Orwig Mifflingsburg, 
F. Baertels. Mifflingsburg. Georg Meyer. 
MiiHingsburg. Johannes Hey, Mifflingsburg. 
WASHINGTON CAUNTY 

Ehrw. G. Henrich Weygandt. Johannes 
Deg. Abraham Sommer. Andreas Gantz. 
Jacob Hiiet, Johannes Hiiet. Nicolaus Glaser. 
Andreas Simon, sen.. Henrich Hersch. sen.. 
Ludwig Hersch. Johannes Mohr. Ludwig 
Hiiet. Georg Anstatt. Henrich Hersch. jun.. 
Jacob Dege, Johannes .Moser. Philip Hiiet, 
sen.. Ehrw, Henrich Hiiet. Henrich Moser. 
Christian Harnisch. Adam Kampf. Henrich 
Hiiet. sen., Georg Hiiet. Leonhard Langel. 
Johannes Schaier. Daniel Waltz. Peter 
Weygandt. sen.. Ludwig Stecher. jun.. 
Georg Weygandt. Jacob Trasz. Cornelius 
Weygandt. sen.. Michael Miller. Johannes 
Weygandt. Isaac Johe, Bernhard Sickraan. 
Jacob Weygandt, Jacob Johe. Georg Rohs. 
Johannes Stecher, Johannes Schausz, David 
Billman, Jacob Ginder. 

WEST-MOREL.VND C.U'NTY 
Ehrw, Heinrich Habliston 10. Jacob 
Riehl. sen.. S. Jacob Riehl. jun.. Catharina 
Riehl. .Michael Chorbey. Johannes Holzer. 
Johannes Biihrer. Michael Marhias. David 
Bar, Daniel Kambach. Martin Siisz. Nicolaus 
Scheire. Jacob Drey. aJcob Binder. Doctor 
Schordlin, Philip Coter. Jonas Shumacher. 
Johannes Biir. Adam Lang, Michael Sieg- 
fried. Peter Rickart, Michael Altman. Peter 
Bann. Georg Bencer. Christian Scbackj-. 
Peter Reichart. Joseph Keck. 
YORK C.\UNTY 
Johannes Demutlu C ourad Brubacher. 
Jacob Schindel. Tobias Fahs. Clemens Still- 



A NOTEWORTHY LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



412 



inger, Johannes Bott, Jacob Cassel, Gertraud 
Schindel, Georg Schnieiiy, Peter Mathes, 
Jacob Eichholtz, Michael Leib, Georg Strii- 
big, Jacob Ilgenfritz, Philip Schindel, Georg 
Schindel, Georg Neiman. Emanuel Bar, 
Johannes Stiihle, Johannes Stahr, David 
Landis, Johannes Jacoby, Peter Zorger, 
Daniel Ilgenfritz, Johannes Trostel, Jacob 
Peterman, Michael Peterman, Henrich For- 
ry, Abraham Fliiry, jim., Jacob Flurye, 
Johann Flurye. 

OHIO 

COLUMBIANA C AUNTY 

Ehrw. Petrus :\Iarenschmidt, Ehrw. Johan- 
nes Stanch 2, Jacob Kern, Johannes Bricker, 
Henrich Kommel Abraham Aerder, Conrad 
Wormann, Peter Zimmerman, Andreas Alt- 
man, Johannes Zimmerman, Friederich 
Biliand, Peter Miiller, Joseph Gangewehr, 
Jacob Leibert, Adam Hahu, Daniel Mosser, 
Jacob Bar, Adam Bar, Ludwig Altman, 
Bernet Gilbert, Friederich Schitz, Carli 
Lang, Johannes Manntz, Michael Zener, 
Peter Kitschi, Andreas Weisleder, Ludwig 

FAIRFIELD CAUNTY 

Ehrw. Wilhelm Foster, Jacob Miller, 
Philip Miller, Peter Miller, Peter Obermey- 
er, Georg Obermeyer, AVilhelm Rarich, 
Alexander Zartman, Philip Spiesz, Henrich 
Beyer, Adam Weiszman, Joseph Guth, 

Johann Puhrman, Michael Schuhn, 

Murphy, Johann Daniel. Henrich Bauman, 
Paulus Bihn, Henrich Steinsi)ring, Georg 
Wagner, Michael Hent^el. Henrich Hentzel, 
Johann Keller. Georg Schwartz, Johann 
Roth. Henrich Engel, Daniel Arnolt, Adam 
Jung, Casper Walter, Dewalt Mechlin, Jacob 
Mechlin, Henrich Loresch, Adam Weininger, 
Johann Hentzel, Christoph Heft, Daniel 
Gliick. Jacob Probst, Johann Gliick, Henrich 
Gliick. Daniel Wutring, Friederich Schwand- 
er, Jacob Biere, Peter Kroninger, Christian 
Laffer, Jacob Gliick, Conrad Cob. Henrich 
Georg. Johann Schmitt, Lorenz Kurtz, 
Johann Nothstein, Henrich Hahl. Salomon 
Bachert, Jacob Bachert, Jacob Bibelheimer, 
Friederich Feller, Jacob Wagner. Martin 
Kettring, Georg Allspach, Christian Har- 
lacher, Georg Plattner, Peter Reinhard, 
Peter Rabennolt. sen., Peter Rabennolt, 
jun., Johann Runkel, Nicolaus Radebach. 
jun., Georg Leimbach, Jacob Alspach, 
Georg Radebach. Georg Krutsch, Georg 
Bright, Joseph Stauder. Simon Christ. ?:hrw. 
Georg Weisz, Johann Herman. Franz Bauer, 
Benjamin Ohlinger, Jacob Geil, Jacob Miller. 
Johann Seitz. Johann Biery, Christian Fus- 
sing. 

FRANKLIN CAUNTY 



Philip Heltzel. Nicolaus Jung, 
Stirnmel, Georg Kissinger, Daniel 
Johann Philip Summer, Johann 
Peter Schretner, Peter Borauf. 
Bahrt. 



Michael 

Stirnmel. 
Scharff. 
Johann 



GREEN CAUNTY 
Johann Wohlf, Johann Georg Folck, Ma- 
thias Schmitt, Johann Horner, Johann Georg 
Horner, Georger Horner, Henrich Seiden- 
stich, Johann Conrad Batz. 

HARRISON CAUNTY 
David Beiler, Johann Hahn. Christoph 
Schaber, Daniel Schaber, Jacob Schaber, 
Jacob Schaber, sen., Jacob Sadler, Georg 
Rigel, Joseph Kaiser, Benjamin Helwig, 
Johannes Stoll, Friederich Druckenmiller. 
Johannes Weyand, David F'euerbach, Martin 
Schneider, Adam Schneider, Henrich 
Schneider, Jacob Berger, Henrich Berger, 
Philip Kramer, Georg Borger, Henrich 
Jaisler, Johannes Kimmel, Johannes Mei- 
nert, • Michael Bautz, Benjamin Gundt, 
Johannes Schletz, Jacob Kriblewer, Adam 
Kriblewer, Peter Farny, Jacob Walter. 
Johannes Kiom. Peter Schmitt, Martin 
Giitinger, Michael Feldenberger. Thomas 
Fischer, Jacob Gnagie, Jonas Flohr. 

HIGHLAND CAUNTY 
Philip Roth. 

JEFFERSON CAUNTY 
Jacob Moschrosch. Ehrw. Johannes Rein- 
hard, Martin Ostertag, Samuel Knecht. Val- 
entin Summerladen, Michael Summcrladen. 
Christian Ostertag, David Rcidnauer, Bal- 
tasar Kolb, Andreas Olt. Johannes Palmer. 
Daniel Zwiickert. Georg Heits, Martin 
Giimm, Georg Weyand. Moses Bartholo- 
maus, Johanries Wagner, Daniel Hubler. 



LICKING CAUNTY 
Johannes Mayer, Jacob Bauer. 



Peter 



Bauer, Jacob Wilkin, Georg Ernst. Wilhelm 
Horn. 

MIA.MI CAUNTY 
Casper Stover 3. Peter Creitzer, Henrich 
Weber. Henrich Gebhard. Georg Gebhard. 
Friederich Kammerling. Daniel Manbeck. 
Georg Meyer. Michael Weber. Andreas 
Creutzer, Johann Stover. Abraham Paulus. 
Friederich Stover. Philip Gebhard. Jacob 
Karcher. Wilhelm Emmerich. Johann 
Schneb, Georg Gebhard. Johann Gebhard, 
Philip Huyet. Jacob Gebhard. Henrich 
Stroter, Peter Schiiffer. Georg Schatfer. 
Leonard Ming, Jacob Lichte. Johann 
Karcher. Georg Richel. David Miller. Jacob 
Herchother. Johann Schubert. Jonathan 
Lindemuth. Gottfried Kauchherd. Georg 
Kern. Christoph Emmerich. Jacob Weber. 
Philip Schneb. Leonhard Schneb. Daniel 
Schneb. Reinhard Schneb. 

MUSKINGUM CAUNTY 
Samuel Schertz. Georg Schertz. Jacob 
Hauck, Matthias Spengler. Philip Munsch. 
Christoph Meyer. Michael Sacknian. Salo- 
mon Meyer. Valentin Schnielrz.er. David 
Schmidt. Daniel Christ. Georg Schwenge!. 
Adam Harr. Andreas Ziegler. Ballzer Diet- 
rich, Henrich Woller. Jacob Schmidt. Adam 



414 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Loffler, Jacob Schwob, Henrich Loffler, 
Henrich Basch, Daniel WoUer, Jacob Ham- 
mer, Jacob Backer, Thomas Fischer, Jacob 
Schmidt. 

PERRY CAUXTY 

Daniel Baiimann, Georg Daniel, Daniel 

Nunnenmacher, Jacob Heberling, Philip 

iSpiesz, Leonbard Hautz, Georg ]\li)ler, 

_Mathias Sahm, Alexander Zartman, Johan- 

-nes Humberger, Andreas Schmidt, Henrich 

-Bayer, Henrich Zartman, Peter Humberger, 

-Adam Fischer, Philii) Rauschkolb, Joseph 

'Gerrison, Georg Kuntz, Johannes Kift'er- 

reider, Andreas Henkel, Philip Miller, Nicol- 

.aus Strohl. 

RICHLAND C AUNTY 
Johann Wilhelm Rohrig. 

ROSZ CAUNTY 
Georg Honsz, Chilicothe, Abraham Augen- 

rrstein, Georg Bolenter, Conrad Riete, Johann 
-Augenstein, Jacob Halberstadt, ^lartiu Zim- 

:merman, Friederich Pontius, Michael Riete, 
-Peter Friederich, Herman Dehaben, Chris- 

:toph Bickel, Georg Muht, Philip Piet'er, 

. Johann Allhaiser, Michael Forrer, Joseph 

.Barret, Johann Riete. Georg Augenstein, 
Jacob Hoch, Christoph Pfeifer, Philip Muht, 

< Georg Zimmer. 

STARCK CAUNTY 
Johannes Studenbecker, David Thomas, 

-Johannes Mond, Abraham Bar, sen., 2, 
Henrich Bauer, Anna ^laria Bauer, Elisa- 

' beth Bauer, Ulrick Scheibli, Jacob Matth- 
ias, Abraham Bar, jun.. 2. Aaron Bar. David 
Bar, Michael Dicky. David Eby, Johannes 

. Huber, Esq.. Jacob Miller, Jonathan Miller. 

.Johannes Muckendorfer, Daniel Markle, 
Christian Hohn, Georg Scheibli. Josei)h 

• Schneider, Jacob Scherer. Joseph J. Beiler, 
Christian Werstler, Daniel Weis. Martin 
Hauser 5, Christian Huher, Peter Stockman. 
Johann Thomas, Friederich Warner, Hen- 
rich Warner. Ehrw. Antonius Meyer, Ehrw. 
Jacob Schonenberger, Georg Rau, Canton, 
Abraham Wilhelm, Canton, Johannes Kreid- 

■ er, Canton, Wilhelm Kriegbaum, Canton. 
Johannes Kriegbaum. Canton. Leonhard 
Herrstadter, Canton, Georg Schneider, 
Johann Kreider, E?q., Daniel Braum, Daniel 
Mathias. Esq., Johann Raupert, Peter 
Schneider. 

TUSKARAWA CAUNTY 
Georg Helwig, Henrich Geyer, Philip 
Suther, Adam Scherret, .Johannes Remsch- 
berger, Jacob Ostertag. Johannes Bauer, 
Johannes Reichman, Johannes Emrich. 
WOOSTER CAUNTY 
Bernhard Reisz, Peter Reisz. Georg 
Bender, Friederich Reisz, Magdalena Zering. 
(Warren Co.) 

MAKYLAM) 

FRIEDERICH CAUNTY 
Henrich Duszing. Jacob Hoffman. " Hein- 
rich Keller, ^Vndit'as Schmidt. Stoffel Mich- 



ael, Heinrich Rauthzahn, Johann Beiszer. 
Georg Rauthzahn, David Keller, Philip Kel- 
ler, Johannes Schmidt, .Jacob Dirr, Jaco';^ 
Schenck, Aaron Sumann. Carl Schand'ir, 
Georg Herb, Ludwig Rauthzahn, Jacob 
Duszinger, Heinrich Duszinger, Daniel 
Schmal, Jacob Wersrler, Daniel Schindler, 
Jacob Reisz. Christoph Summer, Jacob 
Klein, Jacob P^^balt, Jacob Kollman, Henrich 
Ebalt. Philip Kiewer, Conrad Ostertag. 
Jacob Kocker, Johannes Lang, Georg Weil. 
Peter Weil, Catharina Weil, Margareth 
Bossethe, Friederich Rau. Johannes Jung 
(von Conrad), Johannes Kepplinger. Jacob 
Kauffman, Jacob Kugel. Daniel Wilfahrt. 
Franz Ostertag, Thomas Bibel, Christian 
Schaup, Andreas Perreiiberger, Heinrich 
Reist, Heinrich Bigli, Heinrich Schiosser. 
Daniel Heller, Benjamin Rauthzahn, Jacob 
Rauthzahn, Heinrich Werstler, Benjamin 
Rauthzahn, jun., Heinrich Luder, jun., 
Christian Ostertag. 

WASHINGTON CAUNTY 
Johann Hammann, Daniel Balmer. Wen- 
del Schechter. Jacob Keplinger, Jacob Kel- 
ler, Jacob Schechter, Jacob Ruth. Henrich 
Masille, Jacob Biler, Jacob Hammann. Jacob 
Fauz, Johann Hensberg. Johann Hoffman. 
Johann Schneider. Jacob Kitzmiller. ^Magda- 
lena Fasznacht, Johann Galing. Johann 
Mandibach. Peter Hammacker, Henrich 
Funck, Philip Schindel, Samuel Spickler, 
Peter Beyer, Philip Haman, Jacob Keszing- 
er. Ulrich Huber, Joseph Resch. Michael 
Rudisill. Georg Keszinger, Joseph Berg- 
thoU, Yost Strack. Daniel Schenck. Isaac 
Gerber, Abraham Schmutz. Georg Bergrholl. 
Friederick Bell. Jacob Brackunier. Abraham 
Rohrer. Conrad Hildebrand. Adam Berg- 
straszer. Jacob Gerber. Samuel Brackunier. 
Michael Theisz, Jacob Bell. Daniel Schwerdt. 

HAGERSTAUN 
Mary Middelkauff. 

BOONSBORO 
Georg Schafer. 

SCHAERPSBURG 
Henrich Rohrbach. 

FUNKSTAL'N 
Jonathan Dubble. 

VIRGIMKN, KTC 

LONDON CAUNTY (VIRGIN 
Ehrw. Johann Martin Sackman. 
Schater. sen.. Samuel Prill. Mich; 
sen.. Peter Heckman. sen.. Andre; 
sen.. David Aechslein. Johannes 
Henrich Aechslein. Jacob Kern. 
Heckman. Peter Heckman. jun. 
Heckirian. Micbael Arnold. Fried 
nold. Wilhelm Wolfahrt. .lacob W 
rich Riebsamen. (^iwl S.\ckman 
Sackman. Jacob Philler. Michael 
Michael Schiiier. 



I EN) 

Johannes 
\el Boyer. 
IS Spring. 
Schiotzer. 

Johannes 
. Henrich 
erich Ar- 
ack. Heu- 
. Samuel 
Heckman. 



A 






0(^t>la 



A NOTEWORTHY LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



41! 



FAIRFIELD CAUNTV (VIRGIXIEX) 
George Bauer. 

RENSSELAER CAUNTY (NEUYORK) 
Heiirich Schmidt, Henrich Heydorn, Wil- 
helm Schneider, Petrus Weger, Philip Con- 



rath, Wilhelm Heydorn. 

BETHANIEN (NORD-CAROLINA) 
Gottlob Ranck, Joseph Stockberger. 

SUSSEX CAUNTY (XEU-JERSEYj 
Jacob Brotzman, Johanu Scbeinier. 



''Register'* Plan for Genealogies 



"During the first twenty-three years 
of the publication of the Register, 
("New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register.") 1847-1867, no fixed 
plan for the arrangement of genealo- 
gies was required, and each person 
was allowed to arrange his genealogi- 
cal contributions according to his own 
taste or fancy. In the latter year the 
Publishing Committee, finding that so 
many different plans were confusing 
to the readers of the Register, agreed 
to adopt one and require articles to be 
arranged according to it. The plan 
then adopted was the work of Col. 
Albert H. Hoyt, the editor at that 
time, with suggestions from Mr. John 
Ward Dean, a subsequent editor. , It 
has now been in use for many years, 
and has given satisfaction. The 
following explanation of the merits of 
the plan was published in the Register 
for January, 1870 (vol. 24, p. 79) : 

I. It avoids all unnecessary fig- 
ures, ^lore than enough of these 
adds greatly to the cost of printing, 
confuses the reader, and mars the 
page. Consecutive numbers have no 
advantage except as aids to reference; 
hence no consecutive number is placed 



against a name which is not subse- 
quently taken up as the head of a fam- 
ily. Figures used as exponents, as 
John, are employed but once with the 
same name. 

2. The personal history of each 
individual is given in connection with 
his appearance as the head of a family. 

If any name is not subscquently 
taken up as the head of a family, then 
his or her history is given when the 
name first occurs. 

3. Historical matter is printed in 
large type, and the names of children 
in small type. This economizes space 
and assists the eve in reading:." 



NOTE. — The above is quoted from direc- 
tions and sample pages jirepared by the 
New England Historic Genealogical Society 
for the guidance of their contributor. 
Copies will be furnished by us to those pre- 
paring genealogies for publication in THE 
PENNSYLVAXIA-GERMAN. to whom we 
commend the plan adopted by said society. 

We can not undertake to rewrite articles 
nor would we insist on finished articles 
being rewritten. Contributors who expect 
to submit family sketches for publication 
will confer a great favor however by secur- 
ing sample pages and following same as 
closely as possible. 



416 



German Street Watchman Seventy Years Ago 



Human watch no good can yield us ; 
God will watch us, God will shield us: 
May He, through eternal might, 
Give us all a happy night. 
(Refrain; after each verse.) 

1 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
Ten has struck now by the bell : 
Ten are the commandments given 
By the Lord our God from heaven. 

2 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
'Thas struck eleven by the bell : 
Eleven were the apostles sound, 
Who did teach the whole world round. 

3 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
Twelve has struck now by the bell : 
Twelve did follow Jesus' name — 
Suffered with Him all His shame. 

4 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
One has struck now by the bell : 
One is God, and one alone. 

Who doth hear us when we groan. 

5 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
Two has struck now by the bell : 
Tw^o paths before our step divide ; 
Man beware, and well decide. 

6 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
Three has struck now by the bell : 
Threefold is what's hallowed most — 
The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

7 Hear, my masters, what I tell ! 
Four has struck now by the bell I 

Four times our lands we plough and dress : 
Thy heart, O man, till'st thou that less? 

E copy the Watchman's 
Rhyme from a work pub- 
lished nearly seventy 
years ago, said by stan- 
dard authorities to have 
been "the best account of 
that country (Germany. 
— Eds.) ever written by a 
foreigner." In connection with the 
Wachman's song- the author said : 

We slept that night in a dorf (vil- 
lage) amongst the hills. (He was on 
his way from Tuebingen to ^lunichV 
Who can sleep in a German dorf. es- 
pecially at night? At ten o'clock the 
watchman c(Mnmences his rounds. In 
some cases he has a rattle, with which 
he introduces and concludes his call of 
the hour. In other cases he has a horn, 
which he blows lustily, on the good old 




principle of waking all the people 
every hour, to let them know -he is on 
duty. 

While he does this he at the same 
time gives notice that if any thieves 
are around it would be wise for them 
to keep out of his way. Besides spring- 
ing his rattle or blowing his horn, he 
sings out a rustic rhyme, varying it 
every hour with some piece of advice 
or a moral saw. Of such rhyme, we 
give a fair sample above. 

THE FIRE WATCH 

Some watchmen are fond of a differ- 
ent strain — warn their neighbors to be- 
ware of fire and thieves, and to take 
good care of their wives and daughters. 
Thus they go on from ten till four 
o'clock, some with a longer story, some 
with a shorter. 

In the meantime, as if the hourly 
watchman was not enough oi a public 
disturber, on the church tower is sta- 
tioned a still more pestilent rogue. He 
is the Fire Watch, and, with his family, 
often lives up in the church tower. His 
business is to walk round the tower 
every quarter of an hour through the 
night, to see if any fire anywhere is 
breaking out either in this or in any of 
the adjoining dorfs. 

Every quarter oi an hour otit he 
comes, marches round his steeple, 
gives a tremendous and dolorous blast 
of his horn ; and if he chance to spy 
fire, he rings lustily the alarm bell, or 
fires off a gun. In some towns a can- 
non is fired oft' when a fire is discov- 
ered : one shot, if the fire is in the town 
itself, and two shots if it is in a neigh- 
boring town. 

THE GROWERS TAKE IT UP 
V>v the time the Street Wach and the 
Fire Watch are ready to retire for the 
night the cocks begin to crow against 
one another from every part oi the 
dorf. and the whole liamlet begins to 
be astir. People begin to let out their 
geese, which tly and run rejoicing with 
a distressing clangor up and down the 



THE GEFIMAX STREET WATCHMAN 



417 



streets, till the goosemaid or boy, with 
infinite pains and hubbub, gets them 
together and drives them out to the 
common feeding ground. 

Then come the cattle. And the 
swine, herds of them, more wild and 
more bedeviled than those which ran 
headlong into the sea in the country of 
the Gadarenes. Out they bolt savage- 
ly, as their various styles are opened 
by the bauers, with screams and hor- 
rid guilaws, scouring like hounds up 
the street while the swineherd, with 
his heavy lashed whip makes the 
streets echo with so man}- shots. 

This larum being somewhat abated, 
about three o'clock a bell rings and a 
band of musicians mount the church 
tower and, with pipes and violins, com- 
mence lustily Luther's Morning Hymn. 

THE LARUM BECOMES GENERAL 
A fine old hymn is that of Luther, 
and a very pious and poetical custom 
is this of sounding it forth from the 
church tower in the morning. To the 
ears of a weary traveler, however, this 
3 o'clock serenade is a little too soon. 
If one could ejaculate a short prayer at 
''this sweet hour oi prime," turn over 



and sleep again, it would not be much 
amiss. 

But the watchman, leaving his post 
at four, has a commission from certain 
heavy sleepers to arouse them before 
he departs. He goes from one door to 
another, thumps loudly with his statt, 
rings a bell if there be one, calls up to 
the chamber window; and, having 
prettv well awakened the whole place, 
and being barked at by all the pent-np 
dogs in it, he no doubt goes home with 
a very pleasing feeling of duty well 
discharged. 
Then the whole living hamlet swarms 
abroad. Children plav, bauers talk and 
shout, wagons rumble and move more 
lively than ever, troops of men and wo- 
men are on their way to the fields with 
hoes and rakes over their shoulders. 
Just as we are dropping to sleep again, 
the coachman knocks at the door to 
sav that it is five, and the carriage is 



readv below. 



ummer, if you do 



not mean to be baked alive, on the 
road, you must make good use of your 
mornings and evenings. At five a. m.. 
then, we are on the v/ay. 

— The Lutheran World. 



First Protestant Sermon in the New World 



A band of Genevese left Geneva 
September lo, 1556, visited Coligny at 
Chatillon and went to Paris, where 
Cointat, .a member of the Sorbonne, 
joined them. More Huguenots joined 
them than could be taken, and about 
three hundred sailed from Plartleur 
Xvoember 19, 1556. and arri\ed at 
Rio Janeiro ^larch 7. 1557. Dupont 
told \'illegagnon they had come to 
found a Reformed church in Brazil. 



A'illegagnon promised that everything 
should ])e done according to the Ge- 
nevan Church Order. So they hold a 
thanksgi\-ing service. After singing 
the 5th Psalm, Richier preached a ser- 
mon on the 26th Psahn. This was the 
first Protestant sermon in the Xew 
world. 

— Presbyterian Historical Journal, 
\'ol. ^, Xo. 4. 



418 



Picturesque Character of Pennsylvania-Germans 

By Hon. W. U. Hensel, Lancaster, Pa. 



NOTE. — At a dinner given at the splendid 
ew building of the Pennsylvania Histori- 
al Society, in Philadelphia, Pa., Hon. W. U. 
[ensel gave an address of which the fol- 



ne' 

Cal Society, lx± x xmciucil/mci, ^ ci., ii'j^. . 

Hensel gave an address of which the 
lowing is a full abstract; 



S35g 



^m 






X a recent 



review of the 



tan, It was stated that a 
good woman of Dorcli es- 
ter in 1688, disposing of 
her apparel by will, 
enumerated "a best red 
I kersey petticoat." "a sad 

grey kersey wastecote," ''a blew 
apron,'* "a mnlberry ^vastecote," "a 
liver grey hood," ''a purple bonnet,'' 
''six yards of red cloth" and a "green 
apron." It is much to be feared that 
witli the passing of the New England 
farm this cheerful variety of raiment 
• has vanished from its domestic land- 
scape. Owing to the scant recognition 
in our imaginative literature of a high- 
ly-interesting and important element 
in the composite citizenship of Penn- 
sylvania, the picturesque feattires of 
its rural life in some sections are not 
known to its people generally, and are 
not appreciated by those too familiar 
with them. 

A mile or two from where I live, the 
other evening I passed a place on 
which a spacious house is painted an 
almost sentimental lavender tint; the 
wagon shed a rich orange ; the barn a 
royal red; and the pig-pen a delightful 
crushed- strawberry. Across a blue 
front gate there leaned an Amish maid 
with a face that fitted the perspective 
of an Italian sky, covered by a purple 
bonnet, clad in red waist, a green skirt 
and lilac cape. This rectirring com- 
bination of local color attests the pres- 
ence of one of the many religious fam- 
ilies who make up the widely-extended 
and greatly - diversified e 1 e m e n t 
known as the Pennsylvania Germait — 
whose trail far across the continent is 
marked by evidences of that "quiet, 
Godly and honest" life of industrv and 



thrift which was the dream of Pas to- 
ri us. 

I-'or two huiKlrcd years this jjatient 
peasant folk ha\e worn the yoke and 
followed in the furrow of their fathers. 
They are not a passing people, but in 
many localities they have long since 
plowed down forc\er the iron heel - 
print of more audacious and progres- 
sive races. Albeit — the}' have made 
and kept for many rich counties of 
Pennsylvania their agricultural pre- 
eminence. Their racial tenacity of 
land and ai)plicativ)n of labor to its 
possibilities have alike contrii^tited 
weath to the nation and a sober citi- 
zenship to the American Common- 
wealth. 

1 am glad of the occasion to empha- 
size the failure of the idealist with pen 
or pencil to picture their life as it 
really cxisls and their character as it 
actuallv is. The most conspicious ad- 
venturer into this unbroken ground 
for fictic)n has approached the subject 
in a spirit of hostility toward instead 
of sympathy with it. A leading pub- 
lishing house is brtitually frank in ad- 
vertising works that portray the "com- 
mon, sordid, unlovely atmosphere oi a 
Pennsylvania Dutch community;" and 
an eminent review er accepts them with 
the consolation that the ''facts of life" 
presented prevail among " a fortunate- 
W limited nund)er." composing a coni- 
mimitv "where mediaeval c».tnditions 
are customary." Indeed. I suspect 
that auKMig some of the stern moral- 
ists of Philadelphia and more of the 
still purer patriots of Pittsburg much 
regret is felt — and some has been ex- 
pressed — that an. uncouth ant! unlove- 
Iv race slundd people and plant so 
much of the good land that intervenes 
these metropolitan centers of sweet- 
ness and light. 

To him. howe\ er. who. "in the love" 
i)f mankind. "lu^Kls communion" with 
its inner life, there is to be found in 
the so-called Pennsvlvania-German 



PICTURPJSQUE CHARACTER 



419 



sect people a picturesqueness of char- 
acter that no Hterary artist has yet 
fathomed and expressed. The more ag-- 
_gressive churclimen constitute the larg- 
er element, and tliey have made this 
felt and understood through spokes- 
men of their own, who, with shield 
and spear, have defended and asserted 
the rights and merits of tlieir race, but 
the literary methods of dealing with 
the ideals of the plainer people have 
been those of the surgeon who would 
exploit the beauty of the Greek Venus 
b}' the ruthless processes of the clinic. 
or demonstrate the splendor of an in- 
tellect by laying the scalpel to the 
brain. 

The historic background of that race 
who settled on the Pequea and Cones- 
toga is a story of religious proscrip- 
tion, patient, persistence and toilsome 
achievement as dramatic as that of 
Quaker or Puritan. The delightful 
dogmatism and the conscientious con- 
servation which impel them to still 
sing- hymns of the fatherland and to 
wear the garb of two centuries ago 
make an island of refuge in a sea of 
social giddiness, tempestuous politics 
and restless religion. Is there nothing 
more than comicality in the fact that a 
man deems it sinful to substitute but- 
tons for hooks and eyes on his coat 
and trousers ; or that women stake 
their souls' salvation whether their cap 
strings shall be tied or let tly like "the 
yellow locks" of the Scalds? Is the 
spirit of sectarianism and hair-splitting- 
scholasticism so banished from the 
great denominations of the church that 
there shall be only sneers for the intel- 
lectual independence of that sequest- 
ered settlement in the Juniata \'alley, 
where four branches of the church are 
divided on the vital question of 
w'hether a man may right eouslv wear 
any suspenders or only "one gallus" if 
home-made— (M- two if of domestic 
product or a full pair o\ mechanical 
fabrication? Shall proud ecclesiasti- 
cism loc^k with scorn upon the si;>lemn 
scene when a minister of the church is 
to be chi)sen and a score of candidates, 
none self-nominated, cast lots for the 



apostolic succession; and one lives in 
anguish forever afterwards because he 
was ap])ointed to a i>lace he felt unfit 
to nil, and another dies in grief be- 
cause the call of fate did not confirm 
his own ambition to be a saver of men? 
Is there no treatment but satire for 
those who refuse f(jr religious reasr)ns 
to insure their barns or erect lightning 
roads, but contribute generously to 
the full share of a neighl)or's loss? 
Are they utterly unmindful of the ele- 
rhentary principles of Christian broth- 
erhood who settle their, disputes in 
the church and refuse to resist even 
illegal and unjust demands at law? 

He or she who with real literary art 
shall depict the domestic life of these 
people will find profuse picturesque- 
ness in manifold phases of it. Their 
thrift and industrv, the simplicity of 
their speech, their humanity for ani- 
mal life, their uncomplaining toil, their 
loyal affection for the soil and its yield 
are a few as[)ects of their character 
and habits which a\\ait the skillful de- 
velc^pment of the idealist. Their plain. 
comfortable and well-filled meeting- 
houses. ^vhcre the old men sit on the 
high benches and the babies sleep 
peacefully in cradles, or the often 
more picturesque assemblages or wor- 
ship of groups of families at their dif- 
ferent houses in turn : the great love- 
feasts in the barns, where under the 
dim light of lanterns, with youngsters 
crowding the balconies in the hay- 
mow, long tables are spread on the 
broad threshing fioor and l)earded el- 
ders, girded with towels, ofiiciate at 
the ceremony of feet washing; the sol- 
emn funerals and the hospitable enter- 
tainment of the hundreds of sorrow- 
ing mourners ; the j>rotractcd festivi- 
ties oi a wedding, wlien all day merry 
spc^rts and successive feasts discount 
the real social pleasures of the city 
ccnillion or the delights of metropolitan 
opera — these and a thousand other fea- 
tures, which the shallow critic of their 
dull lives has never appreciated, make 
up and illustrate a citizenship the re- 
tention of which is a treasure to the 
State, and the extinction of which 



1 



420 



THE PEXNSYLV.A.NIA-GERMAN 



would be an irreparable historic loss. 

A notable figure in current Ameri- 
can literature, and one who, if he has 
not attained, has come perilously near 
his own ideal, recently said *'My idea 
is that a novel should be a reflection of 
the life and manners it undertakes to 
portrav, absolutely true in this regard, 
but touched by imagination into a 
form to attract. It should be so well 
written that any reader would be en- 
thralled by its story and feel that he 
was a part of its life and knew its 
characters, and it should sink so deep 



into the heart that the reader should 
rise from it with a feeling that life was 
worth living and held work for him to 
do." 

When some day some one shall deal 
with the picturesque features of the 
Pennsylvania-German in this artistic 
spirit, the world of letters at least will 
know him better. Grant that from out 
this folk itself there shall stretch the 
master hand to "take up the harp of 
life", and so smite "its trembling 
chords" that the music shall be as true 
as the melody will be tuneful. 



The Rev. Joseph Henry Dubbs, D.D.,LL.D, 
An Appreciation 




ITEX, on the first of April, 
1910, the ^Master called 
the Rev. Joseph Henrv 
Dubbs, D. D.. LL. D., to 
come up higher, his de- 
parture was a distinct 
loss to the College of 
whose Faculty he was an 
honored member, to the church v.'hich 
he so faithfully served, and to the com- 
munity in which his worth as a man 
and as a citizen was profoundly felt 
and respected. ^Nlen come and go in 
the different walks of life, contributing 
their share to the world's work, and 
passing away, as a matter of course, 
when they have finished what it was 
given them to do ; and the world "will 
little heed or long remember" what 
they have said and done. But it may 
be said with truth and safety that Dr. 
Dubbs, by the value of his work and 
the charm of his personality, has won 
a place in the esteem and affection of 
his fellow-men which will make him to 
be long remembered by those who had 
the privilege of coming in personal 
touch with him or his labors. 

Dr. Dubbs was born at Xorth White- 
hall Lehigh Co.. Pa., October 5. l8;^8, 
being a son of the Rev. Joseph S. 
Dubbs, D. D., and his wife Eleanor. 
He came of sturdy Pennsylvania Ger- 



man stock, with a strain oi Welsh 
blood on his mother's side. His home 
life and environment were such as to 
develop to the utmost his rich inheri- 
tance of ancestral virtue and infuse and 
foster in his character the best traits 
of the typical life and spirit oi the race 
to which he belonged. He grew up in 
an atmosphere oi Christian culture, 
and he was surrounded by the best ele- 
ments of Pennsylvania German life, so 
that he was both "to the manner born" 
and trained unconsciously in the folk- 
lore and traditions of which, in late life 
he had so rich a store. 

As regards his more formal training 
and education, he had the good fortune 
to come under the influence of teachers 
who were both thorough and stimula- 
ting. His preparation for college was 
made under Dr. Kessler, at Allentown. 
who well deserved to be called a great 
teacher, and (^f whom Dr. Dubbs al- 
ways spoke with deep affection and re- 
spect. In 1S53 he entered the Sopho- 
more class in Franklin and >rarshall 
College at Lancaster, graduating in 
t85(\ and later the Theol(-»gical Semi- 
narv of the Refi^rmed Church at Mer- 
cersburg, graduating in 1850. He re- 
ceived the degree of D.D.from Ursi- 
nus College in 187S, and that of LL. D. 



REV. DR. J. II. DUBRS 



421 



from Heidelberg- University, Tiffin, 
Ohio, in 1897. 

Dr. Diibbs was endowed with a won- 
derfully retentive memory, and he was 
a most industrious student. lie had a 
passion for research and investigation 
and the instinct of a collect(jr. He be- 
came, accordingly, a thorough scholar, 
and the range of his knowledge was 
unusually wide, including art. science, 
and literature. He was at home in 
theology and philosophy. He had a 
special fondness for anything that wa-s 
rare and curious. His store of informa- 
tion, therefore, was large and varied 
and he could speak with authority in 
many different departments. But it 
was especially in his chosen depart- 
ment of history and archaeology that 
he was acknowledged ^^laster. Here 
he found his favorite field of activity, 
and he not only acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the facts of history al- 
ready established, but he also by origi- 
nal research and patient investigation 
enriched the field and made contribu- 
tions to historical knowledge of great 
value. This is particularly true of lo- 
cal history, a field in which he stood 
preeminent. His knowledge of the 
founding of Pennsylvania, the early 
settlements of the German and the 
Scotch Irish, the planting of the first 
churches, and the development of the 
different religious denominations in 
this state was accurate, minute, and 
thorough, and there are few who will 
vie with him in this respect, and few, 
alas! who are qualified to receive his 
mantle. 

Dr. Dubbs took high rank as a minis- 
ter in the Reformed Church. He be- 
came assistant to his father when he 
was barely twenty-one years old. and 
continued in Zion's Reformed Church, 
Allentown, Pa,, until 1863. when he be- 
came pastor of Trinity Reformed 
Church, Pottstown, Pa., IniSji he was 
called to the pastorate oi Christ Re- 
formed Church. Philadelphia. Here he 
remained until 1875, when he was elec- 
ted to fill the Audenried Professi>rship 
of History and Archaeology in Frank- 
lin and ^larshall Collei^e. He was held 



in high esteem both as preacher and 
pastor, and he was frequently honored 
with high office in the church.acting al- 
so as its representative to other eccle- 
siastical bodies at different times. In 
1878 he visited Europe, making an ex- 
terisive trip. In the same year he u as 
elected a Corresponding Member of the 
Ethnographic Institute of France, and 
in 1895. a Fellow of the Historical S'.»- 
ciety of Great Britain. 

Dr. Dubbs wielded a facile pen. and 
in addition to the regular discharge oi 
professional duties, he performed a 
very large amount of literary work. 
He wrote a number of books and pam- 
phlets, and he was a frequent contribu- 
tor to church publications and histori- 
cal magazines. As a writer he became 
widely known, and his learning and 
ability were generally recognized as is 
evident from the fact that he was a 
contributor to the American edition of 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, the 
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia, John- 
son's Cyclopedia, Hasting's Encyclope- 
dia of Religion and Ethics, Lossing's 
American Historical Record, etc.. 
From 1882 to 18S6 he was editor of The 
Guardian, a monthly periodical found- 
ed by Dr. Harbaugh. From 1894 to 
1895 he was one of the editors of the 
Reformed Church Messenger. His con- 
tributions to historical magazines and 
the papers read before historical and 
literary societies covered a wide range 
of subjects and their number is very 
large. Among his larger works may 
be named the following: "Historical 
Manual of the Reformed Church in the 
United States (1885) in three editions j 
''Reformed Church in Pennsylvania" 
(1902) : "History of the Reformed 
Church". American Church History 
Series. ( i8(\;) : "History of Franklin 
and Marshall College" (lOO^V^ He al- 
so made notable collections of Indian 
Relics, rare books and imprints, auto- 
graph letters of eminent men. and "Ex 
Libris." In all these departments he 
was a connoisseur, and what is per- 
hai)S rather unusual, he was generous 
minded and helpful, so that manv 
other workers received the benefit •->! 



422 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



his knowledge and experience. 

In the thirty - five years during 
which Dr. Duljbs was the Audenried 
Professor of History and Archaeology 
in FrankHn and Marshall College, he 
approved himself not only as a suc- 
cessful and inspiring teacher, but also 
as an- able educator in the larger sense. 
He challenged the admiration and re- 
spect by his students by the complete 
mastery of the subjects which he 
taught and the wide range of his 
scholarship. His enthusiasm could 
not fail to kindle enthusiasm in those 
who came under his influence. But 
above all his geniality of spirit and the 
deep personal interest which he felt in 
his students won their confidence and 
affection in an unusual degree, and it is 
safe to say that he will be held in fra- 
grant remembrance by those to whom 
he gave not only instruction and disci- 
pline, but also a large part of himself 
in the outgoing of his warm affection 
and personal influence. 

He was also for many years secre- 
tary of the Faculty and acting secre- 
tary of the Board of Trustees. and twice 



during the absence of the President of 
the College in Europe he was acting 
President. It will be seen thus that he 
had a large share in the work of the 
College, and that his departure from 
college circles will be keenly felt. 

Xo one could meet Dr. Dubbs with- 
out coming under the charm of his 
personality. He was warm-hearted 
and genial, and in the social circle, 
whether of the plain Pennsylvan.ia 
Germans, or people of the highest cul- 
ture, he was perfectl}' at home. He 
had an inexhaustible fund of anec- 
dotes to draw from, and the relating 
of stories was in his case a fine art. 
His wide experience and knowledge 
enabled him to find an appropriate il- 
lustration for any topic under discus- 
sion, and yet nothing common or un- 
clean ever defiled his lips. His social 
relations, therefore, were warm and 
tender, his friendships strong and en- 
during; and as a man and a citizen he 
always stood for that which i> highest 
and best in our human relations — a 
true tvpe of the Christian gentleman. 
—-REV. DR. I. S.\sTAHR. 



Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 

By Cyrus Hamlin \X^illiston, B. S., Shamokin, Pa. 



CANASSATEGO 



It is intended to give briefly short sketches 
of some of the Indian chiefs who played 
an important part in the early history of 
the State of Pennsylvania 

I will endeavor to show that the Indian 
possessed qualities which were in every re- 
spect the equal of those of his white 
brother, and in some cases superior. 

Indian History is writ large wirh tales of 
cruelty and bloodshed, in which revenge is 
often the subject, yet the Life and Vlistory 
of William Penn shows us. beyond the 
shadow of a doubt, that in many cases the 
Indian was, more often than not. first 
wronged by his white and more Christian 
Brother. As Mr. A. F. Berlin, the famous 
archaeologist of Allcntown. said — "the story 
of Indians wronged, makes one ashamed of 
his color." 




AXASSATr:CTO was a chief 
of the Six Xations. one 
of the tribe of Onon- 
dagos. 

In the year 174J. there 
rose a dispute between 
the Delawares or Lenni- 
Lenape and the govern- 
ment <n" Pennsylvania, in regard to a 
tract oi land in the forks oi the Dela- 
river, where the city of Easton now 
stands. 

The English claimed it by right of 
prior purchase. The Delewares also 
claimed it and threatened war unless 
it was given up to them. This tribe of 
the Delawares were 



at that time sub- 



CAXASSATEGO. THE INDIAN CHIEF 



ject to the Six Xations, and it was to 
them that the governor of Pennsyl- 
vania sent deputies, that they might 
interfere and prevent war. 

It was on this occasir)n that Canas- 
satego appeared, with 230 warriors, in 
Philadelphia. He addressed the 

Dclewares as follo\vs : 

"You have been an unruly people and al- 
together in the wrong; we have concluded 
to remove you and make you go over to the 
other side of the Deleware river, and give 
up all claim to any land on this side, since 
they had received pay for it. said pay hav- 
ing passed through their guts long ago." 
(Then becoming angry, he continued) 
"Who gave you the right to sell this land, 
at all? We conquered you; we made 
women of you. You know you can no more 
sell land than women, nor is it fit that you 
should have the power to sell land, since 
you would abuse it. This land you claim 
is gone through your guts; you have been 
furnished with clothes, meat and drink, by 
the goods paid you for it; now you want it 
again like children as you are." 

"But what made you sell lands in the 
dark? Did you ever tell us that you had 
sold this land? Did we ever receive the 
value of a pipe shank from you, for it? You 
have told us a blind story, that you sent 
a messenger to inform us of the sale, but 
we never saw him. This is acting in the 
dark, very different from the way the Six 
Nations sell land. On such occasions they 
give public notice, and invite all the In- 
dians of their united nations, and give them 
all a share of the presents received for the 
lands." 

"This is the behavior of the wise united 
nations. We find you are not of our blood. 
You act a dishonest part, not only in this 
but in other matters. Your ears are ever 
open to slanderous reports about your 
brethren. Eor all these reasons we charge 
you to remove instiiutly: we don't uivo you 
liberty to tlnnk iil)out it. You are women." 

The Delewares did not disol^ey this 
direct command, and soon after re- 
moved to Wyoming, Shamokin (Sun- 
bury) and Ohio. 

\Vhen Canassatego was at Lancas- 
ter* in Pennsylvania, in 1744, holding a 
talk with the gin-ernor. ho was in- 
formed that the English had beaten 
the French in an ituportant battle, lie 
said : 

"Well, if that is the case you must have 
taken a lot of rum from them, and can af- 
ford to give us some so we can rejoice with 
you over the Victory." 



Conrad W'eiser an interpreter, gives 
the following account of a visit he 
made to Canassatego. 

In going through the Indian coun- 
try to carrv a message from our gov- 
ernor to the council at Onondago he 
called at the habitation of Canassa- 
tego, who embraced him and spread 
furs for him to sit on, placed before 
him some boiled beans and venison. 
and mixed some rum and water for 
his drink. 

After Canassatego had asked him 
many questions and received satisfac- 
tory answers, he said, 

•'Conrad, you have lived long among the 
white people and know something of their 
customs; I have been sometimes at Albany 
and notice that once in seven days they shut 
up their shops and assemble in a great 
house; tell me what that is for and what 
do they do there?' "They met there.' said 
Conrad, "to hear and learn good things.' "I 
do not doubt.* said the Indian, that they ttl! 
you so; they have told me the same; but I 
doubt the truth of what they say, and T 
will tell you my reasons. I went lately to 
Albany to sell my skins and buy blankets. 
powder, knives and rum. You know I al- 
was deal with Hans Hanson, but I was a 
little inclined this time to try some other 
merchant. However I called first on Hans, 
and asked him what he would give m.e for 
beaver. He said he could not give me more 
than four shillings a pound, but says he. I 
cannot talk business today. I am going to 
meeting. So I thought to myself, since I 
cannot do business today. I may as well go 
to the meeting too, so I went with him. 

" "When I got there a man in black stood 
up and began to speak to the people very 
angrily. I did not understand much that he 
said, but perceived that he looked much at 
Hanson and me. I imagined that he- was 
angry at seeing me there, so I got up. went 
out; sat down near the house; struck fire; 
lit my pipe and waited until the meeting 
was over. 

'When Hans came out I said 'Well Hans 
will you give me more than tour shillings 
a pound for beaver now?* No.* said he. "I 
cannot give you as nuich. "1*1! give you 
three shillings and six pence.' 'I then si»oke 
to several other dealers and they all sung 
the same sons:. This made it clear to nie 
that my suspicions were correct, and thai 
whenever they pretended thoy were goinz 
to meeting to learn good things, they were 
goinc to learn how to cheat Indians. Con- 
sider but a iittlo, Conrad, and you must be 
of my opinion. If thev nu-'et so often to 
learn good things they would certainly 



! -424 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



have learned some by this time. But they 
are still ignorant. You know our practice. 
If a white man is travelling through our 
country, entei-s one of our cabins, we treat 
him as I do you. If I should go to Albany 
and ask for food and drink, they say 'Get 
out, you Indian dog.' You see they have 
not yet learned those little good things, 
that we need no meetings to be instructed 
in, because our mothers taught them to us 
when we were children, therefore it is im- 
possible that their meetings should be. as 
they say, but they are only to contrive, 
how to cheat the Indian in the price of 
beaver." 



Little more is known regarding 
this chief. He died at Onondago, 1750. 
His son Hans Jacob resided in Ohio 
in ]758. 



Bibliography: 

Chapman's Hist. Wyoming. 
Golden and Gordon's Histories. 
Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Colden's Hist. Five Nations. 
Encyclopedia Perthensis. 
Lehigh County Indian History 
Berlin. 



Traditions of Kreutz Creek Valley 

By Miss Bertha Stoner, Hallam. Pa. 



The following, an essay read by the au- 
thoress at the commencement of the York 
Collegiate Institute. June 11, 1910, is in- 
serted by way of encouragement and com- 
mendation of the writer and suggestion to 
teachers and student?. One way of en- 
couraging a study of general history is to 
create a love for local history. The writer 
of the essay is not of those who are 
ashamed of their German ancestry. 

TRADITION is the trans- 
mission of knowledge, 
v./ , customs and stories from 

M r^'-'sP generation to generation, 
originally b y word o f 
mouth and by example. It 
is a story based upon 
some fact ' whcih h a s 
crystallized into history. Nobody can 
make a tradition ; it takes a century to 
make it. The reason that the history 
of New England is richer in stories 
than that of the other states, is because 
education was of more importance 
there than in Pennsylvania and the 
Southern States. New England has 
had more poets and authors than the 
Middle and Southern States. Tier ro- 
mances and patriotic stories have be- 
come known the world over. As an 
example New England had her Boston 




treason against England. The fact is 
that these stories are written up with 
some semblance of truth ; that litera- 
ture pictures them as facts and finally 
they are recognized as facts and they 
become history. Some noted traditions 
are Joan D-Arc, Rip Van Winkle, 
Robin Hood and others. Every local- 
itv has its traditions but every locality 
does not have a Washington Irving or 
a Scott to make them immortal. 

Kreutz Creek Valley is comparative- 
ly young in its traditions. It is a very 
beautiful valley, in extent not so very 
large but it contains a great deal. It 
extends from Wrightsville to York 
and is bounded on the North by the 
Ilallam Hills and on the South by a 
corresponding ridge. It is crossed by 
a limestone belt and the soil is very 
fertile. It is one of the garden spots 
of Pennsylvania and it was the rich- 
ness of the valley that tempted the 
Germans to settle here. I^ong ago in 
the beginning oi the 18th century be- 
fore the counties of Lancaster and 
York were seperated. many enterpris- 
ing Germans migratetl to the west of 
the Susquehanna River. Tiiev had no 



Tea Party and North Carolina had her right to occupy this valley because the 



Declaration of Independence. The 
Boston Tea Party is oi world-wide 
fame but one hardly ever hears of the 
Mecklenberg Declaration of Indepen- 
<lence, although it was direct, open 



land had not yet been purchased from 
the Indians by Penn. They settled 
close t»_^ the creek from which the val- 
lev takes its name. These Germans 
were protesianis who had fied from 



TRADITIONS OF^ KREUTZ CREF:K VALLE 



421 



their fatherland to escape persecution. 
Their reHgioiis zeal accounts partly 
for the name. The main stream which 
drains this valley has two important 
branches. About the centre of the val- 
ley, Canoe Run joins it from the north 
and just one-eig"hth of a mile farther 
east another large stream from the 
south unites with it. To the early 
settlers this formed a kreuz or in Eng- 
lish a cross. The present name Kreutz 
is just a corruption of the German 
Kreuz. Its a splendid idea to have a 
cross right in your own valley. 

It was during the middle of the i8th 
century that Lord Baltimore desired 
to extend the boundary line of Mary- 
land farther north on the west side of 
the Susquehanna River and a consider- 
able portion of the controversv be- 
tween the Marylanders and the Penn- 
sylvanians was carried on in Kreutz 
Creek valley. But when Colonel Cres- 
sap and his three hundred followers in- 
vaded Pennsylvania., these sturdy Ger- 
mans held their own stubbornly. They 
would not allow the ]Marylanders to 
settle in their valley. Several sharp 
skirmishes took place but the Germans 
continued firm and the Cressap clan 
w^as obliged- to settle elsewhere in 
Pennsylvania. This boundary dispute 
was finally settled by establishing the 
Mason and Dixon Line. 

There are a few stories about the 
Indians who camped on Forge Hill 
prior to the Revolution. Forge Hill, 
sometimes called Long Flill. is the cen- 
tral elevation in the Hallam ridge. 
Penn and his descendants held meet- 
ings or councils at Philadelphia which 
the Indians attended. On their wav 
to these councils they camped at the 
foot of the hill a week or more and at 
the end of that time, some of the gen- 
erous families of the neighborhood did 
not have much left in the way of pro- 
visions. One settler was especially 
kind to them and it is said that once 
they came at butchering time and 
when they left that man's supply o\ 
meat was used up. Another story is 
that they would shoot their arrows at 
coins that were put up on trees and 



when they shot for pennies they were 
careless, when they shot for a tib and 
a bit, or 6j4 cent piece they were more 
careful but for a levy or 12 V2 cent piece 
the^' took aim deliberately. 

Canoe Run which helps to form the 
cross, also has a tradition. Just at the 
east end of Forge Hill, where Canoe 
Run flows throug-h a deep ravine 
there used to be a permanent Indian 
village, in so far as any Indian village 
mav be called permanent. A tribe of 
the Susquehannacks lived there. The 
place is still beautiful with its few old 
trees and wihi tlowers on both slopes 
and the stream flowing gently d«'wn 
over the pebbles, but how much more 
beautiful it must have been before 
man^' of the trees were cut away and 
when the brook was full, full enough 
to float a canoe. The cutting away of 
the forest diminished the water to a 
mere brook. The Indian canoe 
"Floated down the stream. 
Like a yellow leaf in Autumn 
Like a yellow water lily." 

That is how the stream came to be 
called Canoe Run. About one mile 
east of Canoe Run are some great 
rocks known as Chimney Rocks. They 
used to be a *'*lookout" for the Indians. 
From the top of the Chimney one can 
see into Lancaster county. Especially 
in the autumn, when the leaves have 
fallen, one has an extended view. It 
was from these rocks that the Susque- 
han nocks used to spy on their neigh- 
bors. The Chimney is an extremely 
large boulder which rests on another 
large boulder and it looks as if one 
could push it oft of its foundation. But 
it has withstood the winds and storms 
for ages and it can still resist these 
forces of nature. 

Another interesting tradition which 
has crystallized into history is that of 
the British and Hessian prisoners of 
Revolutionary times. When Burgoyne 
surreiulered to Gates at Saratoga, sev- 
eral thousand soldiers were taken 
prisoners through the carelessness of 
Colonel Rahl. Thev were first trans- 
ported to Boston to be sent home for 



426 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



exchani^e, but throngli some misunder- 
standing^ the ships sailed without the 
prisoners. They were then marched 
down throuf,di New York and Penn- 
sylvania and imprisoned in Maryland 
and V^irginia, ]\Ieanwhile Cornwallis 
began to manouvre in A'irgina, and the 
prisoners were brought to York, in 
Pennsylvania, then called Yorktown, 
in order to prevent that worthy Gen- 
eral from rescuing them. Some of' 
them were imprisoned within a picket 
fence fifteen feet high and others were 
released on parole, and settled in this 
valley. The prison pen was north of 
the road between Longstown and East 
Prospect. The^^ were given hatchets 
and nails and were allo\\ed to build 
temporary huts. Many of them died 
of disease and a marauding party of 
eight or ten were courtmartialed and 
hung. A few of the graves are still 
visible. Some people, with great 
powers of imagination, say tliat if one 
should go to the f-Iessian burying 
place on Christmas night one could 
still hear the soldiers lamenting the 
carelessness of Colonel Rahl. who 
brought them into such disgrace. 

Not far from the Hessian prison is 
the Glatz House. It is said that Wash- 



ington stopped there over night on his 
way to York. There was no W'rights- 
ville pike, at that time, but the Glatz 
Ta\'ern was along the King's High- 
way. Some one has said: "If Wash- 
ington stayed in every place in which 
he is supposed to have stayed then he 
must have been a thousand years old." 
But we must not forget that he was 
only human and tliat he«may have ])een 
thirsty and as Yorktown was near he 
wanted a few hours of rest and quiet 
in order to be refreshed, to again take 
up his duties. 

There are many other stories of this 
early period which ha\'e not been 
mentioned. A book would not contain 
all of them. There are also traditions 
of the Civil War and about the slaves 
before the war and during the war. A 
Pennsylvania German has written a 
book of poems, in the Pennsylvania 
German dialect. ai)out such places as 
"Chimnev Rock", the 'Glatz House" 
and also of "Krcutz Creek \'alley" in 
general. Sometime these traditions 
will be written up in an interesting 



manner and lh< 



1 be the hi^torv ot 



our lovelv Kreutz Creek \'allev. 



The Typical Berlin Hausfrau — A Myth? 

By Elisabeth Kadelbach, Berlin, Germany 



NOTE. — This article appears as submit- 
ted by tiie author, who is a native of Ger- 
many. She deserves praise for having 
learned to use the English language so in- 
telligently and well. What she says merits 
consideration. 



r is one of the most diffi- 
cult tasks for the modern 
traveler to guard against 
a narrow-minded, one- 
^~ff~^ sided judgment upon 
v^^/ cinmtries and nations 

with which he has come 
in contact. 
What minimal small percentage of 
the real people, the educated middle- 
classes does the traveller meet at all? 
Much less has he a chance to talk 



with them, to hear from them all about 
their every day life. 

The rapidity with which nowadays 
people travel, the reserve of the native 
towards the foreigner prevent more 
and more a closer acquaintance with 
each other. Added to this the roguish 
temptation "to give a stupid an- 
swer t(^ a stupid question" — and we 
realize the natural ctMisequence that 
people, really serious and truth-U'»ving, 
convinced of looking at everything 
justly come after all to a narrow- 
mimled perst^nally limiteil criticism. 

Such must have been the case with 
the lady, whi^ has told a **niyt]r' to 
the readers oi the X. A. Re\iew, I'eb- 



BERLIN HAUSFRAU 



42T 



riiary nth, 1910. Her short but heav- 
ily-weighted article, "The IJerlin 
Woman. Typical Flausfrau a M}'th,''* is 
a striking illustration of the previous. 
The lady has been even eight months 
in Berlin and has found between 
eleven and two the Cafe and Restaur- 
ants always overcrowded with women 
who ate their second breakfast. The 
overcrowding seems somewhat of an 
exaggeration anyway. But was it noc 
impossible for her to know, whether 
these women ^vere all Berlin ladies, 
who belter might have been at home 
cooking their dinners, or what seems 
much more likely — strangers? 

Berlin has turned into such a city 
of strangers, that the resident people 
have learned long since to leave them 
the best places in the royal opera 
house, 'concert-halls, elegant restaur- 
ants, etc. Though it cannot be denied 
that — even industrious and domestic 
Berlin women are seen during the 
forenoons in restaurants, there are 
certain things which must be consid- 
ered. It often takes more than an 
hour to get down town and just as 
long to go back and between a large 
number of perhaps difficult errancls 
has to be done, so that it is no wonder 
if the stomach claims its rights. The 
first light breakfast, which in almost 
all German families consists only of 
coffee or tea and some buttered rolls 
is certainly not enough for many hours 
of exertion. 

Quite out of place in this accusation 
seem the remarks about knitting and 
embroidering in public places. For ac- 
cording to this it would rather seem, 
that the Berlin women must be excep- 
tionally industrious! Is the author of 
that article really gifted with such an 
excellent memory of faces, that she 
dares to be firmly convinced to have 
seen day after day the same ladies? In 
a city of more than two million it 
might be perhaps supposed that the 
guests varied! Does it not seem cjuite 
touching though to our critic, that her 
German sisters are satisfied to sit sev- 
eral hours over one glass of beer or 
one cup of coffee? 



But we want to be just, and there^ 
fore it must be admitted that there is 
something contradictory to our aesthe- 
tic feelings when knitting and em- 
broidery rival the listening to a Bee- 
thoven Sonata. Yet the American 
women for that reason feel exiled from 
our cheap concerts might be very 
strongly doubted by our poor Ger- 
man men, who, if their time permits, 
more than an hour before the opening 
of '*the Kasse" are standing at the 
closed doors of the Philharmonic to 
fight for a table for themselves and 
their friends, arc hearing during that 
time around them much more the 
American mother tongue than their 
own. 

The painful question aoout \\'omen's. 
Smoking, must. also, remain an open 
one. It cannot be denied that in Ger- 
many — but occasionally in America — 
we see ladies smoking, either in ele- 
gant circles or high priced large hotels. 
If it is seen much oftener in Germany, 
it must be " taken into account, that 
here is a much greater international 
intercourse and that the ladies of 
some of our neighboring countries 
smoke quite freely and generally at 
home and abroad. The few women 
here, who smoke at home or in a small 
circle of friends, are far from forming 
a rule. All in all. the feeling about 
smoking of women is in both countries 
generally very much the same : a de- 
cided strong dislike for it generally,. 
and if seen in public, especially. 

A Ladies' Club whore its members 
smoke so excessively that new comers 
lose their breath is certainly a great 
exception among (^ur many excellent 
institutions auil cannot testify any- 
thing in general against the German 
woman of high rank. 

It is exceedingly difficult here to re- 
sist a very strong temptation to sing 
the praise of the German Hausfrau 
and her many virtues. r»ut she d«^cs 
not need such public extoling and 
rather shuns it according to the tact: 
"She is the best woman, wife and 
mother who is least spoken of in pul)- 
lic." Her faithful quiet work does it 



428 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



constantly! Her home is still her 
world and her highest ambition as yet 
to keep it bright and sunny for her 
dear ones whenever they return to it ! 
Our highly esteemed American guests 
only need to watch our German men 
<ind children, with all their signs of a 
loving care-taking. Every German 
wife and mother from the working 
w^oman to the empress, if she is at all 
faithful to her family and home — du- 
ties insists upon rising even earlier 
than the rest to help preparing that 
comfort — Gemiitlichkeit, of the family 
"breakfast-table, the memory of which 
l^rightens a dreary hour of a long and 
hard day. The dear old proverb : 
""Mother's hands are never tired" is as 
true as ever. 



Only recently a foreigner said tome: 
**The most beautiful sentiment that I 
read in modern poetry about women 1 
have found in German lyrics.'' There 
must be a good and strong reason to 
inspire our poets to sing to the women 
of today with the same reverence and 
love our forefathers had for their life's 
companions. 

Xo matter what foreigners may say 
about the deutsche Hausirau. how 
they may misunderstand or underrate 
her we, her compatriots all know she 
is as much as ever a living reality, a 
blessing to home and country ! She 
still is worthy of Schiller's beautiful 
words : 

"Ehret die Fran, sie flechten und weben 
himmlische Rosen ins irdische Leben." 



Hessian Research Fund 



Under the above heading a short item 
'was published in our March issue (p. ISG) 
which called forth a number of letters 
"Which are given herewith. 

Institution of German American Re- 
search at the University of Penn- 
sylvania 

In the year 1895 the University of 
Pennsylvania organized the work of 
research, in the Department of Ger- 
manic Languages and Literatures. A 
special feature of the newly organized 
department was the Comparative 
Study of the Relations of German and 
American Culture. In his inaugural 
-address at the opening of the Bech- 
stein Library in the spring of 1896, the 
new Director of the Germanic Depart- 
ment proposed the formation of a 
"Germanic Institute" as a revival of 
the 'T)eutsches Institut" of 1780, for 
the purpose of promoting research in 
the field of German American rela- 
tions, and directed attention to the 
rich sources in and around Philadel- 
phia for such study. 

In the same year a further step was 
taken bv the founding of a new period- 
ical w'ith the title '-'AMERICAXA 



GER:\L\XICA, a Quarterly devoted 
to the Comparati\'e Study of the Liter- 
ary, Linguistic and other Cultural 
Relations of Germany and America" 
After four volumes of this periodical 
had appeared, the Quarterly was con- 
tinued as a Monthlv with the new 
title GER-ALW AMERICAN AX- 
XALS and the old title of the Quar- 
terly was retained for a series of 
larger monograph studies in the same 
field. Both oi these publications have 
continued to appear to the present 
time. 

While the activity of the Germanic 
Department and oi the Collaborators 
of the Director in other Institutions 
has thus found expression in these 
two publications, the L'niversity of 
Petmsylvania has been making exten- 
sive collections of manuscript and 
printed materials bearing upon the re- 
lations of Germany and America, and 
has encouraged special research in 
German American fields both at home 
and abroad. 

Early in ioo«") the L'niversity of 
Pennsyhania recognized the impor- 
tance oi those studies by organiziny;- a 
new Department to be known as THE 



HESSIAN RESEARCH FUXD 



429 



INSTITUTION O F GERMAN 
AMERICAN RESEARCH and to in- 
clude the following features: 

1. Collections of original documents, 
printed works and other materials re- 
lating to the interaction of German 
and American culture. 

2. The promotion oi research in the 
historical, literary and other cultural 
relations of Germany and America. 

3. The publication of studies made 
in this field by investigators at home 
and abroad. 

4. A Bureau of Information and Ex- 
change, to co-operate with scientific 
institutions in Germany, America and 
other lands, and to facilitate research 
by assisting investigators to gain ac- 
cess to original sources in the various 
fields concerned. 

The Director of the Institution has 
been ' able through the liberality of 
friends of the enterprise to collect 
much valuable source material, while 
making an inventory of the Sources of 
American History in German Ar- 
chives for the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. The Institution is al- 
ready in touch with a large number of 
foreign depositories, and hopes soon 
to include all important collections in 
its list. 

A number of men are making re- 
searches which will appear in print in 
the near future. The ^lonograph 
series "AMERICANA GERMANI- 
CA" has been made the official publi- 
cation of the Institution, and will be 
open to contributors of every national- 
ity. Contributions will be accepted in 
English or in German, and, in the case 
of studies of exceptional value, in 
French or other foreign languages 
easily read by scholars. 

The spirit of the Institution is co- 
operative and international. At the 
proper time the Institution Avill be 
formally opened, and its services 
placed at the disposal of investigators 
in the entire field, including serious 
genealogical research. 

Tlie Insitution will gladly receive 
the co-operation of all archives, libra- 
ries, owners of private collections, his- 



torical societies and investigators, and 
place their names on the list of cor- 
respondents and exchanges, when 
materials justify exchange. 

Donations of manuscripts of every 
kind, including private correspond- 
ence, printed books relating to the 
Germans in America or Americans in 
Germany, and other materials relat- 
ing to the field, will be thankfully re- 
ceived and carefully preserved. 

Communications may be addressed 
to ]\I. D. Learned, Director, Box 10, 
College Hall, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, U. S. A. 



H. AV. Kriebel. 

Ed. PENNA.GERMAN Magazine, 
Lititz, Penn., 
yiy dear Sir : 

The notes printed in the magazine 
have resulted in quite a little informa- 
tion coming to me. The lengthy com- 
munications are from Prof. M. D. 
Learned of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, who is director of the institu- 
tion of German-American research, 
and from Prof. Charles 'SI. Andrews, 
of Johns Hopkins University at Balti- 
more. I will enclose herewith on 
separate sheets excerpts from their let- 
ters so far as they concern the matter 
of the Hessians. I think probably it is 
hardly worth while to seriously press 
the proposition oi attempting to raise 
a fund since the work is being done in 
a general way. it is true, by others, but 
much more systematically than I 
would have time to direct even with 
extensive means. The two professors 
mentioned indicate that a great 
amount of work has been done in the 
German a n d English arcliives to 
secure matter of much importance to 
the Revolutionary history of the 
L^nited States. Dr. Andrews of John 
Hopkins employed B. F. Stevens »^ 
Brown, oi 4 Trafalgar Square, London, 
England, to examine materials at the 
British public record ofnce, and they 
were loath to place any such informa- 
tion at the disposal of others without 
Dr. Andrews' consent, but he has 



430 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



-kindly written nic that if I wish to 
make any use whate\'er of materials 
which may be in the hands of Stevens 
& Brown, or information in their pos- 
session as the result of researches in 
his behalf, I am quite at liberty to do 
so. Another letter that has gTown out 
-of your notices comes to me from the 
Rev. Henry F. Lutz, of ]\Iillersville, in 
your county. Fie informs me that he 
spent his leisure time for three months 
last year in the Cong-ressional library 
Rt A\'ashing-ton, from which city he 
wrote me, looking up Hessian mater- 
ial ; that he found a list of Hessian of- 
ficers but not of the soldiers, and that 
he was referred from the A\'ar Depart- 
ment to the British Government; by 
them to the German Government; by 
the German . leL;ati(ni at AN'ashington 
to Prof. Learned of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and that he learned 
that some list of Hessians in Ger- 
many was destroyed by X'apoleon at 
Cassel in- Electoral Plesse. He men- 
tions a great deal of information re- 
garding the Hessian soldiery in El- 
kino-s, two volumes in German which 
he says seems to be out of print, but 
w^hich he borrowed from the German 
legation at A\'ashington. Elkings had 
access to about thirty original authori- 
ties, and refers to soldiers and their 
wives freezing to death in Canada. Mr. 
Lutz mentions also that he found 
traces of Hessian soldiers on a visit to 
Boston and Halifax last spring. 
Verv trulv, 
T. C. RUPPENTHAL. 



April 2, igio I began the preparation 
of a Calendar of Hessian papers for 
the Library of Congress, a portion of 
which is completed and is now acces- 
sible in MSS. in the Lil)rary. 

A complete list of Hessian and 
other German material in England 
and Germany would be very volumi- 
nous. I believe that prettv complete 
information could be obtained as to 
the party named in your letter but it 
would rec|uire considerable research, 
as the material is scattered in many 
<lcpartmental collections. Rosters oi 



troops, lists of sick and wounded, of 
those invalided and of those returned 
during- the later later years of the war 
exist but 1 cannot possibly indicate 
where this material is as to do so 
would recjuire going through ICXX) 
pages of ^ISS. which is now in Wash- 
ington. 

Prof. ■VL D. Learned of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania has performed 
for German Staat and Stadt archives 
what I have been doing for England. 
He found hundreds of documents re- 
lating t(j the Hessian trooj^s. But his 
MSS. also is una\'ailable as yet and 
probably will not be printed for some 
time." * ''^' '•' 

C1L\RLES M. AXDREWS, 
1627 Bolton St., 

Baltimore, Md. 



^ ^ =^ ^- '•'■ '■• \\c have been 
working on the Hessians for some 
years and last \-ear I was sent as en- 
voy of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington to search for sources oi 
American History in the German ar- 
chi\'es. During my search. I un- 
earthed an astonishing mass oi mater- 
ial relating to the Hessians and am 
now working at it. About a vear ago. 
the University of Pennsylvania organ- 
ized an "Institution oi German Amer- 
ican Research." which has already 
amassed large collections oi MSS. ma- 
terial in that field. The Institution 
some time ago began to form a corps 
of German Americans and Americans. 
representing German enterprise in 
various parts of America and become 
known as a Board oi Ftnnulers l)y con- 
tributing the sum oi Siooo each. 

the material relating to the 
Hessians in the P.ritish archives is not 
a tithe of that in various German de- 
positories which I exploited this sum 
mer. Moreover, there is a man now 
working specifically on the emigration 
of the Hessians to America. This work 
will soon be readv for publication. 

m; d. learxed. 

Director of Institution of German 
.\merican Research. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



431 



Rev. John Caspar Dill 




By Rev. W. M. Kopenhaver, Macungie, Pa. 

UXIOUE character of around in the old church while the old 

the early pioneer preach- pastors preached for an hour and a 

ers, in this country was quarter. 

the Rev. John Caspar Rev. John Caspar I^^ill resi-ncd his 

labors in eastern Pennsylvania, intend- 
ing- with his friend, the Rev. Mr. En- 
ders to move to Genesee, when in an 
unexpected manner and frr.m an un- 
looked for field he was invited t*"^ con- 
sider a call to come to Ohio. 

On horseback he rode to German- 
town, Ohio, and preached there and to 
neighboring- congregations on the first 
Sundav in luiv, i8i ;. 



Dill, a native of W'ert- 
heim, Franconia, which is 
now a part of Baden, 
Germany. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Giessto in 
Hessen. 

In 1790 he came to this country and 
two years later was licensed to preach 
by the Evangelical Lutheran Alinis- 
terium of Pennsylvania and adjacent 
States. For ten years he thus preached 
when on June 16, 1802 he was or- 
dained to the ministry, in Trinity Lu- 
theran church, Reading, Pa. ; the Rev. 
P^ederick Schmidt being f)resident of 
the synod and the Rev. Frederick 
Schaefer, secretary. This Rev. J^ill's 
ordination certificate shows. 

For twenty-four years he labored as 
pastor in eastern Pennsylvania serving 
difi'erent congregations. From the 
church records of a few of the parishes 
served by him we find that in 1804 he 
was pastor of the old Salisbury church, 
located near Emaus, Pa. 

From 1806 to 1810 he was pastor of 
Salem church, at Pleasant Valley, 
IMonroe county. At the same time he 
also served the Plainfield church, and 
Salems near ^loorestown. On the 
records of these last named churches 
his name is spelled "Dile," possibly 
then pronounced the same as "Diehl." 

Besides the above pastorates he also 
preached at the Jordan church. Un- 
ionville, Egypt and at Trexlcrtown and 
Zionsville. 

These old pioneer pastors had large 
circuits and preached at many places 
and not many were the sermons that 
our forefathers heard. As a rule Ik^w- 
ever the sermons made up in length 
for their infreciuency. One hour and a 
half to two hours was not too long for 
our fathers. The writer himself as a 
boy, sat and watched the wasps fly 




REV. JOHN C.\>PKR DILI. 

After a visit of some weeks he 
started back on his long journey with 
his faithful i^ld steed and reached liis 
home, in Pennsyh ania. on September 
1st, 1S15. luuing made o\er a tluuisand 
miles on horseback. 

At once he made {^reparation 10 
move his faniily to Southern Ohio. 

He himself records that on October 
iJlh, he and his faniily left his brother- 
in-law , I-'rederick Seiberling, at W'cis- 
senburg, Lehigh county. Pa. and tliat 
they arrived in Germantmvn, M^mt- 
gomery county. Ohio. Xov. 14. 1S15. 



432 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Thus they were on the road -with 
their wagons and household goods, 
one month and two days. 

What a journey that seems to us 
who can make such a trip in less than 
a day, and on the way have all the 
comforts of home. 

What the struggles, labors, sorrows 
and difficulties were, which these pio- 
neer pastors had to undergo and all 
for the sake of the ^^laster, we in our 
time can never understand or appre- 
ciate. Their memory to us, for whom 



they prepared the way should be 
sacred and cherished. 

After nine 3'ear5 of labor in what v.-as 
then mostly wilderness John Caspar 
Dill passed to his eternal reward, at 
the age of 66 years and 5 months. 

An energetic worker, a good scholar, 
a capable preacher and a musician, 
poet and artist, made him to hold not 
the least place in the early history of 
Lutheranism in this country. In the 
cemetery at Germantovrn, Ohio, his 
mortal remains rest to await the Re- 
surrection of the Tust. 



The first settlers of Longswamp 
came from Oley and Goshcnhoppen in 
1734 and 1735. Oley, one of the first 
settlements in Pennsylvania, was set- 
tled by Huguenots and P^alaiincs who 
left their native countries on account 
of religious persecutions, came to 
America and settled at Oley. Several 
of these families explored the sur- 
rounding country, and as a result some 
families moved to the Kittatinny Val- 
ley. The Longswamp congregation 
was organized in September, 1748. 
Prior to the organization the settlers 
met in their homes for religious wor- 
ship. As soon as they had means to 
build a. house of worship a congrega- 
tion was organized and a church built. 
A site for a church had been chosen 
before the organization. It was se- 
cured by warrant by Jost H. Sassa- 
manshausen. Later nine acres were 



purchased for school purposes. Both 
tracts were patented. The first church 
was built in 1748. Joseph Biery and 
Samuel Burger were elected as build- 
ing committee. They, with the help 
of other members who contributed to 
and assisted in the building of the 
church, built a log church. Some of 
the other charter members were Leo- 
pold Kreber. Theobald Carl, Jacob 
Fenstermacher, Johannes Fried, Peter 
Butz, Xicolaus Schwarz, Xicolaus 
^Icrtz, David Mertz, Peter Mertz, 
Heinrich Bohlinger, Christian Ruth, 
Philip Burger, Xicolaus Kaiser. Peter 
Kaiser, Peter A\'albert (Walborn), 
Bernharc Fegley, Jost Heinrich Sassa- 
manshausen, Heinrich Strieker, Jacob 
Long, David DcLong. Fleinrich Eig- 
ner, Jacob Daniel \'oIk and others. — 
Ref. Church Record. 



433 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 

O, Muttersproch, du blst uns lieb " — A. S. 



DIE EECHT UX DIE LETZ SOET 
LERMXG 

By Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa. 

Die Leut sin heiitzudag viel gelernter wie 
vor fufzig Oder sechzig Johr zuriick. Sell 
is gewiss gut, awer es hot ah sei bose 
Seite. Es is grad mit dem wie mit ehnig 
Eppes sunst. Des Gute is niemols all uf 
ehm Haufe un des Bose ah net. Es kiimmt 
AUes druf ah, wie die Sache getriewe were. 
En giiter, gerlernter Mensch is viel niitz- 
licher wie en diimmer. Awer en schlechter, 
gelernter Mensch is viel gefahrlicher wie 
en uhgelernter. Es hot mir eniol en Mann 
gesaht, die Colleges ware die Platz, wu die 
viele schlechte Leut her kumme. Ich hab 
gemehnt, er war about der dummst Mensch 
wu ich noch ahgetroffe hab. Xochderhand 
had ich iiwer sei Worte nochgedenkt un ge- 
funne, dass verleicht doch Eppes Wohres in 
seiner Bemerkung sei konnt. Ehns muss 
mer gesteh, dass viel vun de schlimmste 
Spitzbuwe heutzudag College Buwe sin. 
Sell mehnt of kohrs net, dass net die gross 
Mehrheit vun de College Studente gute Leut 
sin. Loss uns emol die Sacli en wenig be- 
trachte. 

Vor fufzig Johr oder langer zuriick hot 
es net so viel Colleges un ah lang net so 
viel College Studente gewe. Es sin net viel 
junge Manner aus ere Stadt oder Stadel in 
die College gange, un vun ]Mad Colleges hot 
mer in Pennsylvany schier gar nix gewisst. 
Viel vun de beste Parre ware nie in der 
College gewesst. Sell meent awer net, dass 
sie dumm ware. Sie hen flessig studirt da- 
hehm. Sie hen wohl net so gut un schci 
preddige konne wie die heutige Parre, awer 
es war ah net nothwennig. Vun ehm Ding 
bin ich schuhr, dass die Leut sellemols 
dorchweg viel besser un frommer ware wie 
alleweil. Die Liiderlichkeit war net halwer 
so arg eigerisse wie alleweil. Die Parre 
hen die plahn Schrift gepreddigt. Sie hen 
nix gewisst vun viel vun dene Neufiischon 
Fandangel Xoschens wu mer heutzudag vun 
viel Parre hort. Tcli bin schuhr. dass wann 
Dehl Parre sellemols so Dummheite ge- 
preddigt hiitte wie alleweil, do ware sie 
Rumps un Stumps aus dem Preddigamt ge- 
kickt worre. 

Dass es sellemols net so viel Riiskels 
gewe hot un die Leut viol ehrlichor ware 
wie alleweil. sell bezeugt der Parre Ilar- 
baugh in seini Gedicht iiwer "Law Bisness." 
Die Leut hen nanner Geld gelehnt uf ihr 



Ehrewort. Sie hen nanner getraut. Hot 
Epper unehrlich gehandelt, so is er ge- 
merkt worre, die Leut hen nix mit ihm zu 
duh hawe welle, un er hot ken Bi?ness duh 
konne. Wie is es awer alleweil? W'er 
denkt drah. Geld naus zu lebne ohne gute 
Versicherung? Do muss en erst Judgment 
Oder erst :\Iortgage her, un die Papiere 
kann mer schier net scharf genunk mache, 
dass net Dehl die Halfter schlippe. AH die 
Lawyer un viel annere Leut hen nau so 
viel Lerning, dass sie allerhand Wege aus- 
finne for der Law auszuweiche un ihre Mit- 
mensche zu betriige. So war's als net ge- 
wesst. ' Friiher hot mer de Leut ihr Wort 
nemme konne for schier Alles. Mer hot 
net viel gewisst vun Lawsuits un die Court 
hot net viel zu duh katt. Wie is es alle- 
weil? Mer muss en geschriewener Con- 
triikt hawe for schier Alles, un dernoh 
werd doch schier Alles verlegelt. Die Court 
is so iiwerhauft mit Bisniss. dass mer Johre 
lang warte muss bis mer en Kas vorbringe 
kann. 

Was is die Ursach vun all der Lumperei? 
Zum grosse Dehl die neu Sort Lerning wu 
net rechter Art is. Die Leut sin dorchweg 
gelernter un schlechter. Zu viel Leut 
welle en Lewe mache dorch ihre Schmart-* 
heit ohne dabei zu schaffe. Die neu Sort 
Lerning dreht viel junge Leut die Kopp 
rum. Sie meene die Lerning war just for 
leicht dorch die Welt zu kumme. Wie en 
gewisser junger Parre in der College war 
hot er gesaht er wett en Parre werre, well 
die Parre en gute Zeit hiitte. Er is nau en 
Parre un hot werklich en gute Zeit. awer 
es is nix mit ihm. Der Keihind. die Apostel, 
die Profete un all die Manner Gottes in alte 
Zeite hen ken gute Zeit katt. 

Ehu Druwel is. dass viel junge Leut en- 
nihau net viel lerne. exsept Balle spiele. 
Ich war oft an der Klassis gewesst wu 
junge Manner for Parre examinirt worre 
sin. un Dehl hen fast gar nix gewisst. ob- 
wohl sie dorch die College un des Seminar 
gauge ware. Do war apartig ehn junger 
Mann vor about fufzeh Johr zuriick. der 
hot gar ken Froge autworte konne. Er is 
awer doch ahgenumme worre for Parre. 
awer er war glei ausgespielt. Er war 
ganz narrisch iiwer Balle spiele. un die- 
weil er gute Preddige studiere hiitt solle. 
war er schier die ganz Wooh fort mit der 
Base B:ill Club. Der Result war. dass er 
Sundags net preddige hot konne. Die Leut 
hen ihn abgeschiittelt un ich wees gar net. 



434 



THE PEXXS YLVAX r A-GERMAJS' 



was es aus ihm gewe hot. Ich glaab ge- 
wiss net, dass Gott so en Kerl zum Pred- 
digamt gerufe hot, uu die IMensche welle 
ihn ah net. Ich keiin etliche so Manner. 
Des Elend is, dass sie nix siinst duh wcille. 

Sie sage sie waie zum Preddigamt be- 
stimrat im warte vun Johr zu Johr uf'n 
Ruf, awer es will Xiemand rufe. Sie hatte 
:gute Handwerksleut gewe konne, awer nau 
sin sie verbiitzt. 

Ich behaapt, die recht Sort Lerning macht 
die Lent besser un niitzlicher. En gewisse 
Lady, die gut gelenit im niitzlich war, hot 
mer gesaht: "Wann die Lerning die Lent 
net besser un niitzlicher macht, dann is 
Eppes letz. Wann die Lerning ere Frah 
net helft, dass sie besser koche. backe, nahe 
un flicke kann wie en nhgelernte Frah, dann 
is ihre Lerning en Humbug. Wann sie mit 
ihre Lerning net en Dahler Geld weiter geh 
mache kann in der Familie wie en nhge- 
lernte Frah, dann is es wieder Humbug." 
Ich sag, Hurrah for sell. Wann Dehl Mad 
aus der College kumme, dann welle s"ie gar 
nimme schaffe. Sie welle just dresse un"s 
Piano spiele. Soli is all scho, awer es 
bringt ken Broad in's Haus. Dehl Mad, wu 
in die College gauge ware, hocke am Piano 
un losse ihre ^Mammies alleenig wa^che for 
die ganz Familie. Sell is mer alsfort en 
schlecht Sein. So Mad lerne ah net koche 
un backe, un gut haushalte iwerhaapt, un 
sell is die ursach vun viel Druwel un Elend. 
Heiere welle sie, awer net haushalte. So 
Mad heiere oft junge Manner mit leere 
Kopp wie sie selwer sin, un der noh geht's 
Elend ah. Der Mann kann net genunk ver- 
diene for so'n Lady in Steil un Faulheit zu 
supporte. Anstatt zu schaffe un zu hause 
wie ihre Mutter geduh hen, verlosse die ge- 
lernte junge weiber sich uf's Kaafe. Der 
Mann kann endlich des Geld nimme rahse 
un der Result is, doss er endlich der Geld 
stehlt, Xote forged, Oder's Saufe ahfangt 
Oder dorch geht. Oft fechte sie un ver- 
losse nanner, un dann kummt de Lawyer 
ihr Ern bei Ehescheidinge. Xau niiisse 
die Eltere ihre verbutzte Dochter rait samm 
de Kinner heem nemme un sich barter 
ploge wie jemols for sie zu ernahre. Is es 
do en Wunner, wann so Eltere wiinsche sie 
hatte ihr Lebtag ni.x gewisst vun Colleges? 

So geht es grad mit Dehl Buwe. Ihre 
Vatter miisse sich schinne un ploge for die 
Expenses zu bezahle, awer wann sie vun 
der Schul hehm kumme welle sie nimmie 
schaffe. Do war en junger Bengel. der is 
der ganz Summer daheem rum geloffe un 
hot AUes lateinische Xame gewe. awer ge- 
schafft hot er not. Ehn Dag ware sie am 
Mistlade un der Vatter war arg miid. Er 
hot der Buh gefrogt wie en Gawel. en 
Hage uu. der Mischt uf Lateinisch heest 
Die Antwort war: "Forkibus. Wagibus un 
Mischtibus." Der Vatter war ziemlich hart 



verzernt un hot gesagt: "Xau, John, will ich 
dir Epi)es sage. Wann du net die Forkibus 
nemmst un helf.st Mischtibus uf der Wagi- 
bus lade, dann schlag ich dich, dass du die 
Krankibus kriegst." En gewisser Buh war 
alslfort in die Schul gauge bis er about 
sechzeh Johr alt war, dernoh hot sei Vatter 
ihn zume Handwerk geduh. Awer er is just 
ehn Dag gebliewe un hot seim Vatter Oweds 
gesaht: '"Papp, ich kann die Erwet net 
schaffe, ich mach mei Hand dreckig." Es 
is ah net viel aus ihm worre. 

Dehl so junge Bengel sin verlore. Mer 
kann nix aus ihne mache. Sie konne Balle 
spiele, Cigarettes schmoke. Stories lese, 
Mustaches rahse, fei schwiitze un dresse, 
awer sell is about alles except Geld spende. 
Awer mit selle Dinge kann mer ken lewe 
mache. Xiemand will so Kerls dinge. Sie 
sin gut fer nix. Wann sie ins Preddigamt 
haspele, so is es en Ungliick for die Kerch, 
for die Lent un for sie selwer. Die mehnste 
vun dere Klass warte ihr ganz Leweslang 
bis sich eppes ufdreht for sie anstatt dass 
sie an die Erwet gehne un drehe selwer 
eppes uf. 

Sie sin just in eener Hinsicht en Success 
— am Geld spende. Ich hab en junger 
Mann gekennt dem sei Eltere wato ziem- 
lich reiche Bauere. Sie ware ah ziemlich 
stolz mit ihrem Geld. Ihr eenziger Buh 
Uriah hot Eppes Appartiges gewe selle un 
fer sell hen sie ihn die ganz Zeit in die 
Schul geschicki anstati en Dehl Zeit an die 
Arwet. Endlich is er in die College g'- 
schickt worre. Awer sell hut gar greislich 
viel Geld gekost. Die Eltere hen gewinscht 
dass es ziemlich viel koste daht. awer der 
Uriah war ihr eenziger Buh un sie hen ep- 
pes rechtes aus ihm mache welle. Der Pap 
hot en gut Weil plenty Geld rausgeloscht. 
Der Uriah hot ferchterich viel Biicher 
hawe miisse un die College Biicher ware arg 
deuer, die Kost war hoch un der Uriah hot 
ah gut dresse miisse. Es war gar ken End 
mit dem Biicherkaafe tm die Sach hot der 
Dady endlich ziemlich hart gepinscht. End- 
lich hot er sich uf der Weg gemacht un is 
niwwer noch der College fer zu sehne wege 
de viele Biicher un annere expense. Wie 
der Dady uf en Paar Meil niichst an der 
College war seht er en zwehgiiuls Carretsch 
schnell gfahre kumme. un uvwer en wenig 
seht er zu seira Erstaune dass der Dreiwer 
sei Uriah war . un die Carretsch war veil 
junge Ladies. Dem Dady is nau en neu 
Licht ufgange. Er hot nau gewi.^st warum 
es so viel Geld nemmt for Biicher in der 
College. Er is zum President vun der Col- 
U\ge gauge un der hot ihm gsaht der Uriah 
wiir oft net in der College un daht \ iol mit 
de Miid rumkossele. Er hot ihm ah csaht 
dem Uriah sei Kopp war ziemlich leer un 
mer konnt net leicht Eppes nei kriege. 'S 
End von der Stor\ war. dass dor Dady sei 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 



435 



Uriah mit Heem gaiiiimme uf iif der Bauer- 
ei an die Erwet geduh hot. Zum Gliick hot 
er noch in Zeit geakt, eb der Kerl hoff- 
nungslos verdorbe war. 

Ich hab schun ofiers g'sehne dass College 
Buwe un Mad sich g'schammt heu mit ihre 
plehne, hartschafhge Eltere. Sie gleiche 
net ihre Kiimrade mit, heem zu bringe just 
well ihre Eltere net scho Englisch schwatze 
konne. Der President Garfield hot F;ich net 
g'schammt mit seiner plehne, alte Mommy 
wie er President worre is. Wie er eig'- 
schwore worre is hot sie newe ihrem Soh 
g'sotze un wie er sei Speech g'macht hot 
kat hot er sich rum gedreht un sei ^Nlommy 
gebosst un gsaht, er hat es ihr zu verdanke, 
dass er President worre is. Die Lent hen 
ihn iiweraus gehurrahed for sell. Die Fakt 
is, die Eltere vun dene College Buwe un 
Mad, wu sich mit ihne schamme un die 
ganz Zeit uf Steltze laafe welle, hen alle 
Ursach sich zu schamme, dass ihre Kinner 
so ausg'art sin. Die Eltere hen's gut 
g'meent. sie so lang in die Schul zu schicke, 
awer es war en Mistak. In viel Falle is es 
zu spot un der Mistak kann nirame correct 
werre. Dehl so Kopp. wanu sie mol ver- 
dreht sin, konne sei Lebdag nimme zurecht 
g'macht werre. Dann kummt es ah alsemol 
vor, dass junge Manner liwerstudieri werre. 
Sie gehne vun Kind uf in die Schul bis sie 
25 Johr alt sin. Sie studiere ah fleissig, 



awer es is alles eenerlee, ihre Kopp sin 
endlich voU Buchlerning un sie sin ufge- 
post uf alle Subjects, awer sell is all. Wann 
sie dann raus kumme in die Welt un solle 
ihre eegne Kanoe paddle, dann sin sie so 
dumm wie en Ochs. Sie wisse gar net wie 
Eppes ahzugriefe un sin verbutzt ihr Lewe- 
lang. Sie sin die dappigste Dinger uf der 
Welt. 

Zum Gliick sin die junge Lent net all so. 
Ich denk die gross :\Iehrheit hot meh Ver- 
stand. Ich kenn en junger Mann, der is ah 
dorch die College un.der Seminar gange. un 
allemol wann er hehm kumme is hot er 
grad gesaht: '"Xau, Papp, was kann ich 
euch helfe?"' Er hot sei Fleiss net verlore 
kat, un er hot besser schaffe un die Erwet 
besser duh konne mit seinere Lerning wie 
annere junge :Mahner, wu ken Lerning kat 
hen. Ich mehn sell war dit recht Sort 
Lerning. Wann's net for so Falle war, dann 
daht mer den Glawe an Lerning verliere. 
Ich sag noch emol, Lerning is gut, ja vort- 
refflich, wanu sie recht betriewe uu gut 
aagewendt werd. Ich bin iiweraus in 
Fiiwer von Edukaschen, awer fer selle 
Sort wu's Herz veredlt un net just der 
Kopp fiillt mit allerhand narrische Xosch- 
ens; wu die junge Lent besser un niitzlicher 
macht in der Welt un Respect gebt for 
Annere wu net so gelernt sin wie sie. 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 

By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton. N. J. 



SELECTIONS FROM EARLY 
GERMAN LITERATURE— By 

. Klara Hechteiiberj^ Collitz. Ph.D. 
Formerly of the Department of 
Germanic Philology in Smith 
Colllege, and in Oxford Univer- 
sity. Cloth; 285 pp. Price Si. 00. 
American Book Company. Xew 
York. 1910. 

The purpose of this reader is to ac- 
quaint students with the chief authors 
and writings of Old and Middle High 
German. The German language is 
rich in many noble literary produc- 
tions, but in no period of its history 
are there finer literary productions of 
historic Germany than in the Middle 



High German period. — die erste 
Bluht Zeit. 

The editor deemed it preferable to 
have the specimens in this selectit'kn 
put before the studeius in Modern 
German rather than in an English 
translation, and thus retain the form 
and si)irit oi the original — a conimenvl- 
able purpose. It was also the edi- 
tor's intention to use only such trans- 
lations as observed the metre of the 
original. 

We do not knmv whether this is the 
reason, or not. for not using Profess- 
or's Simrock's translation of THE 
XIBELUXGEXLIED into Modern 



derman ; tor 



Lirelv no translation 



this noble epic into Modern German is 



436 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



more scholarly and at the same time 
more popular than his. And no 
scholar and writer of things German 
has done more than he in making this 
great epic intelligible to readers of 
things German. 

The selection of specimens seems 
on the Avhole a happy one ; the speci- 
mens are arranged chronologically. 
Each specimen is preceded by a his- 
torical and explanatory paragraph, 
and the references at the end of the 
book give ample information on 
sources. 



THE POST- APOSTOLIC AGE: 

"And Current Religious Problems, 
B}- Junius B. Remensnyder, D.D., 
Author of "Hea\cnward,'' "Doom 
Eternal," etc. Cloth; i2mo., 333 
pp. Price $1.25 net. Lutheran 
Publication Society, Philadelphia. 
1910. 

This is one of the few books on a 
very important period of history; a 
period that is little understood and 
more neglected. Because of the grave 
conflict through which Chritianity is 
passing, this is a timely book; for 
Christianity is in danger of losing 
both its authority and its divine inspi- 
ration and revelation. The historical 
concepti«:)n of Christianity of two 
thousand years is challenged, its au- 
thority doubted and its divine inspira- 
tion and revelation are ex[)lained 
away. 

Dr. Remensnyder's book is a calm, 
able and logical exposition and argu- 
ment of the historical authenticity of 
Christianity and its divine origin. 
The conclusion is inevitable: Chris- 
tian truth is the same in the end is in 
the beginning; from its very source it 
must be eternal. It must of course 
vary with the changing conditions of 
man, but its vital principles remain es- 
sentially the same for all ages. The 
chapters on The Early Church, and 
the three on the Old Faith and Xew 
Theology are rich and thought pro- 
voking. 



WONDERFUL LITTLE LIVES— 

By Julia Augusta Schwartz, Au- 
thor of ''Wilderness Babies," etc. 
Illustrated from drawings by Clara 
E. Atwood. Cloth; 251 pp. Price 
$1.50. Little, Brown & Company, 
Boston, 1910. 

Here is something new and fresh 
from the world's great out-of-doors. 
It is a sort of relief to turn to such 
reading from some of the tragic and 
overdrawn accounts and descriptions 
of some naturalists. In "Wilderness 
Babies' the writer gives us the de- 
scriptions of animals of a larger 
growth, ranging from "the buffalo to 
the squirrel, while in this book is 
found an account of the work and play 
of the smaller dwellers of forest and 
field, like the fly, grasshopper and 
toad and others. 

The descriptions are entertaining 
and pathetic, the style is simple and 
graceful. It is meant for children, 
and is simple and winning. 
A book like this has some educational 
and in fact pedagogical value to it. 
One woulld hardly know whither to 
turn to find anything more aj^propri- 
ate for collateral reading in nature 
study in the lower grades than "Won- 
derful Little Li\es.'^ 

THE CROSS WAYS— By Helen 
Reimen>nyder Martin, author oi 
"Tillie, a Mennonite Maid." Coth ; 
3ripp. Price $1.50. The Century 
Company, Xew York. 19 10. 
The author of "Tillie" has deliver- 
ed herself of another tirade against 
the Pennsylvania-Germans. Seem- 
ingly she is still dealing with "cattle"; 
in "Ilis Courtship" she makes Dr. 
Kinross say that he never met such a 
ccnv-like herd oi people as the Penn- 
syhania-German family with whom 
he boards, aiul in the present volume 
the writer again speaks of the 
"bucc»lic" minds of another family. 
Mrs. Martin's artistic faculty must be 
developing! 

The characters are the same as 
those found iji all her works ; thev are 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 



or rather the Enghsh 
is most outrao^eouslv 



not even dressed differently; the 
names are even tlie same. The meth- 
od of treatment is the same : either a 
New England doctor or school teacher 
is made to board with a Pennsylvania 
German family, or else the young man 
marries a Southern . girl. This is 
done to bring out the contrast, and a 
most unjustifiable one it is; it of 
course always results in a disadvan- 
tage to the Pennsylvania -German 
who suffers by it, for none of his good 
qualities are brought out. But one 
must not forget that in ]\Irs. ^^lartin's 
mind these people have none, and that 
they are too sordid to be idealized ! 

The dialect, 
version of it, 
tmtrue. Who can conceive of transla- 
ting the following dialect expressions 
by the jargon of English that the au- 
thor sets down. 

'' Emm Para sei Fraw,'" — Preacher's 
iSIissus ; '*So viel fine Hemmer," 
— "Such a many fine shirts ;'' — 'Teh 
shem mich" — 'T have shame*'(!); — 
^'Sei buggy lehne" — "To borrow the 
loan of his buggy :" "'Sele bona hen 
finf cent gebrucht" — "Them beans 
brang five cents." There is nothing- 
dialect in "brang.'' Pupils who know 
nothing of the dialect will use the term 
over and over in giving the principal 
parts of "bring.'' Any number of such 
misleading expressions can easily be 
found. The most remarkable thing 
about it is that ^^Irs. ^lartin. born and 
bred a Pennsylvania-German, should 
send out such "stulT" for the dialect. 
She has given us no idiomatic but 
^'idiotic*' Pennsylvania - G e r m a n. 
Though it may be a grammarless 
tongue nevertheless you cannot pass 
off any jargon of words for the dialect. 

The book is intensely interesting, 
especially to those who know the 
Peimsylvania-Germans only, to poke 
fun at them, and as the people from 
whom to get sausage and applebutter; 
but to those who may be to the manor 
born it is more likely to be disgusting. 



THE SPIRIT OF AMERICA— By 
Henry VanDyke, Professor of 
English at Princeton University. 
Hyde Lecturer at the University 
of Paris 1908-1909. Hon. LL.D.. 
University of Geneva. Hon F. R. 
S. L. London. Cloth, gilt top. 
276 pp. Price $1.50 net. The 
Macmillan Company, Xev.- York. 
1910. 
This volume contains the first seven 
of twenty-six lectures delivered by Dr. 
\'anDyke at the Sorbonne and else- 
where in France during the winter of 
1908 — 1909. 

The writer of this work needs no in- 
troduction. His predecessors in this 
lectureship have been r^Iessrs. Barrett 
Wendell, Santayana. Coolidge and 
Baker, of Harvard University. Each 
one interpreted some aspect of Amer- 
ican life or character. But Dr. Van 
Dyke has been bolder than the others 
for he set about to interpret to the 
French mind the spirit of America. 
For surely nothing can be more diffi- 
cult and more subtle than the spirit or 
soul of a people. 

His subject he treats under seven 
Heads, each of which signifies some 
vital quality: The Soul of a People; 
Self-reliance and the Republic: Fair 
Plav and Democracy; Will - P.^wer 
Work, and Wealth : Common Order 
and Social Cooperation : Personal^ De- 
velopment and Education : Self-Ex- 
pression and Literature. 

Though written entirely in a criti- 
cal spirit, it nevertheless presents^ a 
calm, judicial survey of American life: 
defects are pointed out and merit be- 
stowed and emphasized. The style i> 
frequently passionate and oratnrical. 
"If there'is to be an American aristoc- 
racv. it shall not be composed of the 
rich, nor oi those whose only pride is 
in their ancient name, hut of those 
who have done most to keep the Spirit 
of America awake and eager to solve 
the problem"^ oi the common order.**^ 

A ereat many books have been writ- 
ten on American life and institutions, 
but we know of no book that tries to 
<ret at the heart of the people so vitally 



438 



THE PENN SYLVAN I A-GERM AN 



as does "The Spirit of America." It is 
most wholesome reading-, lor Dr. Van 
Dyke is no pessimist. Everyone who 
reads it ought to become a better 
American by understanding better the 
traditions and institutions of his coun- 



try. Seemingly the Frechman is bent 
on knowing more of America, for 
"The Spirit of America " (in its 
French form) has been adopted in the 
Secondary Schools of France. 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



Montgomery County Historical 
Society 

The Historical Society of Montgom- 
ery county, Pa., held a stated meet- 
ing, Saturday, April 30, in their 
rooms at Xorristown. There was a 
morning and afternoon session, both 
well attended. The ladies of the So- 
ciety served a luncheon at noon, af- 
fording an opportunity for sociability, 
which was greatly enjoyed. Histori- 
cal papers were presented by ^Ir. Ed- 
ward Mathews. "The St. Clair Fam- 
ily of Xorristown;" Dr. AV. H. Reed 
"A Century Old School" in W'hitpain ; 
^Ir. Albrecht Kneule, "The Pride of 
the Pennsylvania German*'; and ^Mr. 
Edwin C. JcUett, A Sketch. In recogni- 
tion of his many contriljutions to the 
annals of the local history of Mont- 
gomery County. Mr. Edwin ^lathews 
was elected an honorary member of 
the Historical Society of Montgomery 
County. 

An invitation was received from the 
Berks County Historical Society to 
unite with them in an inter-County 
Historical Society meeting in the early 
autumn and spend a day in Potts- 
grove township on ground occupied by 
the Revolutionary Army. The invita- 
tion was accepted and Hon. Henry W. 
Kratz, Mr. Dan'l Bcrtolet, and Dr. 
\\\ H. Reed were appointed by the 
chair to confer with the Berks County 
Si>ciety in making arrangements for 
the daV. 



Historical Society of Berks County 

This Society has issued \'ol. II, Xo. 
5, of its "Transactions" embracing 
papers contributed to the Society dur- 
ing the year 1909. The pamphlet of 
52 pages contains the following: The 
Berks County Ancestry of Abraham 
Lincoln, The Keystone State Xormal 
School at Kutztown. The Huguenot 
Element in the Settlement ox Berks 
County. The German Peddler's Grave. 

In the article on the Huguenot Ele- 
ment, the author, Rev. Dr. Stapleton, 
gives the following list of pe«.^pie in 
Berks county, 1752-6 of French origin: 

Amity Township — John Philip 
Boyer, Felty Cackley, Jacob Barratt; 
Marcus Hueling, John Hueling. 

Alsace Township — Jacob Boyler, 
Jacob Duberry, Henry Ganett. Baltzer 
Mooney, x\dam Lerrett, John Lechner. 
Isaac LeVan, Jr., Rudolf Seiler. 

Bethel Township — George Boeshor, 
Henry Boeshore. Henry Shuy. John 
Shuy, Xicholas Marke. David Marke, 
Xicholas Pontius, Jacob Zerbe. 

Cumru Township — Mich Grauel, 
Samuel Embrce. 

District l\^wnship — Joshua Dela- 
plaine. John Reidenour. 

Exeter Township — Isaac LeX'an. 
Leonard LeI'eau. Ji^hn Aurand. ]ohn 
Aurand, ]ohn Henry Boyer. Cliristian 
Boyer. hicob Boyer, Jacob Hnett. 
Peter Huett, Abraham Garrett. 

Greenwich — Lawrence Biever. Mel- 
choir P.iehl, George Ilerring. Mathias 
Kierfer. 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



439 



Hereford — Jacob deFrehn, Jacob 
Greasamer, Leonard Greasamer, Jost 
Weand. 

Heidelberg — John Boyer, St., John 
Boyer, Jr., Andrew Boyer, Jacob Boy- 
er, Henry Boyer, Samuel Boyer, 
George Beshore, George Lanx, ^lich. 
Malk, John Plank, Christian Plank, 
Charles Plank, Peter \\'erle, Jacob 
Orth, John Orth. 

Longswamp — Baldns Tritt. 

^Maidencreek — John Barto, Rudolf 
•Hoch, John Ploch. 

^laxatawny — Deatrick Bever, John 
Bever, Daniel Dossier, Fred Dela- 
plank, Jacob Levan, Sebastian Levan, 
Daniel Levan, Jacob deLong, John 
deLong, Peter deLong, Jacob Shera- 
tin, Paul Sheratin, George Markley. 

Oley — James Delaplank, John de- 
Turk, Gabriel Boyer, Isaac Barto, 
Abraham Bertolet, Frederick Bertolet, 
Abraham Levan, Jonathan Harbein, 
Peter Harbein, Casper Greasamer, 
John Hoch, Jacob Kauilman, Joseph 
Loux, Christ Lammett. Jacob Keim, 
Conrad Rife, John Leisher. 

Rockland — Peter Keefer, Henry de- 
Lang, Jacob Borell. 

Reading — John Bertolet, Jacob 
Baldy, John Lebo, Isaac Lebo, Fred- 
erick Perlett, Isaac Perlett, Joseph Rit- 
ner, Joseph Porctt, ^lichael Haag, 
Christ Leman, Christ Sammitt, George 
Jock, Nicholas Keim. 

Richmond — Casper Merklc, John 
George ]\Ierkle, ^Michael Reber, Theo- 
bald Biehl, Peter Delaborn. 

Tulpehocken — Henry Boyer, Jacob 

Cassart, Jacob Dundore, Jacob Hube- 

ler, John Pontius. Abraham Loux, 
Peter Loux, Peter Lebo. 

Windsor — Wendol Keefer, Let.mard 
Reber. 

Besides the foregoing the following 
were residents oi Berks County: Peter 
Biehl. Jonas Biehl, George Durye, 
(1733); r^avid Durye, (died iy6(')) : 
Christopher Merree. 1733: Frantz Carl 
Hoyer, 1738; Nicholas Gerard. 1736; 
Simon Riehl, 1729; Nicholas Riehl, 



1732; John Philip Riehl, 1738; Michael 
Reber, John Sauvage, 1738. 



York County Historical Society 
Miss Catherine B. Welsh, presented 
to the Historical society an exceeding- 
ly interesting document, which will be 
found printed in full below. It is writ- 
ten in the characteristic style of Gen. 
Jubal A. Early, who, on June 20. 1863, 
was assigned the duty to lead the ad- 
vance of the Confederate army on its 
famous march from \'irginia through 
western ^Maryland into Pennsylvania. 
He commanded about 10,000 men, or 
one division of General Ewell's corps. 
The other two divisions of the corps 
passed down the Cumberland vallev 
and had reached Carlisle two days af- 
ter the Confederates entered York. 
Early encamped around Gettysburg on 
the night of June 26. 

C)n the mfjrning of June 26 General 
Gordon, commanding a Georgia brigade 
of 2.800 men. moved through N'ew Ox- 
ford and Abbottstown. He encamped 
for the night at Farmer's Postoftice, in 
Jackson township, a short distance 
northwest oi Spring Grove. Early 
with three brigades encamped near 
Big Mount and lodged for the night at 
the residence of Mrs. Zinn, later owne«l 
bv her son-in-law. Clement B. Trim- 
mer, of York. Early on the morning of 
June 26 Gordon moved into York and 
was the first to arrive in Centre 
Square, just as the town clock struck 
the hour of ten and the church bells 
were calliuii- the citizens to sacred wor- 
ship. A large tlag which floated from 
a tall pole in Centre Sijuare was 
taken down antl Gordon's Georgia 
troops moved on tmvard Wriglitsville. 
An liour or two later Early with his 
three brigades, commanded by Hayes. 
Avery and Smith, arrived at York anvl 
occupied jv^sitions largely to the north 
oi town. .\ few cannon were planted 
on the summit oi \\"el>l>*s hill and an 
entire battery placed in position on 
Diehi's hill, northeast oi York. Such 
was the ciMulition oi affairs as the sun 
went d(wvn on the beautiful Sunday «f 
Jun^: jS, iS('>3. 



440 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



Late in the afternoon clouds of 
smoke were seen to ascend in the vicin- 
ity of Wrightsville. Tlie bridge across 
the Susquehanna had been set on fire 
by the federal troops at Columbia to 
prevent Gordon from crossing" the 
river with his 2,800 men. Early had 
come down to A\'rightsville to hold an 
interview with his subordinate officer. 
On Monday General Early called a 
meeting in the courthouse and de- 
manded money and provisions from 
the citizens of York. After the ad- 
journment of the meeting ^2<S,ooo in 
currency and a large supply of hats, 
shoes and clothing were turned over 
to the Confederate chieftain. When 
he discovered that the car shops of 
Billmeyer & Small and also of Ilgen- 
fritz Sc White were building cars for 
the government he decided to burn 
them unless the citizens of York would 
raise for him an additional $100,000. 

He went down to the railroad sta- 
tion and found it filled with goods and 
merchandise which had not been 
shipped away because of the sudden 
arrival of the Confederate soldiers. 
Early did not want to burn these 
goods because they might be of use to 
him and his soldiers, but just as he 
was about to set a torch to the car 
shops a courier from General ' Ewell 
at Carlisle dashed down Xorth Beaver 
street. He had an iniportant message 
in his pocket to deliver to General 
Early. \\'alking away from the crowd 
of citizens who were completing ar- 



rangements to give him $50,000, Early 
approached the dispatch bearer, who 
brought him an order to fall back at 
once toward Gettysburg, where a bat- 
tle was about to open. It was shortly 
after he returned to the sheriff's office 
in the courthouse that he penned the 
following document. 

**To the citizens of York: 

''I have abstained from burning the 
railroad buildings and car shops in 
your town because, after examination, 
I am satisfied the safety of the town 
would be endangered, and, acting in a 
spirit of humanity. I do not desire to 
involve the inn<:)cent in the same pun- 
ishment with the guilty. 

''Had I applied the torch without 
regard to consecjuence. I would have 
pursued a course that would have been 
fully vindicated as an act oi just retal- 
iation for the many authorized acts of 
barbarity perpetrated by your own 
army upon our soil. 

"But ^ve do not \var upon women 
and children, and I trust the treatment 
you have met with at the hands of my 
soldiers will open your eyes to the 
monstrous iniquity of the war waged 
by your government upon the people 
of the Confederate states, and that 
you will make an eft'ort to shake off 
the revolting tyranny under which it 
is apparent to all you are yourselves 
groaning. 

"J. A. EARLY, 
":^rajor General, C. S. A." 
— York Gazette. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 

G>nducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited, Address. The Penna. German. Lititz. Pa. 



Kreiner Family 

John Kriner migrated from Lancas- 
ter to Franklin county about the year 
1806. Jacob W. Hege, of Williamson, 



Franklin county. Pa., the secretary of 
the Kriner Family Reunion desires to 
gain information about the brother of 
John Griner, Adam Griner and his de- 
scendants. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 



441 



Reiff Family 

Rev. David Rife (Reiff) born in 
Lancaster county. I'a. When a young 
man moved to Adams county, Pa. In 
1790 became a minister, was pastor at 
Reiff ]\Iennonite meeting--house in 
Maryland. Had the following chil- 
dren, viz.: John. Al^raham, George, 
Samuel who went to Canada, Joseph, 
David, Isaac, ]\iary. 

The following were daughters of 
Abraham and Barbara (Meyer) Reiff, 
viz.: • Frances, Anna, Barbara, and 
Elizabeth. One of the daughters mar- 
ried a Hunsberger, and had a son Ul- 
rich Hunsberger. Another, probably 
Elizabeth, married ]\Iichael Sentzenich, 
and had several children. All the above 
daughters of Abraham Reiff' born prior 
to about 1735 i'?). Any information 
respecting the descendants of the 
above families with names and Post 
Offfce addresses of members of the 
families will be thankfully received. 
Rev. A. t/fRETZ, 
Oak Ridge, Passaic Co., N. J. 



Ancestry of Abraham Dracksel Called 
For 

Miss Emily ]\Iellinger of Southern 
California, at present visiting at ]\lount 
Pleasant, Westmoreland county, Pa., 
writes as follows : .... 

My great, great grandfather, Abra- 
ham Dracksel, was one of the early 
workers in the United Brethren church 
and a coworker with Otterbein and 
Newcomer and one of the first workers 
in this section of the country. I should 
like to get all the information I can as 
to his nationality. Some say he was 
Holland Dutch, others deny this. His 
home was in Lebanon county although 
I do not know whether he was born 
there. He came to ]\[ount Pleasant 
about 1805 to settle and travelled all 
over this section many times before he 
began to preach. I have been told 
there are many of the same name liv- 
ing in Lebanon, county; but the name 
has often been changed as Draksel, 
Dracksyl, Draxel, Troxel, Truxal. 



I should like to know where Abra- 
ham Dracksel was born and what his 
wife's maiden name was. Some have 
told me her name was Krider of the 
Lebanon Kriders. sometimes spelled 
Crider. I believe this is a mistake as 
John a son of Abraham married a 
Crider and she was my great grand- 
mother. It is not at all likely that 
father and son would marry into tlie 
same family. 

If anv of our readers can give the de- 
sired information we shall be glad to 
hear from them. 



Eberle and Rosier Families 
(i) Johannes Eberly (Eberle), of 
vSwiss origin, settled in the Pecjuea 
Valley, Lancaster county, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1730. It does not appear 
that he ever removed therefrom, and 
the probability is that he never did. He 
came with his mother and five broth- 
ers. \\'anted name of his wife and her 
parents. Also any information relative 
to the above John Eberle. 

(2) Johannes Eberle. son o\ al)Ove. 
was born in Lancaster county in July 
1755. He died April 6, 1823. His wife 
was Elizabeth Bricker, born June i, 
1759, died December 4, 1S13. \\'anted 
the names of the parents of Elizabeth 
Bricker. 

(3) John B.osler, when a young man 
emigrated from Hanover. Germany, 
alone. He settled between Elizabeth- 
town and Maytown. Lancaster county, 
Penn., in 1761, and there married Miss 
Longenecker and had a large family. 
Wanted the names oi parents oi Miss 
Longenecker. Also any information 
relating to J(^hn Bosler. 

(4) John r>osler, son of above mar- 
ried Catherine Gish. of Lancaster 
county, and removed to Cumberland 
county, settling in Silver Spring town- 
ship in 1791. Wanted names of the 
parents of Catherine Gish. 

(5) John Bosler, son of above was 
married twice, his first wife was a 
daughter of the Rev. Jacob Keller, and 
his second a daugluer of George 
Webert. 



442 



TH E PENN S YLV AX I A- GE RM AN 



(6) \\'antcd parents of the above 
George \\>bcrt. 

(7) George \\'el)ert above married 

Miss Miller. Wanted her name, 

and names of her parents. 

K. E. BEARD, 
Xo. I West Walton Place, 

Chicago, 111. 



In Reply to Rev. A. J. Fretz, (see June 
P.-G., page 382). 
Register's Oftice, Lancaster. 
Book A,, page 190. 

Will of Hans Reiff of Reffo (Rapho) 
township. 

Children, Barbara, Ann, Henry, John, 
Abraham. 

Brothers. Abraham, Jacob. 
Will signed March 16, 1749-50. 



Proved ^Nla 



1750. 



John Jacob Reif (Rife) 
Hempfield ownship 
Book B., page 120. 

Youngest daughter. Ester. 

Son, John. 

Will signed Jan. 4, 1756. 

Proved Feb. 9, 1756. 
Henry Reiff, Rapho township 

Book B., page S=,. 

Wife, Frena Stoner, daughter of 
Christian Stoner. 

Children. John, Hennrey. Ann. 
Elizabeth. 

Will signed Jan. 31, 1755. 

Proved ^[ar. 25, 1755. 
Isaac Reitt of Lacock township 

Book A. p. 99. 
Wife, Rebecca. 
Will signed May 26, iSoo. 

Proved ]\[ar. 6, 1801. 
Abraham Reifif of Rapho township 
Wife, Barbara Lehman., 
Children, Abraham, one posthu- 
mous child. 

Will signed May 11, 1774. 

Proved Oct. 15, 1774. 
In German. Xot recorded. 

Abraham Reiff, Sr., 
Of Earl township 

Book F, page 33. 

Wife, name not driven. 



Children. Joseph, Samuel, David, 
Anna, and other daughters, not named. 
Will signed Xov. 20, 1786. 

Proved Aug. 19, 1788. 

M. X. ROBIXSOX. 



Daniel Wunderling Nead's Query 

In reply the writer would say he has 
some additional information, but not 
as much as he would like to have. 

Rev. John Caspar Stoever spells the 
family name of the Sicheles a half a 
dozen or more different ways, and the 
family themselves, as well as others, 
do not always spell it alike. Besides 
Sichele Stoever has Sichle, Siechele, 
Siechle, Sichel, Siechel, Sihele and Si- 
hell and others have added Siechley 
and Sichley. Apparently Sichele is 
best authorized as it is not only the 
spelling given mo'^t frequently in the 
early records, but it is also that given 
by the writer's grandfather, who had 
received it from his grandmother, 
Christina Regina Sichele. In addition 
to this, these people were \\'uertem- 
burgers, "Schwobe,'' as the Pennsyl- 
vanians call them. It was evidently 
the diminutive — a little sickle, just as 
Oehrle is a little ear and Schnaebele 
a little bill (of a bird). 

The data found in the Hill Church 
Record, in Stoever's Record and those 
derived from other sources, give the 
following : 

John Albrecht Sichele, and wife 
(i) Christina Regina — b. December 
22,1737; baptized February 6, 173S. 
Sp. John Binilnagel and his wife Regi- 
na. This is taken from Stoever's Re- 
cord p. 21, as published by Dr. 
Schantz. A very careful examination 
oi the original shows clearly that the 
entry there is John Abrecht Sihele or 
Sihell and not Schell. as given in the 
translatiiMi ma^le by a very inexper- 
ienced hand. Dr. S. is not responsible 
for the mistake as he did not have the 
original but only a copy hastily made 
by rather incompetent hands. L'nfor- 
tunately that copy is deposited in the 
archives and the mistakes, of which 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 



44- 



there are quite a number, will be 
handed down. March lo, 1756 she was 
married to Johannes Oehrle. We take 
the date on the tombstone, as the copy 
in Stoever's .Record must be a palpable 
mistake. His first wife had died less 
than six months before. IMarch 10, 
1755, as given there. 

This family history is found in 
PENNA.-GERMAX, February, 1909. 

(2) John W'underling who married 
Mary Elizabeth Sichele, the second 
daughter, came to this country in the 
ship Duke of \\\iertemburg, from 
Rotterdam, Capt. ^ilontpeiier, com- 
mander. 

(3) Of John Deter, b. March 14, 
(Stoeyer says 7) 1741 we have no fur- 
ther information. 

(4) Daniel W'underling who married 
Eya Barabara came to America Sep- 
tember 26, 1753, i^ the ship Brothers, 
from Rotterdam, Capt. Mayo com- 
manding. He landed at Xew York. 

(5) Anna Catharine b. March i, 
1747 was married to George Retry 
(Peters), August 2^, 1767. At first 
they resided at Lebanon. ,ome of their 
descendants lived near, Campbells- 
town, about 50 or 60 years ago. If not 
entirely mistaken Rey. Peters Lu- 
theran pastor at ]\Ianheim from about 
1870-1890 or 95, was one of them. 

6) Anna Margaret, date of whose 
birth I do not know, was married to 
Christopher (Stoft'el) Ernst August 7, 



1768. They resided on the farm im- 
mediately east of John Early. They 
had a large family. Some of the sons 
and grandsons resided in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Palmyra and Hum- 
melstown. Some are still found there. 
He was a soldier is the Revolutionary 
war, as was his nephew John Early, jr. 

(7) John Jacob, b. November 22, 
1755 married Susanna ^luench (Min- 
nigj February 8, 1777. After his 
nephew J. William Early, Esq. moved 
to Centre county he also moved 
thither. Himself and wife Susanna^ 
with his sons Benjamin, Daniel and 
Jacob as well as a daughter Margaret 
are recorded as communicant members 
at the "Loop" as late as 1809. After- 
wards he followed \\'m. Early to Ohio. 
There, his wife having died he con- 
tracted a second marriage. One of his 
descendants, either a son by this sec- 
ond marriage, or a grandson, named 
Elias Sichley, served as an itinerant 
of the Evangelical Association, some 
time between 1835 and 1850. 

(8) Albrecht. the date of whose birth 
is not given, but who may have been 
older than Job. Jacob, m. Mary Priess 
or Preuss September 22, 1772. Have 
no other definite information concern- 
ing him. But if not misinformed he 
moved to Paxtang township and died 
there when still young and left no 
heirs. 

T. W. EARLY. 



D 



THE FORUM 

The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Bo.x and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 



H! 



MEANING OF NAMES 



By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M.,Ph.D, 

[EDlTORL\L NOTE. Dr. Fuld 
has kindly consented to give a brief 
account of the derivation and meaning 
of the surname of any reader who 



sends twenty-five cents to the editor 
for this purpose.] 

LEOXHARD FELIX FULD 

45. EH.EXnERGER 
EILEXr.h:RC.ER is derived from 
FlLl'X which means to hurry and 
r. ERCiKR nicaniui:- a mountaineer. 



444 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAX 



The name therefore denotes a hurry- 
ing mountaineer, — that is, a strong 
vigorous mountaineer. In the case of a 
few famiHes the name EILEXBERG- 
ER is a corruption of EULEXBERG- 
ER which means a resident of Owl 
Mountain. 

46. GARNER 
Garner is derived from the Middle 
English GARXER. French GREIX- 
ER, Spanish GRAXERO and .Latin 
GRAXARIA. It signifies literallv a 
storer of grain or granary keeper. 
Figuratively however it came to de- 
note one who stores up knowledge as 
.grain is stored up, — that is, a wise 
man. 

47. BREIDIGAM 
BREIDIGA]\I is a corruption of 
BRAUTIGA]\I meaning a bridegroom. 
The German is BRAUTIGAM. the 
English BRIDEGROOM, the Middle 
English BRIDEGLME. the Anglo 
Saxon BRYGUME. the Old Saxon 
BRUDIGUMO, the Dutch BRUIDE- 
GOM, the Old High German BRUTI- 
GOMS, the ^.fiddle High German 
BRIUTEGOME and the Swedish 
BRUDEGUr^L The surname denotes 
•either a newly married man or a man 
about to be married. This surname un- 
doubtedly came into use because of the 
necessity of a second appellative where 
two persons bearing the same baptis- 
mal name resided in close proximity 
to each other. This surname is found 
in every language. 

48. REBERT 

There is a possibility that this sur- 
name may be derived from REUBEX' 
which is a compound of REU meaning 
to see and BEX' a son. The name 
REUBEX^ is an expletive denoting the 
joy of the father at the birth of a son. 
^'Behold a son, my first born." 

It is much more likeh- however that 
REBERT is a corruption of ROB- 
ERT. ROBERT is a corruption of 
Rx\TH]"*.1lRT, a ompound composed 
of RATH meaning counsel and BE- 
KAHT ready. The surname ROB- 
ERT is an old Germanic name signifv- 



ing ready in counsel, wise and famous 
counseller. In a very few cases ROB- 
ERT was applied to a man with red 
hair. 



What Is a Turner, 

The following is submitted as a 
translation of the question in our last 
issue (page 339). "\\'as ist ein Turner.. 
We invite other translations. 

A Turner (Gymnast) is a Gym- 
nasiumward \vallking, therescuffling, 
legstretching, armextending, drilltak- 
ing, muchlaughing, paymenthating. 
oftlimping, maiden attracting, with ap- 
paratus performing, in drinkingplace 
going, unsteady standing, muchbeer 
drinking, latelounging, hymnsinging. 
high and wide jumping, in gymshoe- 
walking, slouchhatbuying. greywear- 
ing, widely scattered individual. 



Pennsylvania's Witchcraft Trial 

Pennsylvania has had but one trial 
for W'itchfraft. It took place as early 
as December 27, 1683, before the 
Council. Only one oi two old women, 
both of them Swedes, seems to have 
been tried. She was Margaret Matt- 
son, who lived near Cruni Creek, in 
Ridley township and who long sur- 
vived in local legend as the "Witch oi 
Ridley Creek." Tradition has, says 
]\Irs. Gummere, that William Penn, 
who presided at the trial, said to her: 
"Art thou a witch? Hast thou ridden 
through the air on a broomstick?" 
When the poor, confused creature an- 
swered "Yes," he said she had a per- 
fect right to ride upon a broomstick, 
that he knew no law whatever aijainst 
it, and promptly ordered her discharge. 
And this was the first and last trial f-^r 
witchcraft before a Pennsylvania 
court. 
— Yearbook of Pennsylvania S*^cie:y 

of Xew York. 10 10. 



Ashamed of German Ancestry 

A descendant of English immigrants 
in submittim:: data about this year's 



THE FORUM 



44S 



family reunion used the following 
languag-e : 

**P. S. It may be interesting to you 
to know that while we are of English 
descent yet by inter-marriage with the 
Germans the descendants in this state 
have nearly lost their English iden- 
tity and have been absorbed by the 
German, a fact of which we are by no 
means ashamed, but on the other hand 
are verv proud of. 

J. C. C." 

By way of contraest we give also 
the words of a subscriber in Florida: 

''I am sorry to say that I have met 
some descendants of the early Ger- 
mans of.Penna. who appeared to be 
ashamed of their ancestrv. 

E. G. R." 



"John Horner His Book— 1786" 
Abraham Bowser, May 16, 2 

days grubing 5s od 

Abraham Bowser June 12,1787 

I day chopping timber. ... 2s 6d 
Abraham Bowser, June 14,1787 

I day mailing of rayls.... 2s 6d 
Henry Devolt, ]^Iay 10, 1791 

I qt. Whiskey for i bu. Ry. 
Henry Devolt, Oct. 24, 179 1, 

20 Bunds Ry Straw is 8d 

Henry ^filler, July 10, 1788 

I Day's Reaping 2s 6d 

George W'imcr, 1802 Jan. 20 

page 57 was paid 3s for two 

girls one Day Swingling fax." 

The above extracts were made from 
an old ledger kept by John Horner, 
Johnstown, Pa., in connection with his 
mill and store at that place, and the 
well preserved book was loaned to me 
by Mr. Emmett Horner, of Johnstown, 
Pa. — a descendant. The names may 
prove of interest to some readers oi 
THE PEXXSYLVAXIA- GER^rAX. 

G. M. BRUMBAUGH, M. D. 
Washington, D. C., June 7, 1910. 



''There is a tradition which my 
grandfather gave me with a great 
show of secrecy. It was to the ettect 
that one of our early forefathers in 
America, presumably the Imm.igrant 
Ancestor, married a Delaware Indian 
woman, (Lenni-Lenape). I remember 
distinctly that he said the emblem or 
totem of the tribe she was a member 
of was a turtle or tortoise, and he on 
several occasions showed me a repre- 
sentation of a miniature tattoo mark of 
this animal on his left breast. I was 
his favorite grandson and he often 
said: "Try to remember these things, 
because I have not told my own sons 
about them, and somehow I feel that 
you will some day make good use of 
this information," etc. 

Lately I have told this Indian tradi- 
tion to some of the other scions of the 
family. !Most of them want me to 
''forget it"; seem to think it a siigma, 
and say it was merely a vagary oi my 
own or my grandfather's conception. 
I DOX'T, and so many of the traits of 
some of the members of my family are 
Indian traits that I feel like giving due 
credence to niv s^randfather's storv. 
\\'hat sav vou? 



An Indian Tradition 
:Mr. A. E. Bachcrt. oi Tyrone, Pa. 
relates a grandfather's Indian tradi- 
tion in these words : 



Genealogical and Biographical Annals 
of Northumberland County, Pa. 

J. L. Lloyd and Co., Publishers, 
Reading, Pa., are at work on a book 
with this title concerning which we 
quote the following words from a cir- 
cular: "Xorthumberland County is ex- 
ceedingly rich in personal family his- 
tory, and none in Pennsvlvania is more 
worthy of an accurate and reliable ac- 
count of its founders, together with its 
representative men and families, who 
aided and became notable with its de- 
velopment. 

*'Xo section is more replete with in- 
teresting historical and traditional 
facts than Xorthumberland, and care- 
ful research should reveal a pretty, un- 
recorded story, telling of those who 
are, and were tlistinguished. In 1772 
Xorthumberland County was organ- 
ized, embracing: the fairest and most 



-446 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAX 



picturesque reg'iou of central Pennsyl- 
vania, and originally of so vast an 
-area, that from it were carved twenty- 
six counties, who have never broui^^ht 
dishonor upon the parent. 

"Northumberland can boast of being- 
the birth-place of many men whose 
lives and deeds ha\'e illumined the 
pages of history. Among them were 
Hon, James Pollack, who served as 
Governor of Pennsylvania previous to 
the Civil ^X^r, afterwards Director of 
the Mint, and known throughout the 
land as the father ot the motto: "In 
God We -Trust," it being upon his sug- 
gestion that Congress passed a resolu- 
tion adopting the use of the words on 
the various United States coins. The 
first United States Senator from Penn- 



sylvania, William Maclay, was a na- 
tive of the County. Dr. Joseph Priestlv, 
a noted scientist who greatly benefitted 
the world by his discovery of oxygen, 
made his home here. Col. William 
Plunkett, a son by adoption, was the 
first President Judge of the Countv. 
Col. \\'illiam Clapham, built the front- 
ier fort, Augusta, at Sunbury, in T756. 
Andrew Straub was the founder of the 
town of Milton. The six famous P>rady 
brothers, Indian fighters and scouts, 
lived and died here, and Shikellimy, an 
Oneida Chief, who conveyed much 
land to \\'illiam Penn. and was after- 
wards converted to Christianity by the 
^loravians, is a figure of much histori- 
cal interest." 



What is a German- American ? 



The Emperor of Germany once asked 
the question, ''What is a German- 
American?" He is reported to have 
said, "I know what Germans are, and 
I know what Americans are, but what 
-am I to understand by a German- 
American?" Dr. J. L. Xeve gives an 
admirable answer to the Emperor's 
question. The fact that Prof. Xeve is 
-a born German and a long time citizen 
of this country, who has made a care- 
ful study of our church and its work 
in this land specially qualifies him to 
give an answer to the above question. 
This is what he says : 

"The German-American has chosen 
this republic for his country. In a 
solemn moment, when he decided to 
become an American citizen, he fore- 
swore all allegiance to the German 
Emperor and to the interests of the 
fatherland. It meant that, even in a 
case where his former country should 
wrong America, he \vould say with 
<^arl Schurz : — 'The enemies of Ameri- 



ca shall be my enemies.' But. notwith- 
standing the loyalty to his adopted 
country, so beautifully tested in Amer- 
ica's crises under Washington and 
Lincoln, the true and the ideal Ger- 
man-American will try to preserve 
what is good in the character oi the 
nation from which he has sprung. 
There are German faults, and they 
should be given up as fast as possible. 
But German depth of thought, thor- 
oughness in research, consistency in 
dealing with problems, emphasis oi 
truth before policy, perseverance in 
accomplishing a task, dignity in public 
affairs, discipline, honesty in trans- 
actions, fidelity to friends, tenderness 
of family relations, reverence for age, 
such and other traits are things of 
which, if he be true to the character of 
his ancestry, make him appear, on 
many occasions, as peculiar, as not 
genuinel}- American, as German." 

— Lutheran World. 



447 



(Founded by Rev. Dr. P. C. CroU, 1900.) 

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ship among their descendants and provide a convenient medium for the expression and 
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A Correction forget or postpone the rei)lies ; we 
In June issue p. 335, column 2, line ^vant to hear from you now. 
5, insert not before ^loravian. 



Our Round Table 

We repeat in this issue the ques- 
tions and requests which appeared in 
the May issue. If you have not taken 
them up one by one and wherever 
possible tried to answer them kindly 
do so now. To you the replies may 
seem unimportant; to the magazine 
itself they are very valuable. Do not 



Family Reunions 
July and August are the great 
Family Reunion months. We are 
preparing a list oi such meetings to 
appear in the August issue. If you 
are connected with any association 
yourself, send us name oi secretary of 
association to enable us to get data 
about this year's meeting. Do liiis at 
onc^. 



448 



SUBSCRIPTIONS HAVE BEEN PAID by the persons named, to and including the 
month of. the year given — "12 — 10" signifying December, 1910. 



PEXNA. 

AV L Hartman — 6 — 10 
Mrs Rebecca DdUfii-r — 6- 
A S Schropp — 1 — 11 
Francis Schwartz — 3 — 11 
E F Gehrinjrer — 3 — 11 
W H Ebright — 12 — 10 
A C Oberholtzer — 12 — 10 
E R Deatrick — 12 — 10 
M Grossinaii — 12 — 10 
J G Dubbs — 12 — 10 
H G Allfbach— 12— 10 
H C Salem— 6 — 10 
J H Boltz — 12 — 10 
W Y Knauss — 6 — 10 
H C Smith — 1 — 10 
F S Schelly— 12 — 10 
F F Summer — G — 10 
J S Herbein— 12— 10 
A J Gavman — 12 — 10 
H K Kriebel— 6— 10 
G F K Erisman— 12— 10 
S." A D. Barr— 6— 10 
C H Brobst — 5 — 11 
H E Gehman— 12 — 10 
F H Pfautz— 3 — 11 
F P Hunsucker — 3 — 11 
E E \> iesner — 6 — 10 
S I Kneass— 12— 10 
H AV Bnhn— 12— 10 
H H Sheip— 12— 10 
H Zimmerman — 4 — 11 
Mavme Cressman — 12 — 10 
J A Trexler — 1 — 11 
Moravian Archives — 12— 
C A Wolle — 12 — 10 
E K Schultz — 6 — 10 
Henrv Kriebel — 7 — 10 
J D "Zvreyer — 7 — 10 
R A Weideleit— 7— 10 
E M Freed— 7 -10 
A P Bachinan— 3 — 11 
AV H SchoU— 12— 10 
G B Haines— 6— 10 
Ira H Landis — 7 — 10 
J C Barlott— 12— 10 
F E Sehnever — 3 — 11 
C A Richards — 6 — 10 
Frank Hiith — 4 — 11 
J Hartman — 9 — 10 

James G. Reose9 10 

F G Xewmover — 9 — 10 
T A Siegfried — 9 — 10 
J D Hoffman — 9 — 10 
Mark Reifl— 4 — 11 
T K Home — 2—10 
H T Crai-— 4— 11 
J J Close — 12—10 
Thomas Kern — 3 — 11 
H R Fehr — 12 — 10 
H E Gerhart— f — 10 
J W Kennel — 12 — 10 
G A Schneebeli — 4 — 11 
J Bohler — 6 — 10 
C E Kistler — 3 — 11 
S F Glatfelter — 3 — 11 
W L Meckstroth— 2— 11 
H B Redcav — 4 — 11 
C F Moser— 4— 11 
F Kocher — 12 — 10 
J G Kerschner — 12 — 10 



Sarah S Kistler — 12—10 
M Sahm— 9— 10 
-10 G W Shoemaker — 12—10 

, J L Lemberger — 12 — 10 
B F Kuhns — 8 — 10 
P B Schadt— 8— 10 
J W Zivirenfuss — 8 — 10 
W Arbo2:ast — 4 — 11 
J Albert Barton — 8 — 10 
Charles B Laux — 12 — 10 
J I Lenhart — 12 — 10 
H :M Schell— 12— 10 
J W Faust — 12 — 10 
Sallie A Faust — 1 — 11 
J S Heisler — 8 — 10 
R W Leibert— 5— 11 
J D Souder— 12 — 10 
A F Kern]) — 4 — 10 
S C Breyfotrel- 12— 10 
Mrs Daubman — 6 — 10 
H O Dor ward— 1 — 11 
Mrs M Lutz— 7— 10 
M S Hess— 12 — 10 
G G Ziegler — 12 — 10 
H S Bieler— 6 — 10 
Mrs H C Tavlor — 12—10 
H I Clvmer — S — 10 
J H Roush — 4 — 11 
W S Oberholtzer — 12 — 10 
L A Ziesenfus — 3 — 11 
S B Miller— 5— 11 
A H Wridu— 5— 10 
Dr Troxell— 4 — 11 
J J Hauser— 3 — 11 
10 C H WiUisron— 12— 10 

Austin Boyer — 12 — 10 
B F Ibaeh — 12—10 
J H DeLons — 6—11 
Martin Collin— 12— 10 
A Binner — 12 — 10 
F J Xewhard— 12 — 10 
W C Mesohter— 4— 11 
AV Stearlv — 12 — 10 
(> A Hallowell— 2— 15 
W G Murdock— 12— 10 
E J Ackcrman — 4 — 11 
D M Bare — 4 — 11 
A Lobach — 12 — 10 
A J Hazel — 12 — 10 
C W Woliertz— 6— 10 
Clara Balliet — 12 — 10 
R W .lobst — 12 — 10 
R S Kistler — 12 — 10 
A K Krauss — 12—10 
H H Knorr — 12 — 10 
E \V Rex- 6— 10 
C O Kocher — 3 — 11 
FT? Lawatsch — 12 — 10 
Emilv Mellinsev — 5 — 11 
O W Himbach — 4 — 11 
M L Hendrick— 5— 11 
Amelia Gross — 5 — 11 
J J John — 12—10 
S Forrv Laucks — 12 — 10 
F H Lehr — 12 — 10 
Mrs Hussenmeier — 4 — 11 
A Oswald — :•> — 11 
E G Kriebel— 3— 11 
J L Reift— 12— 10 
S P Hiester— 12— 10 
W D DeLou? — 4 — 11 



Caleb J Bieber— 12— 10 
H E Butz — 12 — 10 
Mary Heilraan — 6 — 10 
C E Creiiz — 12 — 10 
C Roesinger — 5 — 11 
G Steinraan — 3 — 11 
C Christeson — 6 — 11 
F Funk — 6 — 11 
J L Endv — 6 — 11 
W S Bauer — 3 — 11 
M Hartman — 12 — 10 
C E Beckel— 6— 11 
M F Seif.tl — 5 — 11 
Edwn Charlesi — 12 — 110 
C K Mtsehter — 6 — 10 
H W Souder — 12 — 10 

ILLINOIS 

C I Schmidt— 3— 11 

Austin Bierbower — 12 — 10 

NEW JERSEY 
I W Bobst — 12 — 10 
H "W Dor ward— 1 — 11 
J H Stehman — 4 — 11 

WASHINGTON 

S K Yeake! — 12 — 10 

CONNECTICUT 

E M Huntzincer — 2 — 11 

M A Schitfer— 4 — 11 

NEW JERSEY 

A L Williston— 12— 10 

MINNESOTA 

J H Sandt — 12 — 10 

J P Uhler— 4— 11 

IOWA 

P M Musser — 4 — 11 

COLORADO 

F Yeakel— 5— 11 

FLORIDA 

E Godfrey Rehrer — 6 — 11 

NEW YORK 

S B Heckman — 12 — 10 

T O'Connor Sloane — 12 — 10 

T R Gotz— 12— 10 

R B Reitz — 12 — 10 

E A Louoks — 12 — 10 

VIRGINIA 

Absalom Koiner — 12 — 10 
L II Goliman — 6 — 11 
H M Hays— 5— 11 

CALIF. 

Nathan Steiu — 12 — 10 

J Henry Meyer — 12 — 11 

A N Brensinger — 12 — 10 

OHIO 

E F Ritter— 12— 10 

J L Zimmerman — 1 — 11 

MASS. 

E Eilenberger — 3 — 11 

O C Faust — 5 — 10 

HONOLULr 
H C Mohr— 12— 10 
DIST. OF COLUMBIA 
H C Biokel— 3— 11 
J S Diller— 6 — 11 
To June 18. 1910. 



■i c. '■ '7rn?r'/"?::T^-*r'r''»''V!r'"'*T^''™''"*'^ 



■■ j > l » y p i- i »»V.i 1f ^ W f y 



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Subscripiiofi Price To Be Raised 

The subscription price of The Pennsylvania German after October I, 1910 will be 

$2.00 per year, payable in advance 

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Jui'i One 

The following letter dated June 25, coming from the proprietor of a wholesale fL-n-'ti'ic 
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''DEAR SIR,™ 

Proi. , one of the teachers in the school of which 1 have been a trustee for 

20 years, handed me a copy of your publication. 1 confess I am very much interested, inas- 
much as I am a thorough-bred Penn, German. Of course I know the lanjj^uage is only a dia- 
lect, but 1 could speak nothing else until 1 was 8 ye^^.rs old and in our family heard nothing eise 
unlil I vvas 19 ye?.rs old. You will not vv-onder that my heart feels light when I can get hold of 
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If each subscriber would resolutely determine to show the magazine to his friends, and get 
at least one subscriber a month the editor would get many letters like the above, the subscript!*-' 
list would grow by leaps and yiiwDS and the vahie of the magazine would in every respect . i: 
greatly enhanced. _ As an experiment will you not resolve to get One New Subscriber in 
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THK NO. 1 
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Type. .Any Language can be written on the one machme. 

^'ou are cordially invited to step in and have it's many advar- 

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THE liAA.HOND TYPEWPITIiR CO. 

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VVhon nn;A\voriM«: a'lvorti^etn >n.ts pUviso nu^ntion tm: ('..sn- \ • v < vi »-i'.*-k;\i \n 






Vol. XI 



AUGUST, 1910 



No. 8 



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CONTx^NTS: 



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Daniel DrawbauuII - :• 

A Select Bibliogkapijy iSO 

The Hessian Camf at Reading :T7 

The Delaware Water Gap . : iSii. 

1VDL4N Chiefs of Pennsylvania. SiiicKL-LLEMY i'M 

A Chronological Ta ble JOT 

Dje Muttersproch "ul 

Re\'jev/s and Notes o(^'2 

His .1 opjcal Notes and News : 504 

Genealogical Notes and Queries ! 506 

The Forum y)S 

rii'iTuRTAL Department 312 






tV;.:- 



Publishers: THE EXPRESS PRINTING CO. 



Fxiitor: H. V, KRiEBEL, Lititz, Pa. 



Copv;-i;;(it 1^.10 by II. W. Kricl)«!. Enlorod as S'oo.'.d Cia.jS Maii \ri, lor 



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450 



Daniel Drav/baugh, the Mechanic and Inventor 

By Dr. I. H. Betz, York, Pa. 




AX I EL Drawbaugh, an in- 
ventor of note, was born 
at what is known as 
Eberly's ^lills in Cum- 
berland county, Pa., in 
1827 of Pennsylvania 
German parents. H i s 
father was a blacksmith 
who followed his business without any 
particular note. Daniel is now eighty- 
three years of age and has pursued the 
work of an inventor during a long life. 
x\ discoverer is one who searches and 
finds w'hat existed before. An inventor 
is one who from conceptions constructs 
that which had no previous existence. 
The work of the discoverer may be at- 
tended by much personal hardship. 
The life of the inventor may not only 
be attended by hardship but also with 
disappointment, want and penury. In 
fact he may end his days in the alms- 
house dependent upon others. 

When Daniel was a young man his 
father went West and left him in 
charge of the shop. • His work con- 
sisted of blacksmithin.o^, wheelwright- 
He 
neisfh- 



ing, painting, and shoeing horses. 



was the sole mechanic of the 
borhood and became a general utility 
man in that region. From working 
he took to thinking about things. 
Long before this he began to contrive 
things of the small pieces of iron and 
fallings off the anvil : he also made 
trees and carts for cobblers. 

He attended the common schools 
which he later on the witness stand al- 
leged were very common when he was 
a boy. W'hat he learned there was of 
the most rudimentary character. It 
would be interesting to trace Daniel 
Drawbaugh's ancestry were this possi- 
ble. A chart embracing ten genera- 
tions might throw some light upon the 
subject in question. If this failed then 
we must conclude that his career was 
the outcome of spontaneous variation 
whatever may be the cause of that 
phenomenon. 



Eberly's :^lills is a small hamlet 
about three miles southwest of Harris- 
burg. It is built towards the south 
side of the Cumberland valley which 
here reaches its narrowest point. It 
is surrounded by a good farming 
country peopled by Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans, who have been working their 
way up the valley for more than a 
century. The little hamlet appeared 
commonplace especially in earlier 
times. There was a store, a black- 
smith shop, a cooper shop and the 
abodes of several laborers who worked 
around with the farmers. A certain 
party once started up a small tavern 
and also carried on butchering. The 
village store served as a sort^of club- 
house to spend the long evenings in 
winter and on Saturday nights in sum- 
mer. Crowds would tiock^ to this ren- 
dezvous and after indulging in ice 
cream would wend their several ways 
to near or distant points. Eberly's 
Mills had in addition two mills and' a 
machine shop erected in iSo^x It was 
ako noted for its gun shop, the father 
of the subject of our sketch being a 
noted gunsmith. Young Dan Draw- 
baugh at the age of fourteen made a 
gun, in which he showed his ingenuity 
by making it along new and original 
lines. 

This was the place to get the news. 
w ht'ther from the weekly niail. through 
the postoffice or from the general gos- 
sip which was retailed on these occa- 
sions. The community contained a 
mill property from which it received 
its name and was also for this reason 
known as ^[illtown. The nearest rail- 
road station was White Hill on the 
Cumberland \'alley Railroad about a 
mile distant. Latterly the Philadel- 
phia and Reading Railroad has been 
built still nearer antl a station named 
Camp Hill has been established. 

Ck\^e by the grist mill there was an 
old clover and corn mill and this was 
used bv Drawbausrh for mendinsr 



DAiMEL DRAWBAUGH, THE MECHANIC AND INVEXTOR 



451 



clocks and tools. When he was not 
doing; work of this character he was 
meditating or working upon inventions 
of some kind. !Mcn of this character 
who work upon inventions day after 
day and lie awake at nights are 
severely criticised by their friends and 
others. In many cases their families 
suffer from their shortcomings. 

His brother John, commonly known 
as "Squire" Drawbaugh, nearby, often 
remonstrated with Daniel about these 
short-comings. He says : 

"When I first discovered that he T\'as 
worl^ing on this talking-machine as it Avas 
then called I accused Daniel quite severely 
of wasting his time on loolish inventions. 
I told him they would amount to nothing 
and that he had a large family and that he 
should turn his attention to something that 
would support it better than by working at 
these foolish things; and that it would 
amount to nothing in the end and that he 
was an extraordinary good mechanic and 
that the people knew him to be that; ai^.d 
that he could get employment readily and 
could make a good living for his family." 

There is no use in that kind of talk 
to a man who has the inventive turn 
of mind. Once it enters into his make- 
up not all the exorcism in the world 
could expel it. Piis wife was more im- 
mediately practical and the care of the 
children and the household devolved 
upon her entirely. They had a home 
but she would not have it sold unless 
the proceeds were invested in another. 
In this she was prudent and far-seeing. 
One man who later gave testimony in 
the noted telephone trial says he 
heard her say: "Dan is at that old shop 
fooling his time away, while the fami- 
ly hardly knows how to get anything 
to eat." She also told him "that she 
smashed up a lot of photogaphing 
and other things about tiie house to 
stop Dan from fooling with them." 

The great telephone case whicli be- 
gan in 1881 and terminated in 1888 
was a memorable event. Drawbaugh 
was on the witness stand nearh' a 
whole winter at PMiiladelphia. Hun- 
dreds- of witnesses were there from 
Drawbaugh's neighborhood. The tes- 
timony covers 7000 pages. James Par- 



ton confessed to wading through 30,- 
000 pages of testimony in the Sewing 
r^Iachine Controversy in which Elias 
Howe was the storm centre This he 
did for the purpose of writing the 
story of the sewing machine. 

This testiuKjny relating to the tele- 
phone went largely into the personal 
history of Drawbaugh and everything 
relating to him from every point of 
view. The reason for this we shall see 
later. About one of the first things 
that may be noted is an autobiography 
by Drawbaugh that was published as 
an appendix in a Cumberland county 
history of 1879. The defense denied 
that this sketch was Drawbaugh's 
work although they did not call him 
on the stand for that purpose but 
Judge Wallace concluded he was vir- 
tually its author. It was claimed that 
Drawbaugh had paid ten dollars for it. 
furnishing the manuscript himself. It 
was claimed that he emj^loyed a school 
teacher to write the account, after- 
wards rewriting it with his own hand. 
The sketch is in part as follows. The 
copy possessed by the writer does not 
contain this sketch. It may have been 
omitted from some copies of the edi- 
tion. The copy before the court con- 
tained it however. The sketch in part 
reads as follows : 

"Daniel Drawbaugh one of the greatest 
inventive geniuses of this age (so prolific 
of great men) is the subject of this sketch. 
Daniel Drawbaugh was born in the year 
in the quiet, secluded village of Mill- 
town, three miles southwest of Harrisburgr. 
where he has spent the greater part of an 
active life conceiving and producing as a 
result of the conceptions of an unusually 
fertile brain a score of useful inventions. 
machines and devices. It appears by an 
examination of a list of his inventions that 
the nuinufacturing interests of the place in 
his bovhood days gave direction to his 
thoughts and incentive to his actions."* 

He prtxx^eds to etuunerate a list of 
his inventions as follows: 

"His first invention was an automatic 
sawing machine; then a number of ma- 
chinos used in wagon making; then a ma- 
chine for boring spoke tenons; then a 
machine for sawing tenons; a barrel stave 
jointing machine patented in lSr»l. This 



45 



thp: pexxsylvaxia-germax 



machine was pretty generally introduced 
and its merits appreciated. An automatic 
grinding machine was next invented to 
meet a demand created by the introduction 
of the jointer; then followed several ma- 
chines for making- stave headings and 
shingles all cf which were i)atented in 
1S55; after which machines for rounding, 
heading, crossing, dressing and finishing 
the outside of barrels were invented. These 
were again followed by a device for running 
mill stones, one for dressing mill stones, 
a device for elevating grain i]i mills. He 
then Invented and patented four improve- 
ments in nail plate feeding; next a tc-ck 
machine and a new design in tacks. Pho- 
tography next engaged his attention. He 
fitted himself for action in • th's field by 
manufacturing his own camera, ground and 
fitted acromatic lenses for camera, prepared 
the necessary chemicals and improved the 
process for enlarging pictures. Next elec- 
tricity and electrical machinery attracted 
his attention and an electric machine was 
produced throwing out cf consideration the 
galvanic battery and electric pile: then a 
machine for alphabetic telegraphing; then 
the justly celebrated electric c-ock and the 
machinery necessary for its construction 
and several kinds of telephone?, one of 
which is operated by battery and another 
by induction." 

He concludes as fo11',:)\vs: 

*'It will be seen from the foregoing that 
Mr. Drawb-iugh hrs penetrated vast fields 
of search for information and with what 
success we leave it to the readers to de- 
termine. We are proud to own Mr. Draw- 
baugh as a citizen of our township and 
deem him worthy of a position at the head 
list of our prominent men and are happy to 
accord him that position." 

This sketch don't sotmd Hke an auto- 
biography and whether it had the 
sanction of Dra\vi:angh it un.doulnedly 
was written hy other hantls. Draw- 
batigh being an uneducated man prol)- 
ably let it pass notwitlistanding its 
tone would convict him oi egotism 
and boasting. The en.umeration of his 
inventicMis is doubtless correct which 
Avere after all tlie chief things in the 
mind of Drawbaugh. .-Ml things con- 
sidered the aut(^bi(\graphy wtvjjd only 
show that Drawbatigh's in\enti\e tal- 
ent was all right but that his educa- 
tion with the pen was wofully deficient 
or rather tliat his jtidgment in this di- 
rection was at faidt. 

But let that pass. It is said that 
Drawbaugh has 125 patents cre^lited 



to himself besides many others which 
have been unpatented, amounting- in 
all it is claimed to five hundred. His 
neighbors assert that if he is com- 
paratively unknown and does not rank 
as an inventcir with Morse, Edisun, 
liell, Marconi and Wright it is because 
of lack oi business talent and judg- 
ment and that he has permitted his 
treasures to get away fr« -m him witli- 
out any financial return. Outside of 
the telephone his most noted invention 
that brought him before the public 
was the so called electric f>r magnetic 
clock. This clock was installed in St. 
John's Evangelical Lutheran church, 
Shiremanstown, where we saw it in 
1878. He sold it t.',> a cf.imijany organ- 
ized for its manufacture receiving less 
than. S500 for it and a share of the 
prospective profits in return. One of 
the notices in the local papers of the 
time read as follows: 

Daniel Drawbaugh of Eberly's Mills has 
Invented a clock ihrA just suits the "Lower 
End" c- the county as it requires no wind- 
ing up, the motive i)Gwer being a very 
sm.ill wire running into the cellar which is 
cc?Hiectod with a sniall magnet between 
the arms oi" the pendulum. He has one of 
these decks in his shop that has been run- 
ning ccntinucus'y for two years and unless 
some tempera! or spiritual powers get up 
a corner in electricity it is bound to keep 
running until the v.iieels are worn out. He 
has also invented a compensating pendu- 
lum which is not affected by extremes of 
heat and cold and the clock being very 
simple in its construction is bound to keep 
the most perfect time. Dan has invented 
many things bcth useful and oranmental. 
but he cries "Eureka" over the clock and 
it will richly reward both the curious and 
the practical to go to his shop and see it in 
motion. Another thing that will surprise 
tb.em is to see the qualirv of the work done. 
The cases are ccveied and finished in the 
best stylo and rhe work is all done by him- 
self. This is the nearest approach to per- 
petual motion that has been affected yet, 
antl there is no nonsense about it." 

The original clock is silently keep- 
mg ti:ne in the rickety o\d sliop. Last 
winter its owner on acci'>unt of his 
physical ci»nditi»Mi during finir months 
cotdtl not go to his place of daily toil 
but his faithful timepiece through all 



D.VNIEL DRAWBAUGH, THE MECHANIC AND IXVEXTOR 



453 



the changes of temperature lost only 
tvvo minutes. 

Of Daniel Dravvbaugh as a man 
those who know him speak with the 
highest respect. To the stranger who 
may pass him on the highway he ap- 
pears incons])icuous. Xo stranger 
would for a moment take him for a 
man of the ingenuity he is reputed to 
have. He is a man of plain exterior 
and his form is bent from age and the 
application and pursuit of his work. 
He is ever eenial and blithesome and 
is constantly humming in connection 
with thinking over the thousand and 
one things that float through the crea- 
ative mind. 

(In illustration of Drawbaugh's 
memory we may note an incident he 
related which took place when he was 
only four years old. In stopping to see 
wdiether the wooden lathe on which he 
was boring a gunbarrel was bending 
or not, a gunsmith with long hair got 
too near the machinery. The result 
w^as that the hair were twisted out by 
their roots, leaving a cursing, scalped 
^'Dutch" gunmaker with freely bleed- 
ing head. The bloody head, the curses 
are vividly recalled. As a boy he was 
very fond of drawing. One evening at 
home in school time he copied a cheap 
lithograph print which he completed 
in the school the next day. The 
teacher who caught him with the 
^'goods'' on his possession, gave him 
a licking for lyiiig by claiming he had 
made the picture when he [ the 
teacher] knew little Danny could not 
do such work. — Editor.) 

His habits are simple and temper- 
ate. His meals are frugal and his 
evening meal is bread and a cup of 
cofifee of which he is very fond and 
carries with him for his dinner. He 
is a good, sound sleeper and retires 
early. He is an early riser. He f^^r- 
merly lived at Eberly's Mills but later 
removed his residence to Camp Hill 
about a mile and a half distant. .Vt 
six o'clock in the nii^rning he might be 
found on the road to his shop at Eber- 
Iv's Mills at which he remained until 



late in the evening being busily en- 
gaged in w(jrking out his numerous 
ideas. He thus walked three miles 
daily. At S^ years this is becoming 
too strenuous for him. He has now 
removed his sho^) to Camp Hill also. 

(We called at the home of Mr. Draw- 
bach, 7.30 A. M., July 15, r^io. the day 
he entered his 84th year, in the expec- 
tation of meeting him there before his 
starting on the daily trip to the shop. 
But, alas, we were caught napping 
and the \'eteran in\'entor had gone the 
well-beaten path with dinner basket 
to the historic building by the mur- 
muring run in the valley and we could 
but follow his early morning walk. — 
Editor.) 

He is known by every man, woman 
and child in the surrounding countr}- 
who greet .him cordially and familiar- 
ly. He is a temperate man and it is 
in evidence that he was almost strictly 
so. He seems to be a good-humored 
man, hard-working, sober and indu>- 
trious. He is intelligent as regards 
his line of work. He makes no pre- 
tensions to literary acquirements 
which becomes speedily evident to the 
interviewer. Like many other geni- 
uses he lacks acquisitiveness and was 
it would seem to be ever afflicted with 
hard-up-it-ive-ness. What brought him 
into the limelight of publicit'- was his 
application and grant oi a patent for 
his original telephone on which he 
claimed to have occupied 11 years. 
This patent was granted in 1S80. Sev- 
eral companies were fi^rmed and 
Drawbaugh entertained the hope that 
the Golden Age had at last dawned 
upon him. Alexander Graham Bell 
contested his claim of priority. Bell 
had his telephone patented in iS^x 
Many will still recall that Boll ex- 
hibited the working of his instrument 
in Machinery Hall at the Centennial 
Expt^sition in Philadelphia on that 
memorable hot Sunday on July Qth. 

tSto. The Emperor Dom Pedn-i ^^i 
Brazil and Sit William Thompson. 

later Lord Kelvin, were present. They 

were both etuhusiastic in praise of the 



454 



THE PEXNSYLVAXIA-GERMAX 



developments that were made by this 
exhibition. The telephone was now 
an assured success. Of course minur 
improvements were made by others. 
j\Ir. Bell was a Scotchman from Edin- 
burgh, but after coming- to America 
he became naturalized, lie had been 
a teacher of deaf mutes. His work 
was now done and. his fame assured. 
A corporation was formed to manage 
and develop the business founded 
upon the patent. Lawyers were em- 
ployed to defend and others were en- 
gaged to pick a liaw in it if any might 
be found. A great corporation was 
organized, known as the Bell Tele- 
phone Company -with large capital to 
back its claims. In 1879 t^"*^ Peoples 
Telephone Company bought up the 
claim of Drawliaugh's telephone. Thev 
claimed that Drawbaugh iiad made the 
invention of the telephone as early as 
1874 but it was not lieard by the world , 
at large until 1879. 

Drawbaugh made telephone experi- 
ments as early as 1866, followinq- out 
suggestions thrown out in public 
through lectures and privately to ]\lr. 
D. by Professor Heiges. 

The Bell Company at once contested 
the claim that Drawbaugh was the 
original inventor of the telephone. 
Both parties were armed for the frav 
and no means were spared to make a 
fight to the bitter end. That Draw- 
baugh should have delayed for a peri- 
od of six years, from 1874-18S0, before 
applying for a patent was a tremen- 
dous obstacle in his wav and led to 
hundreds of his neighbors l>eing called 
to Philadelphia to give testimony in 
favor of his claims. Tn behalf of this 
neglect the Peoples Telephone Com- 
pany made the claim that he labored 
amidst the most abject povertv. The 
Bell Telef)h(Mie Comppnv d^Miied this 
claim and sought throuch witnesses 
from the community to prove that he 
was possessed of ample means and 
through this and other points tried to 
show that the reason he did not take 
out a patent in 1874 and anticipate 
Bell who took his out in 1876 was be- 



cause he had not at that time perfected 
his instrument. 

The testimony given on this famous 
trial by many of the residents of the 
communitv was quaint and curious. 
This esj^ecially related to the sur- 
roundings of Daniel Drawbaugh and 
the communit}' about him. One wit- 
ness declared there was no carpenter, 
no shoemaker there but "a good many 
cobbled around a little." Another 
declared while they had no postottice 
they got their mail notwithstanding 
every day by *'f(^ot power" of which 
he himself had been "honored with 
the mail messcngership." Another de- 
clared that Abner Wilson 

"Had store there for a while but havinz a 
keg of powder too near the fire blowed him 
up or the goods. Some lit and some did 
not: some burnt up before they lit. It so 
completely busted the shell of the house in 
which it was that he left and never re- 
turned. After which perhaps a year a new 
shell was prepared to keep store in which 
Jeremiah Fry kept some few articles. That 
is all I recollect of the store business at 
Eberly's Mills." 

Another declared 

"On Saturdays especially we boys and a 
party that usually congregated in there 
often enjoyed a game of seven up and it is 
on record that once a turkey shoot was 
'played off' at tlie same resort." 

^^'hile the evidence on the trial took 
decided turns at times it was shown 
that Drawbaugli received a few con- 
siderable sums. In i8(37 and 1869 he 
was paid $5000 by the Drawbaugh 
Pump Company for his faucet inven- 
tion. In i8^x) he received $1000 for 
aiunher faucet contrivance; this sum 
however he applied to the purchase of 
a house ami lot for his father. Oi the 
$5000 he invested $2000 in real estate 
and lost S400 in apple speculation. 
Between i8(')7 and 1873 he paid Si2cx) 
to the Drawbaugh ^^anufactu^i^g 
CiMupany ior assessments on stock 
held bv him. 

In July 1873 he received S425 in 
cash frcnn tlie companv on its winding: 
up and in April 1878 he was paid less 
than 8500 for the electric clock. It his 
expenditures be deducted frotn the re- 



DANIEL DRAWBAUGH, TPIE MECHANIC AND INVENTOR 



Vjo 



ceipts he would have a balance of 
$2325 left in 10 years. But in the mean- 
time he had his family to support, but 
the. balance was in addition to his 
wages as a mechanic. He paid no rent 
and received $iiO' yearly from a tenant. 
Some of the stories in evidence in 
the report are pathetit. One of his 
nephews testified as follows: 

"He buried two children I think in one 
day or near; and for a long time he had a 
daughter living a living skeleton. I never 
lieard of any person so light as she was. 
He had another daughter who might be 
•called an invalid as she was subject to 
spasms. She told me they were getting 
lier a great deal of medicine from New York 
and it was doing her a great deal of good 
and it was very expensive and she wanted 
some more but they had not the money to 
get it. Dan told me this too."' 

It must be remembered that the ob- 
ject of these witnesses of the Peoples 
■or Drawbaugh Company was to rep- 
resent him as reduced to the lowest 
possible state of penury: but it is pos- 
sible that the facts they related were 
rsubstantially true. Judgments against 
him were frequentlv recorded in the 
local courts ; his taxes were in arrears 
and he was sometimes hard pushed for 
a dollar. 

A very respectable farmer testified : 

"That Dan came to his place when the 
funeral of his father was to take place at 
"Newville up the Cumberland valley about 
twenty-five miles away by rail. He wanted 
to know whether I would give him money 
•enough to pay his way. I then asked him 
whether he was going alone. He said his 
^'ife should go but he was afraid he could 
not get money for them both. I asked him 
about the children. He said they had not 
got the clothes. I then asked him how 
much the fare would be to Newville and he 
thought about ninety cents one way. Then 
I asked him whether he thought five dollars 
■would be enough. He said he thought it 
would. I gave it to him and he gave me a 
due bill and promised that he would pay it 
in a short time. He never paid it in money. 
He spoke of it at different times and said 
"he was ashamed that he could not i^ay me 
■but that he would pay it before long. I 
don't think he ever gave full value for it: 
lie filed my yaws several times and done me 
favors in that way." 



Some evidence also was 



eu'en >^!u^\\- 



ing that he applied to others to assist 



him with money in obtaining a patent, 
but it was maintained that the evi- 
dence was not conclusive on this cru- 
cial point. The theory was that Draw- 
baugh knew the value of his inventiun 
and that poverty alone stood in the 
way of his turning it to account. This 
degree of poverty in the eyes of the 
court was not established by the wit- 
nesses and although his reputation as 
an in\'entor stood high in the com- 
munity and a great deal of money had 
been expended in manufacturing his 
other contrivances not a cent was de- 
voted to the telephone. The assertion 
was that the telephone came full 
fiedged from his own unaided brain. It 
was also maintained that he invented 
the microphone and the carbon trans- 
mitter. Before Bell's day it was main- 
tained that he had accomplished what 
Bell had done but what Blake and 
Edison subsequently achieved. 

(Drawbaugh claims that there were 
at least 40 persons who promised to 
give financial aid as soon as the inven- 
tion was made practical — meanin::- 
thereby that the sounds conveyed by 
telephone shc^uld be audible over larcre 
rooms. Thev could hear by holding 
the receiver to the ear in the familiar 
wav but this was deemed inefticient. — 
Editor) 

The Bell people tried to prove that 
there were various ways in which he 
might have raised the thirty-five to 
fifty dollars for a patent on his tele- 
phone had he been s.^ disposed. That 
he did not they claimed showed that 
he had not invented it previously to 
the time Bell invented his in 1S76. A 
man who had dealings with him testi- 
fied that he had annual settlements 
with him from i8u) to 1S76 and at the 
K^nd of everv year the balance was al- 
ways in Drawbaugh's favor some- 
times to the extent of fifty dollars. 

A lumber firm which dissolved in 
1877 owed him seventy-seven dollar-. 
Bi'it it was testified also that while 
poor his honesty and crciiii was good. 
One man testified that while Draw- 
baugh was poor and was in debt to 



456 



THt: PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



him at one time that he had much (h'f- 
ficulty in detaining- payment ir<.>m 
him. He was asked the question. 
**Plo\v did he come U) owe you the 
money." He rcphed that he came to 
him one day in the held where he was 
plowing and said he wanted twenty 
dollars and he pulled it out of his 
pocket and gave it to him. Of the $425 
which he received July i, 1873, S300 
was immediately a;)plied to the pav- 
ment of a lien on his lunise. 

However Drawloaugh and the 
Peoples Company asserted he had in 
his shop an invention which he knew 
was capable of making him the richest 
man in Cumberland valley. The Bell 
Company maintained with great force 
that the money he received time and 
again would have been amply suf- 
ficient to ha\-e procured him a patent 
had his invention been real. 

In 1873 he had removed from Mill- 
town to ]\Iechanicsburg and back 
again during the year. It was testi- 
fied that it required twelve to fourteen 
horses to haul his goods and chattels. 
It was claimed that his house was well 
furnished but he was often in want of 
ready monev. It was alleged that he 
was shiftless, improvident and always 
in debt. It was not alleged that he 
was dishonest. Men of Mr. Draw- 
baugh's stamp as a rule are often poor 
business men. They- may be excel- 
lent in all other relations oi life. f)ut 
are ever on the rugged edge of povertv. 
Of course the Bell Companv tried to 
show that Drawbaugh would not ha\e 
delayed patenting his telephone if he 
had really invented it fully and com- 
pletely. They also tried to show tiiat 
his povertv did not stand in the way. 
They also tried to show that he was 
ignorant and a vain }.>oasting trickster. 

On the other hand Drawbaugh tried 
to show by hundreds of witnesses that 
he had a talking telephone before Bell 
patented his invention. He also called 
witnesses to show his abject poverty 
which he claimed was the sole reas.Mi 
that he did not apply for a patent 
when he claimed he had invented a 
complete working instrument. His 



supporters showed his improvidence 
and shiftlessness and his general neg- 
lect of his im;>ortant mterests at 
stake. The famous hydraulic ram 
that Drawbaugh constructed for a 
man at Marysville became a thorough 
b".»ne of c<jntention. It seems the man 
who ordered it claimed he was only 
on one occasion in the clover mill at 
Eberly's Mills and on that occasion it 
was in May or June 1874. He was 
sure of his date he said, but the Bell 
people brought evidence to prove that 
the ram was not purchased till 1878. 

Seventv-five persons were examined 
by both sides on this point, all the 
neighbors for miles around being 
called into court on this collateral 
point. "The ram and telephone" said 
one witness from Marysville, "is about 
all that is talked of up there now." 
Other witnesses were brought from 
the West and one was brought from 
Dakota to testify that he saw the said 
hydraulic ram on the farm on a Sun- 
day afternoon in 1876 when he took a 
walk with a friend. He knew that it 
was 1876 because he was married in 
1877. and that the subject of conversa- 
tion between himself and his friend on 
this particular Sunday was the cost of 
washing whereas after his marriage 
that topic ceased to have in his eyes 
any practical interest. In fact so much 
interest did the ram create in the 
minds of the public that the telephone 
had passed out oi sight. To every 
pro})c>sition proved by one side there 
was an answer from the other. Pho- 
tographs of the places on the farm 
were taken and exhibited to prove the 
incorrectness oi some of the testimony. 

The pastor of tlie owner oi the ram 
testitieci that he never saw it on the 
premises prior to 1878. It appeared 
on cross examination that his- visit^^ 
were confined to the parlor and that 
inasmuch that he did not see what was 
at the rear of the house or premises 
there might ha\e been a number of 
ram«i there for aught that he knew. 

So the dispute went on and re- 
mained undecided. It is not mentioned 
in Chief Justice Waite's opinion and 



D.^\IEL DRAWBAUGH, THE MECHANIC AND IXVEXTOR 



457 



it was considered douljtful if the Su- 
preme Court weighed the evidence in 
regard to it and also doubtful if they 
read it through. On fact however 
was clearly established by this episode, 
namely the extreme fallibility of hu- 
man testimony; and the same remark 
might be applied generally to the 
seven thousand printed pages which 
constituted the evidence in the suit. 
One of the judges remarked "where 
such a chaos of oral testimony exists 
it is usually found that the judgment 
is convinced by a few leading facts and 
indicia (by which he referred to 
Drawbaugh's conduct) outlined so 
clearly that they cannot be obscured 
by prevarication or the aberrations of 
memory. Such facts and indicia are 
found here and they are so persuasive 
and cogent that the testimony of a 
myriad of witnesses cannot prevail 
against them. The Supreme Court 
looked at the matter from substantial- 
ly the same point of view. The opin- 
ion said: 

"We don't doubt that Drawbaiigh may 
have conceived the idea that speech could 
be transmitted to a distance by means of 
electricity and have experimented upon 
that subject. But to hold that he discovered 
the art of doing it before Bell did would be 
to construe testimony without regard to the 
ordinary laws that govern human conduct." 
An eminent critic maintains that 
"This conclusion is just and reasonable 
and yet it might not have been reached so 
easily a hundred years ago. During the 
present century the value of human testi- 
mony has been examined as it has never 
been before and its estimation has sunk not 
a little. Historical researches and histori- 
cal criticism have both contributed to this 
result. At the same time the uniformity of 
human conduct has been observed and' as- 
certained to a degree not imagined hitherto 
and this tends to impair the force of cu- 
mulative testimony. It is less difficult now 
^ than formerly to perceive that where one 
witness has fallen into error the same or 
similar causes have led other witnesses to 
make the same mistake and thus the evi- 
dence of a dozen men to a particular point 
may weigh but little more than one or two. 
We do not mean to imply that the Supreme 
Court decided againt Drawbaugh solely on 
the ground that his conduct was inconsis- 
tent with his pretensions and that his case 
was so improbable that the testimony to 
support it must be rejected as incredible. 



There was po.sitive evidence against him to 
part of which has not been alluded. Eor 
example the Court placed much reliance on 
the fact that Drawbaugh's reproduced in- 
struments (the originals of which made a 
perfect telephone according to the te.sti- 
mony of his witnesses) failed to transmit 
speech except in the most imperfect and 
fragmentary manner A-hen they were tested 
in presence of both parties. It is significant 
also that Drawljaugh himself does not fix 
even the year in which his telephone was 
perfected; that is done by other persons. 
Still in the main the case was decided on 
the ground that it was more likely that 
many honest persons should be in error as 
to a fact concerning which they swore posi- 
tively than that one man should have acted 
as Drawbaugh is represented to have done. 
This principle is a sound one but it is so 
easy to apply that it may also be easily 
abused. Much must be allowed to the 
eccentricities of human conduct especially 
when a '"genius" whether he be an inventor 
or a poet is the persoii under investigation. 
Daniel Dawbaugh must be either a genius 
and a deeply injured one or else (and this 
is the implication of the U. S. Supreme 
Court opinion) an easy-going, vain. go3J 
natured, intelligent mechanic, who being 
subjected to a great temptation fell as other 
men have fallen." 

It remains to be stated that on the 
iSth r^Iarch, 1888. the Supreme Court 
of the L'nited States re-assembled in 
\\'ashington after the usual Spring 
vacation. The Chief Justice announced 
that the Court was prepared to render 
its judgment in the six cases known 
as the telephone suits. That opinion 
as all know decided that Mr. Alex- 
ander Graham Bell was the first in- 
ventor of the telephone and that 
neither Reis. the German professor, tjr 
anyone else succeeded in transmitting 
hiunan speech by the aid of electricity 
until Mr. I'ell had shown the world 
how it could be done. Three v">f the 
judges o\ the United States Supreme 
Court dissented from the opini«:>n — 
holding that Paniel Drawbaugh. an 
intelligent mechanic k^{ Eberly's Mills. 
Pennsvhania, had invented and used 
a complete telephone mucli better 
than any that r>ell ever devised years 
before the latter made his discovery. 
I'ho dissenting judges did not deny 
that Mr. I'ell also was an original in- 
ventor of the telephone and that it 



458 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAX 



was he who introduced it to public 
use. 'We have nothing- to say ' Mr. 
Justice Bradle}^ remarked "depreciat- 
ory of Mr. IJell at all ior he has real 
merits; but we think that this obscure 
mechanic did do the thing and that he 
is entitled to the merit of being the' 
iirst inventor." 

It was believed by many about 1875 
that the transmission of speech by 
electricity would be speedily discov- 
ered and it was this belief that led 
many to work on the problem. \o 
•one foresaw how great the discovery 
would be from a practical standpoint 
at that time. In fact the matter was 
one of surprises from first to last. The 
trial showed the fallibility of human 
testimony but it also showed the fal- 
libility of human opinion as rendered 
hy the U. S. Supreme Court, which 
was composed of Chief Justice W'aite 
and eight associate justices. Four 
rendered a majority report and three 
justices rendered a minority report. 
The statement has been made that of 
the nine justices two could not act be- 
cause they owned Bell stock, that the 
seven justices stood one day 3-4 in fa- 
vor of Drawbaugh a day before the 
final decision which was 3-4 in favor 
•of Bell and that after Chief Justice 
Waite's decease. Bell stock of the face 
value of $100,000 was oftered for sale 
as part of his personal effects. Of 
course decisions are rendered by ma- 
jorities as was earlier the case in 
the Dred Scott decision and later by 
the Electoral Commission of 8 to 7. 
Daniel Drawbaugh received $5000 atul 
returned home to the even tenor of his 
wav and resumed his work and re- 
searches in the shop at Eberly's Mills. 

He persevered with invention and 
among other things invented an arti- 
ficial fuel and made the pneumatic 
tools used in the sculpture work at the 
"Congressional Library at Washington. 
(Tools have been returned.) He was 
visited by the German Aml)assa(U^r 
to induce him to go to Germany to 
demonstrate his signal system, to the 
army officers prior to the govern- 



ment's buying the rights. But he 
declined. It is beliexed that he has 
now his UDSt important invention in 
hand which is the wireless tele])hone 
system. This he claims will surpass 
^^arconi's, because weather conditions 
do not affect it in the least. It lias 
been tested at a distance of four miles 
and it is stated that the v(Kal messages 
come as clear and distinct as a bell. 

When he is asked about the prin- 
ciples of a thing he shakes his head. 
He is not versed in theoretical science. 
He is a practical man and goes to 
work and does things. He has patented 
his wireless system. Thieves and 
vandals tried to rob and burn his 
workshop several years ago. His 
wireless telephone is as simple as his 
electric clock. The Bell people 
claimed he had taken the principles oi 
his clock from an old encyclopedia, 
making some little chancres. His wire- 
less system is very simple. He buries 
in the ground sheets oi copper three 
feet square to the depth of about three 
or four feet. These sheets he distri- 
butes from five to sixty feet apart as 
the distance to be talked over may re- 
quire. Upon the first and last of 
these sheets he erects his transmitter 
and receiver. 

A companv was organized in Xew 
York to operate the wireless system 
and to take out patents in foreign 
countries. An oft'er of $25,000 was 
niade it is stated, agreement effected, 
and $400 of this amount naid down. 
He says nothing further has come of 
it however. He is now working: upon 
a compressed air mot'^r for cleaning 
the outside of cars. It is nearly com- 
pleted. He is hopeful this will yield 
him a snug fortune. He has latelv it 
is claimed discovered a new metal 
which he claims will take the place of 
platinum wire n(nv used in incandes- 
cent lamps. The metal must be 
\\'orked at white heat, its hardness pre- 
ventincT it beine" W(>rkod in any other 
condition. Taken all in all TXiniel 
Drawbaugh is an extra*^rvlinary man 
coming from the common walks of 



DANIEL DRAWBAUGH, THE MECHANIC AND INVENTOR 



45& 



life, 



History in the future 



will un- 



doubtedly do him justice. \\q opine 
that the future will regard him with 
even i^reater wonder tl"'an ti;e present 
has allotted him." 

This is the life story of a reniarka])le 
man in the humble walks of life who 
has lived beyond the iJ'eneral allotcd 
years of life and ^vho has made an im- 



i)ress upon :he world while far re- 
moved fr()ni its leading- cenires. '! he 
future ^vill give iiim far more cr^-dit 
than it even has in the pa^t. Xot edu- 
cated by the schools he has followt-d 
the bent of his o\yn original geniu^. 
His life may have been what the worUl 
calls a failure but it is sure to be in the 
future what history calls success. 



We quote the following from the 
Star-Independent (Harrisburg, Pa.) of 
June i6, 1910. 

Undisturbed save for the occasional cry of 
the thrush or the purling of the .clamor- 
ous brook, Daniel Drawbaugh toils every 
day in his sylvan retreat near the banks of 
the Yellow Breches creek. Here, in an old 
weather-beaten, shutterless, tumble-down 
frame shop, little better than a shed, was 
born one of the greatest of American in- 
ventions — the telephone. Bitter disappoint- 
ments, any one of which would have 
wrecked the life of an ordinary man, have 
imprinted their signet upon Daniel Draw- 
baugh, as have the passing years. 

Eighty-three years! Thirteen years more 
than the Divine allotment to man. And he 
faces the world eagerly, expectantly, his 
faith in his fellowmen still unshaken; work- 
ing sometimes far into the night on inven- 
tions, his creative genius unimpaired, his 
eye and hand as steady as a youth's, the 
aged inventor daily faces vicissitudes and 
tasks. He is like a hound given the scent; 
once setting himself to ferret out a secret 
of nature's or on the track of a scientific 
problem, rest only comes with the achieve- 
ment of that purpose. 

The Wizard of Eberly's Mills was on the 
second floor of his shop. He sat beside a 
window, dropping a handful of ten-cent 
pieces into a brass tube and by pressing a 
rod, brought the coins tumbling one after 
another from their prison. The Wizard is 
old. His thin locks are as silver, his body 
is small and weazened. You look into his 
eyes — and start. Surely these eyes, these 



windows of the soul, do not belong to an 
octogenarian? They are of the blue of the 
sea. and clear, limpid and trustful. How 
could one deceive those eyes, you ask your- 
self, without a pricking conscience? 

'"This is a new metal," he explained. 'T 
is so hard that a tremendous heat is re- 
quired to melt it. It melts under 6.400 de- 
grees. I haven't any fires strong enough 10 
get that amount of heat." With this newly- 
discovered metal. Mr. Drawbaugh has again 
puzzled the scientific ^^orld. Dozens of 
chemists have tried to analyze it, but have 
given up in despair. "If you can find out 
what it is made of, you are welcome to my 
discovery,' says Mr. Dra^^baugh. But the 
government experts are as much in the 
dark as anybody. If somebody doesn't steal 
the discovery. Mr. Drawbaugh will likely 
make a fortune from his discovery. It will 
be used in arc lights, instead of the carbons 
now used. The carbon lights are very ex- 
pensive, clockwork being required to 
"feed" the carbons as they burn off and to 
preserve the spark. You install one of the 
Drawbaugh arcs, turn on the current and 
there you are. It is impervious to the ele- 
ments, there is no waste, and it lasts for- 
ever. 

There is now a bill in Congress which 
will give Mr. Drawbaugh one dollar per 
year for every telephone in use. There are 
six million of the instruments in daily use 
now in America. The bill was in commit- 
tee and reported back favorably to the 
House. Congressman Olmstead has offered 
to do his best to get the bill through. Its 
passage, however, will be but a meager re- 
turn for Mr. Drawbaugh's inestimable bene- 
fit unpon mankind. 



460 

A Select Bibliography 

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree 

of B. L. S. N. Y. State Library School 1910 

By Harriet C. Long, Madison, Neb. 

The aim in compiling this bibliography has been to present to the 
general public a list of the more truly representative books on the 
Pennsylvania-Germans, books which will awaken a more intelligent 
interest in their life and history. Since the early development of 
these people was so largely influenced by ^heir religious faith it has 
been deemed necessary to include for each of the more important 
denominations and sects, some account of its growth and develop- 
ment, but there is no attempt to enter into questions of dogma or 
theolog>'. For the most part, only accessible books have been in- 
cluded, but in some cases where they have more satisfactorily cov- 
ered the ground, out of print books have been added in the hope that 
they may be procured second hand. Such books are marked o. p. 
and the list prices at the time of publication are quoted. Most of 
the work has been done in the New York State Library at Albany, 
but the resources of the Pennsylvania Historical Society Library at 
Philadelphia, and the Boston Public Library -have been consulted. 
All books marked ""e" have been personally examined, and the ab- 
breviation following is that of the library in which the book was 
consulted. 

General sotirces not fully analyzed, but containing much 
valuable and interesting material are as follows : 

Americana Germanica, see German American annals. 
Bucks county (Pcnn.) historical society. 

Collection of papers read before the society; i88o-date, 

V. I-date. illus. o. Easton. 1908. 

German American Annals, continuation of the quarterly 
Americana Germanica; a bi-monthly devoted to the com- 
parative study of historical, literary, linguistic, educational 
and commercial relations of Germany and America. 1897- 
date. V. I-date. Q. Phil. 1897-date. ' (e. X. Y.) 

Lancaster county (Penn.) historical society. 

Historical papers and addresses, 1896-date. v. I-date. 
illus. o Lancaster, 1897-date. (e. N. Y.) 
Lebanon county (Penn.) historical society. 

Historical papers and addresses. 1898-date. v. I-date. il- 
lus. o. Lebanon, i902-(late. (e. N. Y.) 
Moravian historical society. 

Transactions 1857-date. v. I-date, illus. o. Xazareth. 
1876-date. (e. X. Y.^ 

Pennsylvania; the German influence on its settlement and 
development, a narrative and critical history proparctl at the 
request of the Pennsylvania-German society i8v. ( e. X. Y.) 

This history is "designed to bring out in the fullest manner, all 
information attainable, inciiiental to the subject." Tho illustrations 
are one of the most noteworthy features. The series has appeared 
from time to time in the Proceediuirs of the society, but many of the 
volumes have been published separately. For convenience in quot- 
ing, the abbreviation "Penn.; the Ger. intiuence" is used in this 
bibliography. 



A SELECT BIBLIOCiRAPHY 

(The) Pennsylvania-German; a popular monthly maga- 
zine of biograpliy. history, _<;cnealo<,n', f(jlklore and literature. 
1900-date. V. I-datc. illus. o Lititz, Penn. 1900-date. (e 

X. Y.) 

Published bi-monthly Ijefore Sep. 1906. Quarterly l>efore Jany. 
1906. 

Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography: quarter- 
ly V. T-datc. illus. o. Phil. i<S77-date. (e. X. Y.) 
' Published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania-German society. 

Proceedings and addresses 1891-date. v. I-date. illus. 

o. Lancaster, 1891-date. (e.. X. V.) 

History. 
Baer, G. F. 

(The) Penns\-lvan.ia-Germans. an address delivered at the 
dedication of the Palatinate college at Myerstown. Pennsyl- 
vania, Dec. 21,, 1875. 30 p. o. ]\iyerstown, 1875. 

Dwells largely upon the future of the educational systems of 
Pennsylvania, although it gives a good resume of the early German 
settlement. 

Beidelm.an, William. 

(The) story of the Pcnnsyh-ania-Cicrmans embracing an 
account of their origin, their history and their dialect. ' 254 
p. map. o. Easton. 1898. Express book print. Si. 50. »e. 
Penn . ) 

Too much comparison with the Palatine Germans. The appendix 
contains pcems illustrating the Pfalzisch. South German and the 
Pennsylvania-German dialects. 

Bittinger, L. F. 

(The) Germans in colonial times. 314 p. map, D. Phil. 
1901. Lippincott, $1.50. (e. X'. Y.) 

List of works consulted, pp. 300-30n. 

A study of conditions in Germany which led to the emigration and 
the subsequent development of the German colonies in America, 
principally in Pennsylvania. 

(The) Pennsylvania-Germans, see Xew England Mag. 
^lav. Time, Julv, 1902, n. s. 26: 3r)C)-84, 498-512. 017-24). i e. 

X. v.") 

A fair account of their settlement in Pennsylvania, but more espec- 
ially the aim and achievements of individual Pennsylvania-Germans. 

Bolles, A. S. 

Immigration [into Pcun.sylvania]. (see his Pennsylvania, 
province and state. 1890. v. 2:119-38'). ( e. X. \'.^ 
Deals largely with the German immigration. 

Bosse, Georg von 

(Die) Deutschen und ihre ansiedhmgen im staate Pennsyl- 
vania, (see his Das Deutsche element in den \ ereinigien 
Staaten. 1908. p. 38-58, 110-125). (^'- ^'- ^ •) 
Cobb, Rev. S. H. 

Story oi the Palatines, an episode in coh^nial history. 311-) 
p. maps. o. X. V. 18^)7. rutnuin. 82. (c. X. V.) 

The emigration from the Rhenish Palatinate to the Hudson and 
Mohawk valleys and their subseouent migration to Pennsvlvania. 



462 THE PEXNSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 

Diffenderffer, F. R. 

(The) German exodus to Eng'land in 1709: fmassen-aus- 
wanderung der }*lalzer). (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1896, 
7:257-413). (e. X. Y.) 
Published separately at Lancaster, 1897. 
Forms v. 2 of "Penu. : the Ger. influence." 
A very reliable account of the migrations of the Palatines. 

(The) German immigration into Pennsylvania through 
the port of Philadelphia. 1700-1775. Part 2. The redemp- 
tioners. (see Penn. Ger. soc. Proceed. 1899, v. 10.) fe. X. 
Y.) . \ 

Also published separately, 1900. 

Forms v. 7 of "Penn,: the Ger. influence." 

Clear and exhaustive treatment of the great traffic in redemptioners 
in the 18th century. 

. (The) Palatine and Quaker as commonwealth builders; 
address delivered before the Pennsylvania historical society 
of Philadelphia, Mar. 14, 1899. 30 P- O- Lancaster, 1899. (e. 
X. Y.) 

Considers the influence of the Palatines in shaping the destiny of 
the state. 

Egle, W. H. 

(The) Pennsylvania-German, his place in the history of 
the commonwealth, fsee Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1892, 2: 
118-30). (e. X. Y.) ^ 

Eickhoff, Anton. 

(Die) Deutschen in Pennsylvania, (see his In dcr neuen 
heimath. 1884. p. 115-30). e. X"". Y.) 

Brief chapters on the history and varied phases of early life 
among the Germans. 

Falckner, Daniel. 

Curieuse nachricht from Pennsylvania ; the book that 

stimulated the great German immigration to Pennsylvania 
in the early years of the i8th century; tr. and annotated by 

J. F. Sachse. (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1903. v. 14) 

(e. X. Y.) . • 
V. 14 of "Penn.: the Ger. influence." 

Faust, A. B. 

(The) German element in the United States, with special 
reference to its political, moral, social and educational in- 
fluence. 2 v. o. Bost. 1909. Ploughton. $7.50. (e. X. Y.) 

Bibliography, v. 2, p. 477-562. 

V. 1, pp. 30-14S are on the Pennsylvania-Germans, but there is 
much related material scattered throughout. 

"A very comprehensive account of the German immiirration. its 
causes, areas settled and the German influence on the culture and 
life of the United States in all its phases." A. L. A. Booklist. 

Fisher, S. G. 

(The) Germans in Pennsylvania. ( see his ^ Faking oi 
Pennsylvania. 1896. pp. 70-133') . (e. X. Y.") 

Gives rather an unfavorable opinion of the Pennsylvania-Germans. 
Geiser, K. F. 

Redemptioners and indentured servants in the colony ?i;d 
commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 128 p. o. Xew Haven. 
1901. Tuttle, Moorehause and Taylor, Si. 50. (e. X. Y.) 
Published also as supplement to Yale review, 1901. v. 10. No. 2. 



A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 46S 



Jacobs, H. E. 

German emigration to America, 1709- 1740. (sec Penii.- 
Ger. Soc. Proceed. 1897. v. 8: 27-150J. (e. X. Y.) 
Published separately at Lancaster, 1898. 
Forms v. 3 of "Penn.: the Ger. influence." 
pp. 104-20 deal more specifically with the immigration to Penn. 

Kriebel, H. W. 

Settlement of tlie counties of Pennsylvania, f--.ee Penn.- 
Ger. Jan. 1907, 8:3-9). (e. N. Y.) 

Author says "The object is to give an outline picture of the grad- 
ual settlement and formation of the counties in particular by 

the Germans." 

Kuhns, L. O. 

(The) German and Swiss settlements of colon.ial Peni:<yl- 
vania : a study of the so-called Pennsylvania Piitch. 2'',8 p. 
D. X. Y. 1961. Holt, $1.50. (e. X'. Y.) 

Contains bibliography, p. 247-57. 

The best general view of the subject, concise but complete. 

Studies in Pennsylvania-German family names. Tser^ 
Americana German ica. 1902, 4:299-341). (e. X. Y.) 

Discusses the meaning of the original German name and the 
changes these names have undergone in America. 

Learned, M. D. 

(The) Pennsylvania-German and his English and Scotch- 
Irish neighbors, (see Leb. co. hist. soc. Historical papers. 
1901-4, 2: 317-329)- (e. X. Y.) 

Discussion of the dialect is the most interesting feature of the 
article. 

Mays, George. 

Palatine and Scotch-Irish settlers of Lebanon county, 
(see Leb. co. hist. soc. Historical papers. 1902, i: 305-26). 
(e. N. Y.) 

Pennypacker, S. W. 

Historical and biographical sketches. 416 p. o. Phil. 1S83. 
Tripple. (e. X. Y.) 
Contents: 

The settlement of Germantown. 

David Rittenhouse. 

Christopher Dock and his works. 

Der blutige schau-platz oder martyrer spiegel. Ephrata. etc. 

Settlement of Germantown Pennsylvania and the begin- 
ning of German emigration to Xorth America, i^see Penn.- 
Ger. soc. Proceed. 1898. 9: 47-345^ (e. X. Y.) 

Published separately at Philadelphia. 1899. 

Forms v. 4 of "Penn.; the Ger. influence." 

Richards, H. M. M. 

German leaven in the Pennsylvania loaf, a paper read be- 
fore the \\'yoming historical and geological society. ^ May 
21, 1897. 27 p. o.\\'ilkes Barre, 1807. The society, {e. X. Y.) 
Good brief summary of the part the Germans have played in 
Pennsylvania history. 

(The) Pennsylvania-German in the French and Indian 
var. (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1004. v. 15). l,e. X. 

Y.) 
Published separately in Lancaster. 
Forms v. 15 of •Penn.: the Ger. influence." 



464 THE PEXXSYTA'AXIA-GERMAN 

Richards, H. M. M. 

(The) rennsylvania-Gcrniaii in the revokitionary war, 
1775-1783. (see Penn.-Ger. soc. rrocecd. 1906, v. 17;. (e. 

i . -^■- ^'-^ 

1 Published separately in Lancaster, 1908. 

I Fcrnis v. 18 of "Penn.: the Ger. influence." 

I Richards, M. H. 

I • (The) G'^rman emii^ration from Xew York province into 

j ' I\Mins\lvania. (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. IcSqS, 9: 347- 

447)- ' (>• X. V.) 
Forms v. 5 ci •"Penn.: the Ger. influence." 

Rupp, I. D. 

A collection of upwards of thirty thousand names of 
German, Swiss, Dutch, French and other immigrants in 
Pennsylvania \'j2'j-'j(^, with a statement of the date of 
their arri\'al at Philadelphia, chronologically arranged, to- 
gether with notes.... 495 p. illus. o. Phil. 190S. Leary, 
Stuart, S2. 50. (e. X. Y.) 

Text in both English and German. 

First edition published in 1S5G; same material found also in 
Pennsylvania archives, ser. 2, v. 17. 

S?xhse, J. F. 

(The) fatherland, 1450-1700; showing the part it bore in 
the discovery, exploration and development of the western 
continent with special reference to the commonwealth of 
Pennsylvan^'a. (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1890. v. 9: 
33-256). (e. X. Y.) 

Piililished separately, Philadelphia, 1897. 

Forms v. 1 cf "Penn.: the Ger. influence." 

Gives the history cf the dissension and struggles on the continent 
before the settlement cf America. Appendix contains the title pages 
of book and pamphlets that influenced German emigration to 
America. 

Watson, J. F. 

(The) Germans, see his Annals (^f Philadelphia. 189 1. v. 
2. p. 254-0). (e. X. Y.) 
Quaint. Gives the ideas of the time about the German immigrants. 

Religious History. 
Bittinger, L. F. 

German religious life in colonial times. 145 p. D. Phil. 
1906. Lippincott. $1. (e. X. Y.) 

Particularly strong on the Germans in Pennsylvania, giving brief 
summaries of the develoi)ment of the sects. 

Dubbs, J. H. 

(The) fouiuling of the German churches y^i i'ennsyKania, 
(see Penn. mag. oi hist, and hiog. G^ct. 1893, 17: 24i-()2K 
«e. X. Y.) 

Sachse, J. F. 

German pietists (^f provincial T'ennsylvania. 1684-1708. 
504 p. illus. O- ^'l^il- i^'^OS- Sachse, 85. subs. le. X. Y . "y 
Contents: 

The woman in the wilderness. 

The hermits on the Wissahickon. 

An account of the mvstics and their influences on the local hi^'to^y. 



A SELECT BIELIOGRAPFIY 463 

Dunkers. 
J^rumbaugh, M. G. 

Flistory of the German Baptist brethren in Euro'je and 
America. .S59 I>. ihus. o. Mount Morris, 111. 1899. I'rethren 
pub. house. S2. (e. Bost.) 

The history of the Dunkers, with an account of Christopher Saur 
and the Ephrata society. 

Falkenstein, G. N. 

(The) German Baptist brethren or Dunkers. (see Penn.- 
Ger. soc. Proceed. 1899. v. 10). (e. X. Y.) 

Published separately, 1901. 

Forms v. 8 of "Penn. :. the Ger. influence." 

Includes brief notes of the early -congregations. 

Plory, J. S. 

Literary iictivity of the German Baptist brethren in the 
i8th centurv. 335 p. o. Elgin. 111. 1908. Brethren pub. 
house. $i.2,s. (e. Bost.) 

Thesis Ph. D. Univ. of Va. 

The genesis of the Gemian Baptist brethren, with the customs and 
practices of the church are clearly outlined. The work of Chisto- 
plier Saur and the minor writers is discussed and quotations are 
given from their works. The appendix contains a chronologic list 
of works either written or printed by the Dunkers in the ISth 
century. 

Lamech and Agrippa, pseud. 

Chronicon Ephratense ; a history of the communit}' of the 
Seventh da;- Baptists at Ephrata, Lancaster county, Penn. : 
tr. from the oris^inal German by L M. Hark. 2SS p. illus. o. 
Lane. 1889. Zahn. (e. X. Y'.)' 

Supposedly written in 1786. 
Published in a limited edition. 

Lrloyd, Nelson. 

Among the Dunkers. Csee Scribner's Macr. Xov. 1901. 30: 
513-28). (e. N. Y.) 

Graphic account of a Dunker meeting in Lebanon county. 

Pyle, Howard. 

A peculiar people, (see Harper's Mac^. Oct. 1880. 79: 776- 
^>5). (e. X. Y.) 

Describes a visit to the Ephrata cloister. 

Sachse, J. F. 

(The) German sectarians of Pennsylvania : a critical ami 
legendary history of the Ephrata cloister and the Dunkers. 
1708-1800. 2v. iilus. O. Phil. 1899-1900. Sachse, $^ ea. v. 
subs. (e. N. Y.) 

Vivid and detailed description of the Ephrata cloister, with special 
emphasis on the influential position which the cloister held during 
the ISth century. 

(The) music of the Ephrata cloister, also C^Mirad Beissel's 
treatise on music as set forth in a preface to the **Turtel 
taube" of 1747.... (see Penn. -Ger. soc. Proceed. 1901. uyoi, 
V. 12). (e. X. Y.) 

Published separately at Lancaster. 190;>. 
Forms v. 7 of "Penn.: the C.er. inthieuce." 

A description of the Pennsylvania-Gorman music sung at Ephrata 
and of several of the hvmnals used. 



466 . THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

Lutherans. 
Jacobs, H. E. 

History of the Evangelical Lutheran church in the United 
States. 539 p. o. X. Y. 1893. Christian Lit. co. $2. (Am. 
cluirch hist.), (e. N. Y.) 

Scattered throughout the book is much relating to the Pennsylva- 
nia Lutherans. 

Mann, W. J. Schmucker, B. M. and Germann, W. ed. 
Nachrichten \'on den vereinigten Deutschen Evangelisch- 
Lutherischcn Gemeinen in Xord-America, absonderlich in 
Pennsylvanien. I\Iit einer vorrede von D. J. L. Schulze.... 
neu herausgcgeben mit historischer erlautcrungen und niit- 
theilungen aus dem archiv der Franckischen stiftungen zu 
Halle von Mann,. .. .Schmucker und. ... Germann. v. L 'J2'i^ 
p.-o. Allentown, 1886. Brobst, Diehl and Co. (e. Bost.) 

A series of reports from the Lutheran pastors of Pennsylvania. 
Muhlenberg, Brunholtz, Handschuh, etc.. sent to the authorities at 
Halle, forms a most valuable storehouse of material. The report 
was first published in 1774. This edition was left incomplete by the 
death of the editors. The publication of two English translations 
has been begun, but both have been abandoned. 

Commonly known as "Hallische Xachrichten." 

Schmauk, T. E., D.D. 

(The) Lutheran church in Peni\sylvania, 1638-1800. The 

church prior to the arrival of AW Penn in the 17th century 

and prior to the arrival of LL ]\L Muhlenberg in the i8th 

century, (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1900, v. II: 1901. v. 

■ 12). (e. N. Y.) 

Published separately in Philadelphia, 1903 under the title: History 
of the Lutheran church in Pennsylvania. 163S-1S20. 
Forms v. 9 of ""Penn.: the Ger. influence." 

Wolf, E. J., D.D. 

(The) Lutherans in America ; a study of struggle, pro- 
gress, influence and marvelous growth. 544 p. illus. o. X. 
Y. i890.Hill, $2.75 subs. (e. Xr Y.) 

Includes good account of ^Muhlenberg's ministry among the Ger- 
mans of Pennsylvania. 

Mennonites. 
Cassell, D. K. 

Geschichte der ^lennoniten von Menno Simon's austritt 
aus der Romisch-Katholischen kirche in 1536 bis zu deren 
auswanderung nach Amerika in 1683, mehr speciell ihre 
ansiedlung und ausbreitung in Amerika enthaltend kur.-^e 
skizzen der einzelnen gemeinde mit den namen ihrer prctli- 
ger voni jahre 1683 bis zur gegen\vartigen zoit. 545 u. illus. 
o. Phil. 1S90. Kohler. 

An English edition was published in Philadelphia in ISSS. 

Ellis Franklin and Evans, Samuel. 

(The) Mennonites, Dunkers, Reformed ^Mennonites, River 
Brethren and Amish. (see their History of Lancaster coun- 
ty. 1883. p. 3-^4-344^. (e. X. Y.) 
Hooker, E. W. 

Plain people, (see Era, Ap. IQ03. 11: 347-66') . (e. X. Y.) 



A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 467 

The Mennonites, Dunkers, Amish, Schwenkfelders 
Smith, C. H. 

(The) ^Mennonites in America. 484 p. illus. o. Scottdale, 
Penn. 1909. Mennonite pnb. house, $2. (e. X. Y.) 

Bibliography, pp. 456-78. 

Covers fairly well the customs and practices of the Pennsylvania- 
German Mennonites. 

Moravians 
Hamilton, J. T. 

History of the church known as Moravian church, or. the 
Unitas fratrum, or the Unity of the brethren, during the iSth 
and 19th centuries. 631 p. ilhis. o. Bethlehem. 1900. Times 
pub. CO. (e. X. Y.) 

Published also in the Moravian hist. soc. Transactions, v. 6. 

Henry, James. 

Sketches of Moravian hfe and character, comprising- a 
general view of the history. Hfe. character and rehgious and 
educational institutions of the Unitas fratrum. 316 p. ilhis. 
D. Phil. 1859. Lippincott, Sr.75, o. p. (e. X. Y.) 

Cood chapters on the work of Zinzendorf and Spangenbers. and 
the celebration of the Moravian festivals. 

Howells, W. D. 

Gnadenhutten (see Atlantic ]\Io. Jan. 18^39, 23: 9;-! 15). ('e. 
X. Y.) 

An account of the Moravians in Pennsylvania, 
Levering, J. M. 

History of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741-1892, with some 
account of its founders and their early activit}' in America. 
809 p. illus. O. Bethlehem, 1903. Times pub. co. $4. le. X'. 
V.) 

Authentic account of the Moravians from the foundation of the 
sect in Moravia to their present day history in Bethlehem. 

Moravians at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. (see Knicker- 
bocker, Aug. 1849, 34- 121-25). (e. X. Y.) ^ 

Extracts from a descriptive letter written in 177S. 
Reichel, Rev. L. T. 

Early history of the church of the United brethren ( Unitas 
fratrum) commonly called Moravians in Xorth America. 
1734-1748. (see Moravian hist. soc. Transactions, v. '^). (e. 
X. Y.) 

Good in the general history of all churches, but gives very good 
account of the development of Nazareth and Bethlehem. 
Reichel, Rev. W. C. ed. 

Memorials of the Moravian church, v. I, t^t^C^ p. o. Phil. 
1870. Lippincott. $3.50. (, e. X'. Y.) 

Collections reprinted from the mss. of Zinzendorf. 
Reid. G. S. 

(The) barony oi the rose, a historical monograpli. 58 p. 
ilus. O. X. Y. 1904. Graft(^n press. 82 (e. X. Y.^i 

Interesting material about Zinzendorf and the .\azareth Mora\ ian 
communities. 

Schwenintz, Rev. Paul de. 

(The) German Mora\ian settlements in Pennsylvania. 
i73^-i*^oo- (-^c^' renn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 180 v \. ^4-j2). 
.(e.\X. Y.) 

An excellent brief account. 



468 THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAX 

Reformed. 
Dubbs, J. H., D.D. 

(The) Rcfi^rmed church in Pennsylvania. (see Penn.- 
Ger. soc. Proceed. 1900. v. II). (e. N. Y.) 

Miller, Daniel. 

Early Fiistory of the Reformed church in Pennsylvania. 
280 p. illus. D. Reading, 1906. ?^Iiller, $.75. (e. Bost.). 

Schwenkfelders 
Kriebel, H. W. 

(The) Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania. (see Penn.-Ger. 
soc. Proceed. 1903. v. 13). (e. N. Y.) 
Published separately at Lancaster, 1904. ^ 

Forms v. 12 of '"Penn.: the Ger. influence." 
Contains a bibliography of the Schwenkfelders, pp. 183-202. 

Seipt, A. A. 

Schwenkfelder hymnology. and the sources of the first 
Schwenkfelder hymn book printed in America. 112 p. illus. 
Q. Phil. 1900. Am. Ger. press, $2. (Am. Ger. new.ser.) 
<e. N. Y.) 

Thesis, Ph. D. Univ. of Penn. 1906. 

Gives accounts of the writers as well as the hymns. 

Biography. 

Dock, Christoplier 
Brumbaugh, M. G. 

Life of.... Dock. (see Dock, Christopher. Life -and 
works. 190S. p. 9-23). (e. N. Y.) 

Hillegas, 3Ilchael 
Minnich, M. R. 

A memoir of the first treasurer of the United States, with 
chronological data. S/p. illus. o. Phil. 190^. Minnich, 
$1.50. (e. N. Y.) 

Muhlenbervr, Henry 3releLior 
Frick, W. K., D.D. 

Plenry Melchior Muhlenberg, patriarch of the Lutheran 
church in America. 200 p. S. Phil. 1902. Luth. pub. co. 
$.40. (Luth. hand book ser.) (e. X. Y.) 

^luhlenbersr, (Sen. John Peter Oabriel 
Muhlenberg, H. A. 

Life of Major general Peter Muhlenberg of the revolution- 
ary army. 455 p. illus. D. Phil. 1849. Carey, o. p. (e. N. Y.) 

Pastorius, Francis Daniel 
Learned, M. D. 

Life of. . . .Pastorius, founder of Gcrmantowu with an 

appreciation of Pastorius bv S. W. Pennypacker. 324 p. il- 
lus. O. Phil. 1908. Campbell. 85. (e. N. Y .) 

Appeared first in the German American annals. 1907-S. v. 9-10. 

Kittenhouse, l)a>id 
Renwick, James. 

Life of Rittenhouse. (see Sparks, Tared,' ed. Library of 
American biography. 1834-4S. 7: 295-398). i^c. X. Y.) 



A SELECT lilBLIOGRAPHY 4€9 

Weiser, John Conrad. 
Walton, J. S. 

Conrad W'eiser and the Indian policy of colonial I'ennsyl- 
vania. 420 p. illus. o. Phil. 1900. Jacobs, $2.50. (e. X. Y.; 
Emphasizes Weiser's skill in guiding the Indian affairs. 

Weisor, John Conrad. 
Weiser, C. Z., D.D. 

Life of . . . .W'ciser, the German pioneer, patriot and pa- 
tron of two races. 449 p. D. Reading, 1876. Miller, S2. o. p. 
but an 1899 edition was published by Miller. $.50. (e. X. Y.) 
Authoritative, containing Weiser's letters, journals and memo- 
randa. 

Zinzendorf, >'ichoIas Le>\is, count. 

Spangenberg, A. C, bp. 

Life of ... .Zinzendorf, bishop and ordinary of the church 
of the United (or Moravian) brethren ; tr. from the German 

by Jackson. 511 p. illus. D. Lond. 1838. Holdsworth, 

IDS, 6d. o p. (e. N. Y.) 
Considered the most authoritative. 

Zinzendorf, Nicholas Lewis, count. 

(The) Moravians and their leader. (see Harper's Ma^. 
May 1857, 14:786-97). (e. X. Y.) 
An account of Zinzendorf's work among the Germans in Penn. 

Language and Literature 
Pick, H. H. 

(Die) dialect dichtung in der Deutsch - Amerikanischer 
litte'ratur. 29 p o. n. t-p. (e. Penn.) 
Discusses the dialect poets, especially Harbaugh. 

Fischer, H. L. 

Kurzweil un zeitfertreib, odder Pennsylfaanisch deutsche 
folksleider. . - .273 p. illus. o. York, 1882. G. G. Fisher. 
$1.25. o. p. (e. Bost.) 

A 2nd edition published in York, ISOG. 

Includes translations into the dialect of familiar poems. 

'S alt marik-house mittes in d'r schtadt un die alte zeite. 
En centennial poem in Pennsylvaninsch Deutsch in zwe 
dhel.... 2'/ 1 p. illus. 2 v. in L o. York, 1879. (e. Penn.) 

Amusing illustrations and homely verse to depict life of rural 
Pennsylvania. 

Grumbine, L. L. 

(The) Pennsylvania-German dialect, a study <^{ its status 
as a spoken dialect and form of literary expression, with re- 
ference to its capabilities and limitations, and lines illustrat- 
ing same, see Penn.-Ger. soc Proceed. 1002. v, \2\ . ( e. X'. 
Y.) 

Published separately in a limited edition under the title: Der deng- 
elstock and other poems and translations in the dialect. 

Adopted by the Pennsylvania-German society as a "correct exposi- 
tion of the nature, scope and sphere of said dialect."* 

Haldeman, S. S. 

Pennsylvania Dutch, a dialect y^i south Germany with an 
infusion of English. 6q p. D. Phil. 1872. Ref. ch. pul>. hd. 
$1.25. o. p. (e. X. Y.) 

Comparison with other dialects. 



470 THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 

Harbaugh, Henry, D.D. 

Harfe. gedichte in Pennsylvania-deutscher nunulart. 121 
p.illns. o. Phil. 1870. Ref. ch . pub. bd. $1.25. o. p. 

Simple but expressive dialect poems. 
Hark, J. M., D.D. 

En' hondfull farsh ; experiments in Pennsylvania-German 
verse with an introduction on the capability of Pennsylvania- 
German for poetic expression, (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed, 
1899. V. 10). (e. N. Y.) 
Harter, T. H. 

Boonastiel, Pennsylvania Dutch. Middleburgh, Penn. 
1893. 
Heydrick, B. A. 

Provincialisms of southeastern Pennsyh'ania ; a list of 
dialect expressions, chiefly of Pennsylvania- German origin 
found in Lancaster and adjoining counties, (see Ger. Am. 
Annals. Sep.-Oct. Nov. -Dec. 1907, n. s. 5: 307-13, 371-381; 
Jan. -Feb. 1908, n. s. 6: 32-52). (e. N. Y.) 
Hoffman, W. J., M. D. 

Grammatic notes and vocabulary of the Pennsyl\-ania- 
German dialect, (see Am. philos. soc. Proceed, jan.-lulv. 
1889.26:188-285.) (e. N. Y.) 
The grammatic and phonetic peculiarities of the dialect are dis- 
! cussed. 

Home, A. R., D.D. 

Pennsylvania German manual for pronouncing, speaking 
and writing English; a guide book for schools- and families. 
Rev. and enl. 415 p. ilus. o. Allentown, 1896, [c. 1876.] 
National educator print, (e. X. Y.) 

Aims to enable those who speak only Pennsylvania-German ta 
acquire English. 

Learned, M. D. 

(The) Peimsylvania-German dialect. 114 p. o. Bait. 1889, 
Johns Hopkins Univ. press, $.50, o. p. 

A most exhaustive scientific treatment of the dialect. 

Reprinted from articles published in the American "journal of 
Philolog:.', 1S88, 9:64-83, 178-97, 326-39. 425-56; 1SS9. 10:288-315. 

Lins, J. C, comp. 

Common sense Pennsylvania-German dictionary, Revised 
and enlarged containing nearly all the Pennsylvania-German 
words in common use. 170 p. D. Reading, 1895. Lins. [q. 
Penn.) 

Miller, Daniel, ed. 

Pennsylvania-German ; a collection of Pennsyl\ania-Ger- 
man productions in poetry and prose. Ed. 2. 200 p. il- 
lus. o. p. Reading. 1904. Daniel ^lillcr. Si (e.) 

Representative poetry and prose written in the dialect. 
Miller, H. M. 

Pennsylvania-German poems by Solly Huisbuck. f pseud]. 
116 p. illus. D. Elizabethville, Penn. I90(). Hawthorne 
press, $.75. 

P*einisylvania-German stories by Solly Huisbuck. [p^eud]. 
112 p. illus. o. Elizabethville. Penn. 11)07. HawiluTiie 
press, $1.25. 



A SELP:CT bibliography 471 

Pennypacker, S. W. 

(The) early literature of the Pennsylvania-Germans, (see 
Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1892. v. 2, 33-46). 

Rauch, E. H. 

Pennsylvania Dutch handbook, a book for instruction.... 
238 p. S. Mauch Chunk, 1879. Rauch, $1.50, o. p. fe. X. 

Y.) 

Gives several thousand words in both FJnglish and Pennsylvania- 
German to enable English speiiking people to use the Pennsylvania- 
German. 

Pennsylvania Dutch Rip Van Winkle, a romantic drama in 
2 acts, translated from the original, with variations by "Pit 
Schvvefflebrenner." 32 p. 0. Mauch Chunk, 1883. Ranch, 
(e. Penn.) 

Stahr, J. S. 

Pennsylvania-German, (see Mercersburg Rev. Oct. 1870. 
17: 618-34). (e. N. Y.) 
A good statement of what the language is. 

Stein, T. S. 

Uf'm owerste speicher; a Pennsylvania - German poem, 
(see Leb. co. hist. soc. Historical papers. 1902, T: 273-88). 
(e. N. Y.) 

Portrays the manners and customs of the Pennsylvania-German 
ancestors. 

Warner, J. H. 

Amerikanish historic, by Johann Klotz. 100 p. illus. D. 
Annville, Penn. Journal pub. co. $.50. (e.'i 

A comic history of America written in the Pennsvlvania-'Jerman 
dialect. The illustrations are as funny as the text itself. 

Wollenweber, L. A. 

Gemalde aus dem Pennsylvanischen volksleben. Schilder- 
ungen und aufsatze in poetischer and prosaicher form in 
mundart und ausdruckweise dcr Deutsch Pennsylvanicr. 140 
p. D. Phil. 1869. Schafer, $.50, o. p. (e. Penn.) 

Zimmerman, T. C. 

Metrical translations from the German and English clas- 
sics and from the Scotch and Irish dialects into the Pennsyl- 
vania-German, (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1901. 12: 101- 
39). (e. N. Y.) 

Olla podrida. consisting of addresses, translations. ">oems. 
hymns and sketches of out-door life. 2 v. illus. S. Reading. 
1903. Times pub. co. $1.75, o. p. 

Barber, E. A. 

Tulip ware of the Pennsylvania-German pcntors : an his- 
torical sketch oi the art en' slip decoration in the L'nircd 
States. 2;^7, p. illus. O. FMiil. 1903. Patterson and White. 
$3.50. (e. Penn.) ^ 

300 copies printed. 

Mercer, H. C. 

Decorated stove ]>lates o\ the Pem^<\l\ania-(~Ierma!i.s. 26 
p. o. Doylestown. iSi)(). (Contrib. to Am. hist, by Bucks 
CO. hist. stK. no. 6). (e. Penn.) 



472 THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

Mercer, H. C. 

(The) survival of the mediaeval art of illnminative writing; 
among Pennsylvania-Germans, (see Am. philos. soc. Pro- 
ceed. Dec, i<S97, 36: 424-33)- (e. X. Y.) 

Also published separate!}'. 
Seidensticker, Oswald. 

(The) first century of German printing in America, 1728-- 
1830; preceded by a notice of the literary work of F. D. Pas- 
torius. 253 p. illus. o. Phil. 1893. Schaefer and Koradi. 

Buehrle, R. K. 

(The) educational position of the Pennsylvania-Germans., 
(see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1893. 5: 121-132). (e. X. Y.> 

Fischer, H. L. 

An historical sketch of the Pennsylvania- Germans, their 
ancestrv, character, manner, customs, dialect, etc. 59 p. Q- 
Chic. 1885, Batty, (e. Penn.) 

Material confined largely to York county. 
Gibbons, Mrs. Phebe (Earle). 

Pennsylvania Dutch and other essays. 3d. ed. 427 p. o. 
Phil. 1882. Lippincott, S2. o. p. 
Contents: 

Pennsylvania Dutch. 

An Amish, meeting. 

Swiss exiles. 

Dunker love feast. 

Ephrata. V . ' 

Bethlehem and the Moravians. 

Schwenkfelders. 

Miners of Scranton. 

Hart, A. B. 

(The) Pennsylvania^ Dutch, (see Penn.-Ger. Mag. Xov. 
1907, 8: 529-43 f. (e. X. Y.) 

Reprinted from the Boston Transcript of Aug. 31 1907. Also re- 
printed with critical annotations by F. R. Diffenderffer in Lancaster 
Co. hist. soc. Historical papers. Feb. 1908, 12:82-100. For further 
criticism see 

Gruber, M. A. 

(The) Pennsylvania-Germans : a reply to A. B. Hart, (see 
Penn.-Ger. Mag. Jan. 1908, 9: 21-26) (e.) 
Hoffman, W. J., M. D.^ 

Folklore of the Pennsylvania-Germans, (see Jour, oi Anu 
folklore, July-Sept. 1888. i: 125-135; Jan.-Mar., July - Sep. 
1889, 2: 23-35, 191-202) (e. X. Y.) 

Folk medicine of the Ponnyslvania- Germans. (see Anu 
philos. soc. Proceed. Jan.-July, i88c). 26: 329-52. ") (e. X. V.) 

Superstitions and practices for the prevention and cure of ills. 

i'opular superstitions, (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. i8<)4.. 
5: 70-81). (e. X. Y.) 
Home, A. R., D.D. 

Proverbs and sayings of the Pennsylvania-Germans, (see 
Penn. Ger. soc. Proceed. i8<)2. 2: 47-54V {t. X. Y . ") 
Mann, W. J., D.D. 

(Die) "gute alte zeite" in Pennsylvanieti. 100 p. IX Phil. 
1880 Kohler. (e. Penn.) 

Character, manners and customs of the people told in dialect. 



inn 



A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 47a 

Mittelberger, Gottlieb. 

Journey to Pennsylvania in 1750 and return to Germany 
in 1754, containing- not only a description of the country ac- 
cording to its present condition but also a detailed account 
of the sad and unfortunate circumstances of most of the Ger- 
mans that have emigrated or are emigrating to that country ; 
tr. from the German bv C. T. Eben. 129 p. o. Phil. 1898. 
McVey, $2. (e. X. Y.') 

The original Gennan edition v/as issued in 175G. 
Richardson, W. H. 

(The) picturesque quality of the Pennsylvania- Germans, 
(see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1903. 131:). (e. X. Y.) 

Published separately at Lancaster, 1904. 
Rush, Benjamin, M. D. 

Account of the manners of the German inhabitants of 
Pennsylvania, written 1789, with notes added by I. D. Rupp. 
^2 p. illus, D. Phil. 1875. Town, $.50. o. p. 

Quaintly written account by the noted Philadelphia physician. 
Schantz, F. J. F., D.D. 

Domestic life and characteristics of the Pennsylvania- 
German pioneer, (see Penn.-Ger. soc. Proceed. 1899. v. 10-) . 
(e. N. Y.) 

Published separately at Lancaster, 1900. 

Forms v. 6 of "Penn.: the Ger. intluence." 

Appendix contains Christopher Dock's Rules of etiquette. 

Seidensticker, Oswald. 

Bilder aus der deutsch-pennsvlvanischen geschichte. 276 
P.O. X. Y. 1885 Steiger, $1. ^(e. X. Y.) 
Contents: 

Die erste deutsche einwanderung in Amerika und die griindung- 
Yon Germantown ini jahre 1683. 

Johann Kelpius, der einsiedler am Wissahickon. 

Die beiden Christoph Saur in Germantown. 

Ephrata; eine amerikanische Kloster-geschichte. 

Die Deutschen im frieden und im kriege. 

Stahr, Rev. J. S. 

(The) Pennsylvania-German at home, see Penn.-Ger. soc. 
Proceed. 1894. 4: 53-70). (e. X. Y.) 
Starr, Frederick. 

Some Pennsylvania-German lore, (sec Jour. o\ Am. folk- 
lore Oct. -Dec. 1891. 4: 321-26). (e. X". Y.) 

Observations of superstitions and customs in Northampton county. 

Stoudt, J. B. 

Pennsylvania-German riddles and nursery rhymes. (see 
Jour, of Am. folk-lore. Ap.-June. I90(). 10: 113-20. 

Gives many riddles in the dialect with their t]nglish translations. 
Weber, S. E. 

(The) charity school movement in coh^nial Pennsylvania. 
1754-1763; a history of the educational struggle between the 
authorities and the Germans. 74 p. o. Phil. 100;. Camp- 
bell, (e. Penn.) 

Resume of the early educational methods in the colony with due 
honor to the German press and schools. 

KaufFman, R. W. 

Some }*ennsylvania- German story-writers. (see Penn.- 
Ger. Mag-. July I90(), 7: 180-181). i^e. X. Y.) 



474 THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

Criticism of the work of Mrs. Martin, Georg Schock, Elsie Sing- 
master and John Luther Long. 

Keyser, N. H., M. D. . 

Fiction dealing- with the Pennsylvania-Germans. (see 
Penn.-Ger. Mag. Sep. 1906, 7:272). (e. X. Y.) 

A list of novels and short stories. 
Blake, K. E. 

Hearts haven. 406 p. illtis. D. Indianapolis, 1905. Bobbs 
Merrill, $1.08. (e.'X. Y.) 

Kauffman, R. W. 

(The) non resistance of Amos, a story of the Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch, (see Century Mag. Aug. 1907, 74". 562-74). (e. 
N. Y.) 

Koons, U. S. 

(A) tale of the kloster; a romance of the German mystics 
of the Cocalico by brother Jabez. 336 p. illus. o. Phil. 1904. 
Griffith and Rowland press, (e.) 

Lloyd Nelson. 

(The) chronic loafer. 254 p. 0. X. Y. 1900. J. F. Tay- 
lor, $1. 

Long, J. L. 

Ein nix-nutz. (see Century Mag. Mar. 1898, ^^: 740-56). 
(e. X. Y.) 
Also published in his Prince of illusion. 1901. pp. 121-71. 

Liebereich's Christmas, (see Century Mag. Dec. 1904,69: 
2S2-S). (e. X. Y.) 

Also in his Heimweh. 190.5. 

Seffy, a little comedy of country manners. 143 p. illus. o. 
Indianapolis, 1905. Bobbs, $1.50. (e.) 

(The) strike on the Schlafeplatz railroad. (see Century 
Mag, ^lar. 1902, 63: 710-21). (e. X\ Y.) 

-Published also in his Sixty Jane and the strike on the Schlafeplatz 
railroad. 1903, pp. 31-57. 

In his stories of Pennsylvania-German life. John Luther Long fails 
somewhat of a correct interpretation of character but the pervading 
humor and the artistic treatment give them place among the pleasing 
contributions to the Pennsylvania-German fiction. 

Martin, Mrs. Helen (Reimensnyder). 

(The) betrothal of Elypholate and other tales of the Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. 249 p. illus. o. X. Y. 1907. Centurv, Si . ;o. 
(e. X. Y.) 

Contents: 

The betrothal of Elypholate Yingst; (also in the Cosmopolitan. 

June, 1903, 35:19G-206). 
The reforming of a bridegromm; (also in McClures Mag. Nov. 190G. 

28:89-101). 
The conversion of Elviny; (also in McClures Mag. Mav. 1902. 19: 

69-77). 
Ellie's furnishing: (also in McClures Mag. Dec. 1903. 22: 212-20). 
Mrs. Holzapples convictions. 
The narrow escape of Permilla; (also in Centurv Mag. Ap. 1905, 

67:S6S-80). 
The courting of Pearly; (also in McClures Mag. Feb. 1907, 2S: 

35o-6()). 
The disciplining of Mathias: (also in McClures Mac. Oct. 1902. 19: 

514-22). 



A SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 475 

Martin, Mrs. Helen (Reimensnyder). 

(The) crosswavs. 311 p. illus. D. X. Y. 1910. Centurv, 
$1.50. (e. N. Y.) 

Sabina; a story of the Amish. 233 p. D. X. Y. 1905. Cen- 
tury, $1.25. (e/X. Y.) 

Tillie, a Mennonite maid ; a story of the Pennsylvania 
Dutch. 336 p. illus. D. X. Y. 1904. Centurv, $1.50. 
(e. X. y!) 

The work of Mrs. Martin cannot be ranked as successful in produc- 
ing true pictures of Pennsylvania-German life; although as interest- 
ing and amusing stories they have gained a wide popularity. For 
characters Mrs. Martin draws largely upon the "'plain"' people of 
Lancaster county whom she seems to be unable to unders-tand and 
depict faithfully. Her Pennsylvania-Germans are always of the same 
type, simple and stolid men and women, usually living on a farm; 
her people are endowed with a composite of all the mean and unde- 
sirable traits, with never a redeeming touch nor an admirable 
characteristic; Even the dialect may in some instances be questioned. 
For the most part Mrs. Martin's short stories have been more suc- 
cessful than her novels. 

Pattee, F. L. 

(The) house of the Black king. 324 p. map. D. X'. Y. 
1905. Holt, Si. 08. 

Schock, Georg. 

(The) birthright of the wanderer. (See Harper's Mag. 
July, 1906, 113: 301-9). (e. X. Y.) 

(The) Christmas child, (see Harper's Mag. Ap. 1906,112: 
704-713). (e. X. Y.) 

(A) daughter of the soil. (See Scribner's Mac:. Tune, 190V 
33:675-84). (e. X. Y.) 

Hearts contending; a novel. 2'j2 p. illus. D. X'. Y. 1910. 
Harper, $1.50. (e. X. Y.) 

(The) patient earth, (see Scribner's Mag. Oct. 1905. 3S : 
423-31)- (e. X. Y.) 

(A) pilgrim in Beulah. (see Scribner's Mag. Aug. 1005. 
38:205-209). (e. X. Y.) 

(A) prisoner of the ground ; a Pennsylvania-German story, 
(see Lippincott's Mag. Ap. 1907. 79:517-27). ( e. X. Y.) 

Venus in the fields, (see Harper's Mag. Mar. 1908, 116: 
598-608). (e. X. Y.) 

. (A) victim of cleanliness, (see Centurv Mag. Feb. ux>4. 
67:539-50)- (e. X. Y.) 

The real name of 'Georg Schock"' has just been announced to be 
Katherine Loose. She has not attempted to localize her stories 
among the people of any one religious faith. Her people are repre- 
sentative people, sturdy farmers, strongly drawn with powerful dra- 
matic intensity and often an element of fatalism in the working out 
cf their lives. There is little attempt to use the Pennsylvania-German 
dialect. 

Singmaster, Elsie. 

Big Thursday, (see Centurv Mag. Tan. ioo^'\ 7i:v'>4-7oV 
(e. X. Y.) 

(The) county seat, (see Atlantic Mo. Mav U)o8. loi :704- 
9)- (e. X. Y.) ' 



476 THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

Singmaster, Elsie. 

(The) dower ladies. (see Atlantic Mo. Aug. 1909, 104: 
219-24). (e. X. Y.) 

Elmina's living out. (see Lippincott's Mag. Feb. 1909, 83 : 
214-222). (e. N. Y.) 

(The) exiles, (see Harper's Mag. Oct. 1999, 119:666-72). 
(e. N. Y.) 

(The) ghost of Matthias Baum. (see Century Mag. Feb. 
1909, 77:604-10), (e. N. Y.) 

Henrv Koehler, misogynist, (see Atlantic Mo. Nov. 1906, 
98:657.63). (e. X. Y.) • 

. (The) long courting of Henery Kumerant. (see Lippin- 
cott's Mag. Sep. 1907, 80:348-57). (e. X. Y.) 

(The) Millerstown yellow journal. (see Atlantic Mo. 
May, 1906, 97:688-94). (e. X. Y.) 

Mrs. W'eimer's gift of tongues, (see Lippincott's Mag. 
Feb. 1908, 81:254-61). (e. X. Y.) 

(The) old regime, (see Atlantic Mo. 1908, 102:546-51). 
(e. X. Y.) 

(The) vacillation of Benjamin Gaumer. (see Century Mag. 
Mar. 1906, 71:707-23). e. X. Y.) 

When Sarah saved the day. 135 p. illus. D. . Bost. 1909. 
Houghton, $1. (e. X. Y.)" 

\Vhen town and country meet. (see Atlantic Mo. Sep. 
1907, 1000: 341-6). (e. X^ Y.) 

Most of Miss Singmaster's short stories center about Millersville 
and we are privileged to meet some of her simple and unaffected 
characters in several stores. Keen observation and a sense of propor- 
tion, dominated by a note of sincerity and artistic purpose, make her 
representations of the Pennsylvania-Germans more true to life. For 
the most part her attempts to reproduce the dialect have been 
successful. 



^mm 



477 



The Hessian Camp at Reading, Pa., 1 781-83 



By Andrew Shaaber, Reading, Pa. 




NOTE. — The following paper, reprinted 
from the Reading E]agle. was read by the 
author before the Berks County Historical 
Society. 

RO^I the beginning of 
the American war for in- 
dependence to the close 
of the war in 1783, nearly 
30,000 German soldiers 
were sent to this country 
to assist the armies of 
the British King, the av- 
erage strength of the German force 
being kept up to 20.000. More than 
half of those troops were furnished by 
the Prince of Hesse-Cassel, a fifth by 
the Duke of Brunswick, and the re- 
maining 7,000 by four or five smaller 
principalities. 

The First Division, composed of 2,- 
282 Brunswickers, started for America 
on February 22, 1776. With them 
were /j soldiers' wives. Great num- 
bers of women, some of them wives of 
officers, but more of them wives of the 
private soldiers, followed the German 
troops throughout the war. Two thou- 
sand more Brunswickers under Gen- 
eral Baron von Riedesel. started two 
months later. These were joined just 
before their final embarkation at 
Portsmouth by a regiment from Hesse- 
Hanau, 680 strong. These troops 
were destined for Quebec, where they 
anchored, the one body on June i and 
the other on September 19. 

The summer was spent in boat 
building and in other preparations for 
a campaign against the Americans, 
who, with a small fleet of boats, held 
Lake Champlain. In the beginning of 
October, the British preparations 
being completed, the Americans were 
attacked and easily routed, those who 
escaped retiring to Fort Ticonderoga. 
British scouts advanced toward 
Ticonderoga, but as the fort was 
thought to be strong, and as the sea- 
son was now late, it was decided to 



defer further operations until sprinsr. 
The troops went into winter quarters. 
With duty and pleasure, the months 
wore away until June, 1777, when a 
most eventful campaign fur this Brit- ' 
isli army, now commanded by Bur- 
goyne, opened. More than half of the 
8,000 regulars of the army were Ger- 
mans. In addition to the regulars 
there were several hundred Caiiadians. 
a large number of American Provin- 
cials who were loyal to the King, and 
500 Indians. Burgoyne's object vras to 
open and hold a road from Canada to 
Albany, there joining a force under 
Clinton that the British Commander 
at New York River, so as to cut ofit 
New England City was sending up the 
Hudson from the other colonies. 

In the first days of July, the great 
Fort Ticonderoga. furnished with 
abundant supplies and many cannon, 
but insullicicntly manned, was aban- 
doned by the Americans. The news of 
the loss of this fort carried dismay 
and gloom throughout the colonies. In 
England there was the greatest joy 
and exultation. It was believed the 
Americans could never recover from 
this disaster, and that the war was as 
good as ended. 

Later events showed, however, that 
the loss of the fort may have been 
necessary to taring about the turn in af- 
fairs that followed in the next few 
months. 

Burgoyne, in following the retreat- 
ing Americans, found he could not live 
UIHM1 the almost unsettled country 
through which he was passing. The 
Americans had so blocked the roads 
by felling trees atul destn\ving bridges 
that he advanced only 25 miles in a 
tnonth. Meanwhile his supplies of lOi:>»l 
were being brought, part of the way 
on the backs oi men, irom far away 
Canada. His great need of additi-'^nal 
supplies induced him to detach 7;X) 
men to marcli to Bennington. 24 miles 



478 



THE PEXNS YLVAX [A-GERM AX 



distant, in an attempt to capture the 
Continental stores at that place, but 
the Americans who had hastily gath- 
ered fell on them and defeated them. 
Reinforcements were sent out by the 
British, but these fared no better than 
the first. Of the 1,400 men sent out, 
only 400 returned, and these were 
€mpty-handed. Burgoyne lost nearly 
a month in getting- his army into shape 
again, and it was now on short ra- 
tions. On Sept. 19 the Americans at- 
tacked the marching British and a 
sharp battle ensued, in which both 
sides lost heavily. 

On Oct. 7, in a heavy fight, the 
British suffered severe defeat. Xext 
-day they began to retreat, but made 
little progress as day after day the 
Americans attacked them, wearing 
them out. Burgoyne and his officers, 
feeling that with their beaten and 
famishing army they could no longer 
successfully conduct either, ofi:*cnsive 
or defensive operations, losing all hope 
of being succored by the promised but 
long delayed force from Xew York 
City, began a plan for favorable terms 
of capitulation. On Oct. 14, they 
asked for a truce, niaking at the same 
time a verbal agreement of surrender. 
Burgoyne, who was more of a diplo- 
mat than Gates, who now commanded 
the Americans, spent Oct. 15 and 16 
in drawing up an agreement, in mili- 
tary language "a convention," of thir- 
teen articles upon the ternis of which 
his arm^^ would lay down its arms. 

The principal articles of the conven- 
tion (exclusive of those which related 
to the provisioning and accommoda- 
tion of the army on its way to Boston, 
and during its stay at that place), were 
"That the army should march out oi 
camp with all the honors oi war. and 
with its" camp artillery, to a fixed 
place, where they were to deposit 
their arms and lca\'e the artillery; to 
be allowed a free embarkation and 
passage to Kurt^pe. from r>oston. up(^n 
condition oi their n(>t serving again in 
America during the j^-esent war: the 
army not to be separated .particularly 



the men from the officers ; officers to 
be admitted to parole and to wear their 
side arms ; all private property to be 
retained; the jniblic property to be de- 
livered upon honor; no baggage to be 
searched or molested ; all persons of 
whatever country, appertaining to, or 
following the camp, to be fully com- 
prehended in the terms of capitulation, 
and the Canadians to be returned to 
their own country, liable to its condi- 
tions." 

REJECTS GATES' DEMANDS 

Gates replied by an agreement of 
six articles, in which he demanded that 
Burgoyne's whole army ground arms 
in their own encampment and sur- 
render as prisoners of war. 

This demand was rejected with a 
declaration that if Gates insisted, all 
negotiations must immediately break 
off and hostilities recommence. Bur- 
goyne was now playing for time, as 
rumors had reached both the British 
and the American armies that the 
long-delayed assistance by Clinton 
Avas near at hand. I'urgoyne alone, it 
is certain, could make no further re- 
sistance, but Gates, fearful that rumors 
of Clinton's rapid progress up th.e 
Hudson might be true, surprised the 
British on the morning oi the 17th bv 
offering to accept the terms of the 
convention as at fir.-t pn^posed. On 
that day the convention, highly favor- 
able to the British, was signed. In 
the surrender 3.791 men were included.. 
Of these, the Germans numbered 2.4^^1, 
having lost in the earlier part of the 
camnaign 1,122 in killeil, wounded and 
missing. In this campaign Burgoyne 
lost his entire ami}- of ujnvards of 
9.000. men 

START EOXG MARCH TO BOSTON 
Immediately after the surrender, 
the Canadians and the Provincials 
started for their homes. The Indians 
had deserted several weeks earlier. 
The luiglish and the German regulars 
separated and by liifferent routes set 
out iMi the long march to Bostoti. 
where the\- were to end>ark. We will 
fc»ru»w tiie Germans and their ijuard of 



THE HESSIAN CAMP AT READING, PA. 



47i* 



700 Americans. The inclement weath- 
er of the fall season had already set 
in. There were days of piercing cold 
winds, rain and snow that made the 
roads horrible and greatly impeded 
their progress. The distance of 215 
miles was made -in three weeks, and 
on Nov. 7 they occupied barracks on 
Winter Hill at Cambridge, four miles 
from Boston. Winter was soon upon 
them — a cold winter for them, for there 
was no wood or trees within five miles, 
and they could get little firewood. No 
ships came to carry them across the 
sea, and the peculiar conditions of 
their surrender did not admit their be- 
ing exchanged as prisoners of war. 
They called themselves "Convention- 
ists" and during their afterstay in this 
country were by Americans usually 
styled '*'the convention troops.'' 

It is to be noted, too, that while but 
five-eighth of the German allies of the 
British were from the principalities of 
Hesse, yet the Americans styled all 
"Hessians." 

Before the winter was over. Con- 
gress virtually decided to break the 
convention made with Burgoyne. To 
this day it is an undecided question 
w^hether Congress acted honorably in 
so doing. 

BURGOYNE BREAKS CONVENTION 
It is charged by some that Burgoyne 
himself broke the convention the day it 
was made. He refused to give de- 
scriptive lists of his men who, if later 
found serving against the Americans, 
might by these lists be identified. He 
did not deliver up the accoutrements 
of his men, claiming that under the 
term "arms" only bare guns were in- 
tended. Under the clause prohibiting 
the searching of baggage, he concealed 
the public money chest and other pub- 
lic property, and also, as was later 
discovered, some of the regimental 
colors. The Canadians who returned 
home under [^arole were compelled to 
take up arms again. It was seen by 
Congress that if the convention ju-i>- 
oners returned to England they 
would be used to take the place of an 



equal number of soldiers who would 
be sent to America. It was even sus- 
pected that Burgoyne intended to sail 
for Philadelphia, instead of England, 
and that the 7,000 arms lately captured 
at Wilmington would be used to re- 
arm his men. Congress also refused 
to let the army be embarked, for the 
reason that the convention had not 
been confirmed by the Court of Great 
Britain. Burgoyne requested and re- 
ceived a parole permitting liim to re- 
turn to England for a time for the 
benefit of his health. He sailed April 
14, 1778. While in England he was, 
in 1779, dismissed from the British 
service for refusing to return to Amer- 
ica, agreeably with the terms of the 
.convention which he had signed after 
his surrender, and it was not until 
three years afterward that he was re- 
stored to his rank in the armv. 

Soon after the arrival oi the captive 
troops in the vicinity oi Boston, the 
British General Howe conceived the 
bold plan of attempting a landing and 
releasing them, but the plan was 
abandoned when it was learned that 
the Americans had received inf<'>rma- 
tion of it. 

ANXIOUSLY AWAIT DELIVERANCE 
The Convention troops remained 
nearly a year at Cambridge anxiously 
awaiting deliverance. In the latter 
part of October. 1778. General von 
Riedesel received orders from the 
American Commandant to put the 
German troops in readiness to marcii 
to Virginia. The English troops who 
had been quartered 53 miles further 
back, had already started for the same 
destination. On the oth. 10th and nth 
oi Xmenibor. the Germans started, in 
rags and tatters, for the\- had already 
worn their clothing three years, their 
baggage still being in Canada. The 
r>aroness von Riedesel. who. with 
three little children and two serving 
women, had been tlirough the terrors 
of the Burgoyne campaign, again, by 
carriage accompam'ed the troops. This 
march of 583 miles is said to ha\ e been 
a woeful one. The\- arri\ed at Char- 



480 



THE pexxsylva\ia-g?:rmax 



lottesville, V"a., on Jan. i6, 1779. 
though soon after a part, perhaps all 
of the Germans, marched 40 miles 
further to Staunton. One of them 
writes: "We were happy in Boston, 
happier in Canada, but in this out of 
the way nook we neither see nor hear 
anything." 

In May an English party attempted 
a landing in Virginia with a view, it 
is thought, of releasing the prisoners, 
but the project failed. 

General von Riedesel was paroled 
in the autumn of 1779, and was short- 
ly afterward exchanged. He returned 
to Canada in ]vlarch, 1781, and assumed 
command there, but did not again see 
active service. 

PLANT VEGETABLE GARDENS AND 
RAISE POULTRY 

After Riedesel's departure. Col. von 
Specht took command of the Bruns- 
wickers in Virginia and by agricul- 
tural occupations and occasional com- 
mercial ventures secured good sub- 
sistence for his men. 

The Germans in their \^irginia camp 
laid out and planted many vegetable 
gardens, and fenced in yards for the 
raising of poultr^-. These gardens 
were a great attraction for visitor^ 
who came long distances to see them. 
Many of the officers whose barracks 
were thirty miles away, came to live 
near the men. The Eng-lrsh soldiers 
built a church and a theatre. The 
camp proper, however, was confined 
to quite a limited area, and a proposed 
stockade around it was probabaly 
built. The Convention troops re- 
mained in Virginia a little more than 
tw^o years. In October, 1780, the 
British commenced active campaign- 
ing in the Carolinas and in Virginia. 
and this continued until the surrender 
of Yorktown a year later. Convention 
prisoners had been escaping and mak- 
ing their way to the British, and there 
was constant fear that the enemy 
might attempt the capture of the 
camps. The States oi \'irginia and 
Maryland were anxious to be relievetl 
of the trouble and expense of having 



prisoners quartered there, and pe- 
titioned Congress for relief. Congress, 
on Alarch 3, 1781, ordererl the removal 
of the prisonerh from X'irginia and 
^Maryland to Bennsylvania. 

PENNA. DID NOT WANT THE PRISONERS 
Pennsylvania did not want the pris- 
oners and made strong efforts to 
keep them away. President Reed, chief 
executive of this State, on March 13. 
addressed the Assembly, stating that 
as the present movement of the Bri- 
tish prisoners had been fcjunded on the 
representations of the Legislative 
powers of Mrginia and Maryland, it 
appeared proper to oppose their trans- 
fer to this State. lie computed the 
expense of keeping them at 8,576 
pounds monthly, and added, if no re- 
lief can be given, we shall probably 
comply with the direction of Congress 
as to the place, only assigning Lan- 
caster for the British and York for the 
Germans. The Convention troops 
were already at this time on their 
march from \'irginia. and when pass- 
ing through Maryland, were to be 
joined by 800 other British prisoners. 
Col. James Wood, of the U. S. army, 
had general charge of the Convention 
prisoners while in \'irginia and Penn- 
sylvania. On March 13, also, Presi- 
Reed wrote: "We are apprehensive 
that Congress will order the 2,^00 or 
3,000 Convention prisoners to Lan- 
caster and York. Have done every- 
thing in our power to prevent it. we 
fear with little effect." He advises the 
Lancaster people to get out petitions 
and protests. On the same date he 
wrote to the Board of War. **\Ve are 
uneasv about the Convention prison- 
ers, win-) must ere this be far on the 
wav to this State." 

On ^^arch 24, the Board of War. in 
seeming ignorance of the fact that the 
Conventit^n troops were pn^bably al- 
ready out oi \'irginia, wrote to Col. 
^^'otMl that, in view oi the many de- 
sertions to the enemy, he was to guard 
the prisoiiers more closely. The Kng- 
lish officers are to be sent to Simsbury. 
Connecticut: the Knglish non-com- 



^^^^ff^^^SP^ 



THE HESSIAN CAMP AT READING, PA. 



4S1 



missioned officers and privates to re- 
main at Frederick, Md. ; the German 
non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates to remain in barracks near Win- 
chester, Va., but Col. Wood to have 
the power to change the prisoners to 
other suitable places in X'irginia, and 
the unconditional prisoners taken at 
Cov/pens and in other battles were to 
be sent to Lancaster. 

APPEALS TO MARYLAND GOVERNOR 
On March zy, President Reed makes 
this appeal to Governor Lee, of ]Mary- 
land : "We already have 4,000 pri- 
soners. Cannot Congress be per-^ 
suaded to change the plans, say to 
send 1,000 unconditional prisoners 
here, and keep the Convention men in 
Virginia and ^Maryland. AVe know that 
the prisoners' stay is not grateful to 
your State, but we particularly do not 
want the Germans, whose officers • in 
Pennsylvania have already made mis- 
chief among their fellow countrymen 
and seduced some from their allegiance 
to us. Will you not sacrifice some- 
thing and help make the desired 
change." 

UNWELCOME ADDITIONS TO FAMILIES 
The greatness of the burden, and 
the menace to any community in 
which large numbers of prisoners of 
war were stationed Ave of today can 
hardly realize. Officers were often 
billeted on the inhabitants, in many 
cases, we may believe, unwelcome ad- 
ditions to the families. 

Some part of the cost of keeping the 
Convention prisoners was to be borne 
by the British Government. On March 
24, 1 78 1, the Board of War, in writing 
to Col. Wood, says, "The repeated ne- 
glects on the part of the British Gen- 
erals to pay for the support of the 
Convention prisoners, have long been 
matters of serious consideration. L'n- 
til informed of payment being made 
for provisions and transports hereto- 
fore furnished these pris(^ners. as sti{)- 
ulated in Article 5th oi the Conven- 
tion, you will issue no more or (Hhor 
provisions to them than are usually 
issued to other prisoners of war." But 



there were times when even for our 
own men, supplies were lacking, and 
the prisoners must not be left to sutler. 
Some were permitted to work on farms 
and at other occupati(jns that occas- 
ionally opened up to them. 

And there were other tnjubles. At 
Lancaster, where there were 800 pris- 
oners, just about the time of the ar- 
rival of the troops from \'irginia, the 
prisoners plotted to escape from the 
stockade surrounding the barracks. 
They planned to make a rush on the 
night of ]^Iay 16, overpower the 
guards, loot the Continental magazine, 
and then fight their way through the 
country to the British lines. This plot 
was discovered and frustrated. 

PUTRID FEVER BREAKS OUT 

Li the crowded barracks at Lancas- 
ter a putrid fever broke out among the 
prisoners. As many as 450 were af- 
flicted at one time. There were in- 
sufficient hospital accommodations 
within the barracks and none at all oil 
the outside, so that sick and well were 
kept together. 

For a while there were from four to 
six deaths daily and there was the 
greatest probability oi the disease be- 
ing communicated to the town. 

Before May 13. the English portion 
of the Convention troops removing 
from \'irginia and Maryland reached 
Lancaster. With them came nearly 
500 women and children. The towns- 
people expected that many would con- 
tinue their march further eastward, 
but the York County Militia who 
served as an escort refused to go any 
further and it ma\- be that this entire 
lot of prisoners remained there. Fifty 
or sixty English prisi'»ners had also 
been sent from Reailing to Lancaster 
to be exchanged for an equal numl^er 
of Convention troops who had strag- 
gled there, from their quarters in \*ir- 
ginia. 

On June 13 ab»nit .i.joo Germans 
passed thnnigh Lancaster, bound to 
the eastward. The women and chil- 
dren, nuning more slowly, were, 
doubtless, the nearly 300 whom Col. 



482 



THE PEXX S Y L V AX I A-GE H M AN 



Hublcy, in writing to President Reed 
on June 17, reports having arrived at 
Lancaster, "under the direction of a 
Major Baily (who acts under Col. 
Woods, C. G. P. for the Southern De- 
partment) ; they are to remain at this 
place until the arrival of Col. Wood, 
who is expected in a few days." 
1,200 REACH READING 
The 1,200 German Convention troops 
her spoken of were of Brunswick and 
Hesse-Hanau regiments, and these 
were the men of whom Col. \'alentine 
Eckert on June 24 writes from Read- 
ing to President Reed, viz. : 

"Sir: On the i6th inst. arrived at 
this place under guard of the York 
County ^lilitia about 1,050 of the Con- 
vention prisoners of war (63 of whom 
are Britons, the remainder Germans), 
and encamped on the banks of Schuyl- 
kill, near this town. A few days be- 
fore their arrival Captain Alexander 
called on me and informed me that 
they ,were to proceed to Connecticut, 
and requested me to provide a guard 
to escort them to Eastown. But on 
their arrival here, orders arrived from 
the Board of War that they should re- 
main in Pennsylvania, and those now 
here were ordered by Col. Wood to 
remain here until further orders. 
Whereupon I judged it proper and 
necessary to place guards around their 
encampment, and have for that pur- 
pose called out two classes out of the 
companies of the Sixth Berks County 
Regiment of Militia. ^lajor Bavley is 
now come to this town by order of 
Col. Wood, to take upon him the di- 
rection of those prisoners, and has re- 
quested me to continue the guards. I 
therefore request Your Excellency's 
and the Honorable Councils' advice 
and directions in this matter, which 
shall be punctually and implicitly 
obeyed. The prisoners since their ar- 
rival here have behaved themselves 
verv orderly and peaceably. Several 
more have joined them since the i6th 
inst., so that their number now 
amounts- to near i.ioo.'' 

"I am, with great respect, sir, your 



most obedient and most humble ser- 
vant, VALKXTIXE ECKERT, Lt. 
B." 

REPLIES TO COL. ECKERT 
Presidest Reed on June 27, in his re- 
pl}^ to Col. Eckert, says: '"Councils ap- 
proved of your conduct with respect 
to the prisoners who have come among 
us at a time when we had e\ery rea- 
son to belic\'e they would be sent to 
Xew England. We have, as by the 
within resolve, directed the call of the 
militia as stated in your letter, which 
will l)e your authority (and in case of 
relief you will particularly attend to 
•calling the other militia so as to give 
no cause of complaint on account of 
the diftcrence of service between duty 
over the prisoners and the field ). With 
respect to the disposal of the prisoners 
it is the desire of Council that they 
may be hutted at some small distance 
from the town ^\•he^e wood and water 
are convenient. Col. Morgan has 
mentioned a piece of ground which be- 
longed to the late proprietaries as 
very convenient and proper, but this is 
left to yourself and Major Baily (or 
whoever may be appointed by the 
Board of War to superintend the 
premises with whom we would wish 
you to preserve the most friendly com- 
munication and advise with them in 
everything respecting the Guards. * * 

CALL OUT MILITIA GUARDS 
On June 26 the Board oi War re- 
solved "that, whereas a number of 
Convention prisoners have been di- 
rected by the Honorable Congress and 
His Excellency, Gen. Washington, to 
continue in this State till further or- 
ders, which will require a guard of 
militia: that the Lieutenant of the 
ccHuuy of Berks do call on vMie class 
of the militia of said county, for the 
purpose aforesaid, provided the said 
class shall amount to 100 men : if not, 
then to call out another class or so 
many classes ot the battalions next in 
order as shall amount to that numlK^r. 
otlicers excluded." Following this. 
President Reed writes to the several 
Countv Eieulenants that "as. the Con- 



IM 



THE HESSIAX CAMP AT READING, PA. 



48' 



vention prisoners to the number of 
i,ooo having- unexpected!}- ])een ord- 
ered into this State, militia g-uards are 
to be called out and must probably be 
kept out for. a long space of time." 
(The unreadiness of the towns of 
York, Lancaster and Reading to ha\e 
so many prisoners stationed there oc- 
casioned a temporary scarcity of food 
supplies, and both prisoners and 
guards were several times on short ra- 
tions. At Lancaster, where there 
were now 1,900 prisoners, another at- 
tempt to escape by undermining the 
stockade was discovered and pre- 
vented.) 

Col. A\'ood on June 30 inquired of 
President Reed whether he had yet 
fixed on the place and manner of "hut- 
ting"' the Germans at Reading. He 
reported that ' none of the prisoners 
had attempted to escape in the two 
weeks since they arrived. 

OFFICER DROWNS IN RIVER 
The prisoners at Reading camped 
near the Schuylkill River, on ground 
claimed by the town as commons, and 
by several persons who had enclosed 
parts of it as private property. On 
this ground the Continental stable and 
the storehouse were located. Owing 
to the delay in fixing on a place for 
''hutting" the prisoners, a scheme was 
being considered for converting the 
stable, which was 175 by 20 feet, and 
the storehouse, 60 by 20 feet, into two- 
story buildings, which, with some ad- 
ditions, would provide barrack shelter 
for the prisoners. But this scheme was 
not carried out. It was probably while 
the temporary location of the camp 
was at this place, that Ernest August. 
Count von Rantzau, serving as Ensign 
with the Hesse-Hanau trooi)S, acci- 
dentally met his death. It is recorded 
of him that he was drowned in the 
Schuylkill while in captivity. 

Reading was not merelv a militia 
post under charge of State (Officers, but 
having prisoners kept here during all 
the years of the war, was a Continental 
post under Congressional charge. 



Col. Wood, on inspecting the place 
near Reading adjudged most suitable 
for hutting the prisoners, found that 
instead of being vacant land belonging 
to the proprietors uhe Pcnns), was 
claimed by a Mr. Hiestand. Another 
piece viewed was three and a half 
miles from to\vn, but the road was 
found bad and the stream of water too 
small and uncertain. 

REFL\SE TO QUARTER TROOPS AMONG 
PEOPLE 

"]\Iy intention is." Col. Eckert writes. 
"if the troops are to be 'hutted.' and 
the Quartermaster can procure tools 
and a person acquainted with building 
to superintend the work, to have them 
built by the troops and in such a man- 
ner as to be of use upon any future 
occasion. I mentioned this to the 
Quartermaster, who tells me that the 
situation oi his department is such as 
to render it very ditticult for him to 
procure the necessary tools : and thai 
for want of money it won't Ite in liis 
power to get a Superintedent." 

Presidest Reed at this time informs 
the Board of War that the prisoners 
in Pennsylvania "will be stationed 
agreeable to the original proposals. 
that is. the German Conventionalists 
at Reading, the English at York, and 
the unconditioned prisoners at Lan- 
caster.'' 

Captain Christ, who had charge '?\ 
the militia guarding the houseless 
prisoners at Reading, reports that the 
magistrates and the Quartermaster re- 
fuse to «marter the Conventi('>n tro.^ps 
among the inhabitants and that some- 
thing definite should be done quickly. 

The people oi York still tried to re- 
sist the sending of the English Con- 
vention tr(x:>ps to their town: many 
being still at Lancaster in the middle 
oi Julv. In the barracks at I-ancaster 
were crowded I.4(X") prisoners, while 
outside the siockado. under rudest 
shelter, were ^ch') women and children. 
and camp te\ er was still raging. 

(.^ne reason wliy the pe<"^ple oi York 
wished the prisi^ners there kept d«"»wn 
to a small number, was because ot the 



4S4 



THE PENNSYLVAN I A-GERMAN 



alarming- rumors of the northward ad- 
vance of a strong British army under 
Cornwallis, with probable intention of 
striking- points where prisoners were 
kept. To give quick notice of the ap- 
proach of the enemy, York had for 
some time stationed a chain of mounted 
sentries at intervals of lo miles reach- 
ing all the way to Baltimore. 

TROOPS BUILD THEIR OWN HUTS 
President Reed now^ issued decided 
orders as to the stationing of the 
prisoners, and Col. Wood, writing in 
reply, wrote: "On receipt of Your Ex- 
cellency's letter of July 19, I immedi- 
ately fixed on a situation at Reading 
for 'hutting' the German troops, on 
lines between Daniel Hicster and the 
house of one Bowers, in order to make 
it as little injurious as possible to 
either. With the assistance of Col. 
Eckert, I procured as many tools as 
will answer the purpose and set the 
troops to work on their 'huts.' ^ly 
meaning in having a Superintendent 
appointed, was that there should be a 
workman acquainted with building to 
direct that the 'huts' should be regu- 
larly built in such manner as to be use- 
ful on any future occasion, and to 
have charge of the public tools. '' * * 
I have since prevailed on one of the 
militia officers on duty to overlook 
and direct the work. I have fixed the 
British (English) troops on good 
ground betwen York and Susquehan- 
na, so as to be very convenient to 
throw them across the river on any 
emergency." 

HOUSE WAS REMOVED IN 1S75 
The Bowers house was a well-built 
one-story log house, having two rooms 
and a small kitchen annex. Its stone 
walled cellar had a door level with the 
cellar floor and with the sloping- 
ground outside. The last tenant of 
the house was Franz EUichrer, who for 
20 years or more owned the building 
and 15 or 20 acres of ground. .\ cow 
was stabled in the cellar, while the 
famih' lived above. A hundred years 
had brought decay to the logs, and the 
house was torn down al)out 1875. ^^^^ 



cellar walls were good, and on these 
same foundation walls was built a 
stone house, now the tenant house on 
the Shearer farm. The house stands 
about 40 feet below the Hill road. 

^ Jn tearing down the old house, a 
board was found, on the back of which 
was written the date of the erection of 
the house, but the board was not kept 
and the date is now forgotten. The 
eastern boundary of the camp v.-as 
several hundred feet distant from the 
house. 

WAS LAID OUT AS A PARALLELOGRAM 
The camp as laid out was a parallel- 
ogram of about 1,000 feet in length 
and 500 feet in width, covering an 
area of 10 to 12 acres. The direction 
of its length was almost exactly north- 
east and southwest, but without a 
compass to give direction it seems 
more nearly east and west and may be 
so spoken of. In a general way it 
paralleled the crooked Hill road just 
above it. though it was not at any 
point closer to that road than about 
100 feet. The Hill road as an irregu- 
lar path occasionally traversed by a 
wagon had probably been used 20 or 
more years earlier. It was the most 
direct road betwen camp and town, 
and in the davs of the camp was a 
well traveled thoroughfare. 

CENTER OF CAMP ON BENZ PROPERTY 
The ^lineral Spring road is of re- 
cent construction ; the camp at its 
western end reached well down toward 
that road. The center of the cam{'> was 
in what is now the Benz property. On 
the east it extended itito the Shearer 
property, and on the west into the yet 
open land now again c^n ered by trees. 
The location was an excellent and 
surelv a healthful one. Its slopes, fac- 
ing the warming rays of the winter 
sun. could readily be kent clear of 
snow and was dry at all times. Fire- 
wood was abundant, water was pure. 
and the outlook beautiful. This orison 
camp was never surrcumded by a 
stockade. The work of building the 
"huts" must have presented a busy 
scone. Cv>l. Eckert and his Superin- 



■m 



THE HESSIAN CAMP AT REAr3IXG, PA. 



485- 



tendent wanted the work to be well 
done and lasting-. The prisoners 
themselves tried to make this an im- 
provement on any of their fijrmer 
camps. ' A larg-e nuniber of men — as 
many as could be provided with tools 
— were set to work at leveling the 
ground. ?^Iany gathered the stone re- 
quired, otliers prepared the clay m ir- 
tar needed b}' the wall and chimney 
builders already at work. Axemen 
were felling small and medinm-sized 
trees and trimming the logs. Others 
roofed the huts as fa^t as erected. 

ROSE VALLEY CREEK FURNISHES 
PART OF WATER SUPPLY 
It may have required a hundred 
days' w{^rk to coniplete the "huts,'' 
guards' houses and women's quarters ; 
yet even so. it was a piece oi work 
that, for size and exjjedition, has not 
often been exceeded in this vicinity. 
The frosts of the late fall threw dcnxm 
the leaves and withered the grass 
that were needed for bedding bv the 
time the \\ork was' finished. The sup- 
ply of A\'ater was plentiful, for the 
Rose \'alle}^ Creeiv was nearbv. One 
principal supply was furnished' by the 
spring on the Benz place down near 
the ]\Iineral Spring road. This spring, 
now with less flow than in" former 
times, still sends out cool water the 
summer through. The old wall en- 
■closing it stands today as when the 
Hessians built it, though its little 
wooden roof has often been renewed. 
The walled pool in front of the spring- 
is a later addition. Today water from 
springs up on the Hill road is piped to 
convenient spigots in the I'enz dwell- 
ing houses and barn, and the old. al- 
most abandoned. Flessian spring is in 
a woefully neglected condition. About 
40 feet from the spring, its waters run- 
ning westwardly, entered a streamlet 
that in Revdlutionary dax's came 
down the hillside through the camp, 
-crossed the present Mineral Spring- 
road and entered Rose \*alley creek. 

A THICKLY POPULATED SETTLEMF.XT 

The camp of 10 to 12 acre.*? was a 
-thickly populated settlement, having 



in it, if we allow for a not over large 
pro])>jrtion of women and children. 
and include the guards, about 1. 300 
persons, or just as many as were in 
the town of Reading with its 2.1-^4 
acres. 

The men of the camp outnumbered 
the men and gr^jwu boys of the tjwn 
two to one. this camp was one ut a 
line of six or se-ven prisoners' camps 
and barracks stretching al .-ng 400 
miles from Eastern P'ennsylva:iia t ;> 
far down the Shenande">ah \'alley in 
X'irginia. 

\\"hile. in effect, the liurg'iyne C <:^- 
vention or treaty was l:»roken v.-ith.in a 
few months after it was made, there 
does not seeni to ha\-e been any i *rmal 
order or announcement of such acii »n. 
Gradually. howe\er. the Convention 
troops became subject to exchange, as 
\vere other prisoners of war. In the 
first two years of the war tlie Dritish 
held more of our men than, we diii of 
theirs. In follov/ing years this c^jnili- 
tion was reversed antl we held ni^re 
prisoners than exchanges could be pro- 
vided for. 

LEFT GERMANS IN CAPTIVITY 
The P)ritish were, moreover, accused 
of acting unfairly in the matter of ex- 
change of prison.ers. and of exchang- 
ing their own officers, while they left 
the Germans in captivity. Riedesei 
went so far as to write to Washing: mi 
on the subject, and was pMitely re- 
minded that it was not a matter within 
the hitter's ci^ntn-^l. Many ofticers of 
the captured (~ierman troo]ts were well 
educated men, whi> wriue to their 
h(»mes interesting accounts <»i their 
prison exjK^riences. Some i»t th.ese 
lia\ e been put into print. .\hout the 
time of the coming oi the Conventi«-»n 
trooj^s to Reading, most of the officers 
were separated from the meii aiul sent 
to other places, or exchanged. This 
in large part account*^ f«tr ilie tact tliat 
there lias nt>t been discovered, as yet. 
anv contenijiorary account of lite in 
the Hessian camp at Reading. The 
prisoners had, perhaps, almost cca>ed 
to hope f*^r exch.ange. and in thi< th<j 



486 



THE pexxsylvaxia-gp:rman 



most pleasant of any of their prison 
homes had resigned themselves to 
making- the best of things as they were. 
When spring came they planted gar- 
dens, as they had done in Virginia. 
Some had brought wives with them 
from the Fatherland, others married in 
Virginia, and some, even while prison- 
ers, married in Pennsylvania. They 
had their own doctor and chaplain, 
children were born in the camp, and in 
the natural course some of the prison- 
ers or camp followers died here and 
were buried in an especially set apart 
place near the camp. 

AS CAMP APPEARED IX 1837 
A gentleman, guided by two old Re- 
volutionary soldiers, visited the site of 
the camp in 1837, and writes to a Phil- 
adelphia newspaper a description of 
the place as he saw it 55 years after 
the camp had been deserted, viz: "The 
position of each shanty is marked by 
piles of stones of Avhich the back walls 
and chimneys had been built ''■^ * '■' 
being on the hillside, there was a cut 
made in forming a le\el for the door. 
The logs have all decayed, and only 
the stone piles remain to mark the 
spot once occupied by these 900 forces 
of the British King.'' The piles of 
stones are no longer there. Fifty years 
ago Franz Buehrer hauled them to 
Reading to be used by builders in 
erecting foundation walls. At the 
western end of the camp, now over- 
grown by shrubbery and trees, but 
where, in a measure, the ground has 
remained undisturbed, may still be 
seen, rising in tiers, but with weather- 
worn and rounded banks, many oi the 
leveled places on which the huts stood. 
A few of the footing stones on which 
the logs rested are yet in place, enough 
of them at one (^r two places to help 
trace the entire scjuare of the hut. 
There are other stmies which show 
some design or purp(\<e in their plac- 
ing. Xear the north and the south 
corners of the western boundary of the 
camp are the sanitary wells, now 
ca\e(l in and slunviug as circular pits. 
Similar wells had doubtless been lo- 
cated at the eastern end of the camj>. 



REMAIXED HERE MORE THAN TWO 
YEARS 
The Convention prisoners probably 
remained more than two years in the 
Hessian camp at Reading. The last 
shipload of Hessians departing for 
their home land, sailed down Xew 
York Bay, Xov. 2^, 17S3. 

From their first coming, in 1776, 
efforts had been made to induce them 
to desert the firitish. Congress at 
several times caused papers to be dis- 
tributed among them urging such de- 
sertion. One proclamation, dated 
April 29, 1778, promised 50 acres of 
land to every soldier that would come 
over, and larger rewards were made 
to of^cers. Deserters were not to be 
obliged to serve on the American side,. 
but might at once settle on their lands. 
Officers accepting service in the army 
of the L'nited States were to receive 
rank higher than that held in the army 
they ^vere leaving, and be ap;:)ointed to 
a corps composed of Germans to be 
employed on frontier or garrison duty 
exclusively, unless at their own re- 
quest. Some did desert, though not 
any large nundjer at any time. Cap- 
tain Andrus W'icderhold, oi the Hes- 
sian regiment Kn_\-phausen taken at 
Trenton, says that when in captivity 
at Reading he saw early in 1780. two 
squadrons of Armand's Corps pass 
through his town, 400 strong, com- 
posed entirely (^f German deserters. 
Efforts had also been made to induce 
prisoners in our hands to change their 
allegiance, but Washington opposec? 
this, and Compress later prohibited tlie 
enlistiniT of prisoners. 

WERE IXVITED TO REMAIX 

In 1783 there was circulated a little 
book ui ^^ pages, printed in tiie Gor- 
man language. ap])ealing to the Hes- 
sians ami other licrmans in the ser- 
vice oi hjigland. not to return under 
the des;)(n ic swa\- oi their respective 
sovereigns, who had basely sold thcni, 
but to become Ainorican citizens and 
settle in South C'arolinri. where land is 
(^d'ered them iVA easy terms. .\'ova 
Sctuia also otYered lands to those who 
w (udd remain. 



mmm 



THE HESSIAX CAMP AT READING, PA. 



487 



One strong- reason for the failure of 
many of the German soldiers to return 
to their native lands, was the fact that 
they were not particularly wanted 
there. This was especially the case 
with the Brunswickers. Some in eight 
years of absence had become too old 
for further service as soldiers. The 
voun^-er men, too, had driven their best 
years in the service and were un- 
trained in the trades and activities of 
peace. N'or could they remain in the 
army, for the home countries could 
not maintain in idleness large stand- 
ings armies. The Duke of Brunswick 
sought to reduce to the smallest pos- 
sible number those to be brought back 
to him. As early as February, 1783, 
he directed General Riedesel to notify 
the troops that not one-half could re- 
main in active service. They were to 
be advised to establish themselves in 
x'Vmerica, or seek militarv services 
elsewhere. Authority v\'as given to 
discharge any officers who desired to 
remain, even though thev weie stafit' 
officers. 

Of the non-commissioned officers 
and privates, as many as wished could 
remain behind, and those non-com- 
missioned officers who did return 
were to be reduced to the ranks. 
Chaplains, auditors and surgeons 
could receive their discharges. Only 
native Brunswickers were to be gi\en 
free transportation home, and then 
followed the cruel order that all who 
were g-uilty of serious crimes, lack of 
discipline, delinquencies of any sort, 
and also those who, through pliysical 
disability, Avere unfit for active serv- 
ice, must positive!" be left behind. 
SHOULD BECOME PART OE THE CITVS 
POSSESSIONS 

To win the approbation of our peo- 
ple of today, as well as that of genera- 
tions yet tc-* come, this wooded end oi 
the (^Id Hessian camp ground should 
be made a part of the city's posses- 
sions, cleared of its tantile of under- 



brush, and greatest care Ije taken that 
no stone c>r earthmark be further dis- 
turbed. The seven great terraces, each 
from 60 to 80 feet wide, running across 
the Benz grounds, were not made by 
a farmer with his one or two men, 
even though years had been spent on 
the work. They had been carefully 
planned and were the work of a very 
large body of men, the Hessian prison- 
ers. These terraces are impressive 
when viewed through the palings of 
the fence along the wooded side, but 
are much more so when one is on the 
ground. Similar, but smaller, terraces 
are found on the more nearly level 
ground of the eastern end of the camp 
in the Shearer orchard. 

NOT MORE THAN 300 PRISONERS RE- 
TURNED TO THEIR HOMES ACROSS 

THE SEA 
Some 30 years ago. Prof. J. C. 
Bruner, a Swiss by birth, and for a 
time a teacher in Philadelphia, said 
"that while in this country he met 
manv persons in Pennsylvania and in 
the vallev ni X'irginia who were de- 
scendants of the Hessian soldiers who 
had come here in the service of the 
British army, and wh'\ by desertion or 
otherwise, had remained here. From 
his intimate knowledge oi families, 
and their homes in Switzerland. Mr. 
Bruner was satistied. as he said, that 
these descendants were generally of 
Swiss origin." This leads to the strong 
inference that the avaricious Duke oi 
B)runswick had largely recruited out- 
side of his cnvn domains the troops 
sold to England, and this accounts, 
too. for his money-saving determina- 
tion to pay the return j>assage of na- 
tive r>runswickers only. 

The twi^ o\d Revolutionary soldiers 
who were interviewed in 1S37. gave it 
as their *^pini(Mi that not more than 
300 oi the German prisoners at Read- 
ing went back to their ft^rmer homes 
acT'.^'s the sea. 



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f^ii lltitiarfn"'-iri -f^' - •) lAillniilt'ftl^ ji I'rtli n ^i^iH*T^- -''ii"-tif A'*! t.iiKiiii*n -'> ni'Tlirt uk i "<i»- 



48» 



The Delaware Water Gap 

Part III of 

Historic Pilgrimages Along Mountain By- Ways 

By Asa K. Mcllhaney, Bath, Pa. 




"And mountains, thrt like giants stand 
To sentinel enchanteJ land." 

—Scott. 

OW'HERE in this wide 
world are tliere g^reater 
inducements offered the 
tourists Avho delight in 
the pleasure and benefits 
to be derived from pure 
mountain air than at the 
Delaware Water Gap. It 
is one of the most im::)re>sive of the 
great handiworks of nature, ranking- 
second onl\' to Xiagara in the East, 
toeing" the gateway leading to a won- 
drous land of woodland and water. 
The lofty mountains, the lordly Dela- 
ware . flowing at their base, and the 
creeks, lakes, and waterfalls encount- 
ered in e\-ery direction, have given 
this place a world-wide reputation for 
scenic and romantic beautv. 

After driving through Cherry \'al- 
ley, we continue our historic pilgrim- 
age and enter the Gap at the Cherry 
Valley Hotel. Here is the terminus 
of the ^lountain \'iew Trolley. Along 
its line is magnificent scenery. In the 
forenoon the atmospheric conditions 
are usually perfect, and the cars are 
never croA\ded, so that one may take a 
car any hour from the C^^'^, and re- 
turn in time for dinner at the hotels. 
and be assured a comfijrtai)le trip. 

To our left is the Glenwood. a 
modern brick Iniilding, UK^ated in a 
wonderful scenic secti(^n on a high 
UKruntain slope, insuring jiure air and 
freedom from malaria. Cherry creek 
flows directly througli the grounds, in 
A high wooded glen from which the 
house takes its name. 

Turning t(^ our right we drive 
through the main street. ])ass the post- 
office, the ]^-esbyterian and M. E. 
churches to the Central House. 



The little village wr»ndL*riully (juaint 
and picturesque, nestles in a r.si.i^ 
knoll and reminds one of the Swiss 
villages near Lucerne. Its earl\- his- 
tor}' is very interesting. George E. 
^lapes, in a recent article writes thus. 
"The thrifty Hollanders and French 
Huguenots had occupied the valley of 
the Upper Delaware and Cv)vered it 
with fertile farms nearly a century be- 
fore any one seriousl}' attem;ned to 
locate in the mountain g'Tge kiiown as 
the \\'ater Gap. The residents ab -ve 
the Gap during that period letained 
their relations with the Hudson \'al- 
ley. while the PCnglish, Scrjtch-Irish. 
and German settlers of Ducks and 
Xorthampton counties were deterred 
from an}- attempts to locate in the 
gorge and alx^ve it l>y the difficulties 
attending travel. In 1730. Scull and 
Lukens visited this section, and en- 
countered many obstacles in leading 
their horses along the precipitous sities 
of the Gap. In 174 1, the Rev. John 
Rrainerd made a missionary visit to 
the Indians in the Minisink region and 
he regardeil the Water Gap route so 
difficult that he made his trip through 
the Lehigh Gap and alc>ng the 
northern base of the I'lue Ridge into 
the upper valley of the Delaware. 
There was no practical wagon r ad 
through the \\'ater Gap until the year 
1800. when the present mountain road 
was opened by the indivi«lual suh- 
scriptiiMis oi the farmers living !■» ^th. 
abcn-e and below the chasm. 

The tlrst log house erected in this 
gorge was K>cated within a few feet of 
where the Kittatinny House now 
stands, and it is claimed that its erec- 
tion bore abtnu the same d.aie as the 
opening of the piiMieer road. This 
log house consisting of two rooms and 



490 



THE P&NXS YLVAX lA-GEFlM AN 



an attic, was occu])icd about the \'car 
1808, and some years thereafter by 
Alexander Patterson with his wife and 
dauj^hter. At tlie time, Patterson was 
a tall, white-haired, dignified looking 
man, and his wife and daughter were 
of corresponding gentility. 

The real pioneer, however, of the 
present village and the system of sum- 
mer hotels for which the Delaware 
Water Gap is now principally noted, 
was Anthony Dutot, a l^^rench refugee 
from St. Domingo, who left that 
island hastih* with others when the 
order of possession was reversed, the 
servants becoming masters of the soil, 
and the masters fugitives. Dutot 
reached Philadelphia about 1793, 
wdiere he reiiiained a short time and 
then migrated up the Delaware. ITe 
was reputed to be wealthy, and it was 
a common rumor that he had buried 
on his St. Domingo plantation a large 
treasure in gold and silver, carrying 
with him in his flight as much coin as 
he could conveniently trans;)ort. Like 
most of the plantation owners of St. 
Domingo, Dutot was a man of some 
culture and refinement. In- his jour- 
ney up the Delaware he became im- 
pressed with the scenery at the AVater 
Gap, and purchased at a low price a 
large tract of land on the northern 
base of the mountain, including the 
present site of the Kittatinny and 
Water Gap Hotels, as well as that of 
the present village. He located and 
laid out a city. Like the founder of 
Rome he chose for the site of his fu- 
ture city, which he called after his own 
name, the hills overlooking the fertile 
valley stretching away to the north 
and east. 

In the centre of the plot upon which 
he hoped to found the 'City of Dutot', 
he left a triangular lot f(^r a market 
place, and around this he built a dozen 
or more small dwellings. His city, 
however, refused to grow, and the 
buildings erected by liini ha\e l»^ng 
since disappeared. The village which 
now occupies the site goes bv the 
name of 'The Delaware Water Gap' : 



and it is dcjubtful if the majority of 
the summer visitors to this place 
know anything about Dutot and liis 
ambitious scheme to found a city. He 
establish(:d a, toll road, which involved 
him in endless quarrels with his neigh- 
bors, and built a saw mill which was 
an institution of real public benefit to 
the surrounding community. In the 
year 1829 Dutot began the erection of 
a small section of what is now the 
Kittatinny House, but, failing in busi- 
ness, the property fell into the hands 
of the Brodhead family, who com- 
pleted the structure, thus establishing 
the summer resort hotel which has 
since been expanded to its present pro- 
portions. 

Prior to the erection oi this hotel, 
however, the Water Gap had begun to 
attract simimer visitors from Philadel- 
phia and other cities, and it is recorded 
that among tliese visitors, as early as 
1820, were the late tlorace Dinney and 
Caleb Cope. Dutot died in 1841, but 
the property and sununer resort fea- 
tures which had alreadv began to l)e 
developed thereon had passed out of 
his hands to be perfected by a younger 
generation." 

But we must travel onward. Turn- 
ing to the right again at Lamb's Sou- 
venir Sttire. a clover, little bark-cov- 
ered cottage where all sorts oi valu- 
al)les in wood, leather, china and sil- 
ver are sold, we drive past tlie Bridge- 
view, Mountain House, and Caldeno 
Cottage, and come t -> beautiful Lake 
Lenape which is partly natural and 
partly artificial, and in whose waters 
are mirrored the surrc>unding h.ills. 
On the banks of this lake and in the 
shade of a noble pine our party oi 
ele\ en partake en' a sumptuous dinner. 
Turning from the lake to the left, 
along a gocnl path of a hundred yards, 
wni observe a path to the right which 
i)rings you to Harrison's Outhx^k. 
known years ago as Cooper's Clifl. It 
is three hundred feet in elevaiioii above 
the Kittatinny and five hundred ahiu-e 
the river. Vou will not be in a hurry 
to lea\e this spot. "Up the river the 



THE DEl.AWARE WATER 6aP 



491 



,vie\v is varied and beautiful. Tlie 
swecpin^i^ curve of the mountains; the 
green fields cultivated on the sides of 
the corresponding^ hills; the islands, 
and the river so closely hemmed in by 
hill and mountain as to resemble a 
lake, make altoi^ether a picture of rare 
beauty." 

A few hundred yards further on in 
the same direction flows Caldeno 
Creek which rises high up the side of 
Mount 3ilinsi. The stream here me- 
anders through the hidden retreats and 
in this wild ravine are found Moss 
Cataract, l^iana's Bath and Caldeno 
Falls, all near one another. 



C. S. Pas - cal 

C. S. Og-den 
Jos. Mc Do - oud or 
Caldenoud, which by unanimous 
agreement was changed to Caldeno. 

Xothing on this mountain side is 
more wonderful than t(j see how ilie 
large trees send their roots over and 
around rocks, "crowding down to 
drink at rills and rivulets beneath fern- 
plumes, waters that emerge in sudden 
dances around mossy knc»lls." Here 
escaped from the heat of cities, the 
summer guests may gather the pc-pu- 
lar maidenhair fern, the crowning 
glory of ever}' bunch nf woodland 






•?^'^ff!^.?^?^ 







^^s; 



■^?<'<i?^ "*- ■" 



b^^^ft^f^'^i^^as^t^^ 




AS MV 



Courtesy D. I.. & W. R. R. 



Moss Cataract is a tumble which 
the stream indulges in. of abi^ut a 
hundred feet in length, down ihe slo )e 
of Table Rock. The ravine is hemmed 
in by a thick growth of rhododcndn^i. 
and by tall trees so that the sun ne\er 
shines upon Diana' either in her morn- 
ing, evening i^r uotMula}' ablutions. 

■ Caldeno is alsti a cool and pleasant 
spot. It received it? name in 183 1. by 
using the last three letters in the 
names of the three following gentle- 
men who then \ isited it : 



AT>'" (V. p. 404) 

spoil which country ramblers delight 
in l)ring lumo. This species loves the 
leaf mould oi rich. dam> woods, and 
as this conditiiHi is hard to duplicate 
in the home garden, it is as a rule an 
unsatisfactory fern to transplant, and 
it is therefore best left in its native 
ui^oks. wIktc we shall then he sure of 
it when we g/> i^n woodland pilgrim- 
ages. 

After spending three Inujrs on the 
mountain, we enter the gro\e near the 
Water Clap House. Here perfect hii^'n- 






m If 
m I ^ . 









'Vi^. 





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A/ 



5 c ~ X ."^ 












THE DELAWARE WATER GAP 



493 



ways and- wooded paths lead in every 
direction. This hotel is new and 
modern, thorough in every detail of 
appointment and comfort, embracing 
all that is known in the art of modern 
hotel equipment, with a capacity for 
comfortably entertaining four hun- 
dred guests. It is situated on a beau- 
tiful mountain plateau, commanding 
magnificent views for thirty miles in 
every direction, of the grandest seen; 
ery east of the Rocky mountains. 

At 4 p. m. we descend on the moun- 
tain road, reach the Central House 
again, turn to the right and start for 
home. Beyond to our left are the 
Forest House, the Delawanna Inn, the 
Belleview, Riverview and Delaware 
House, all fine summer hotels near the 
new Delaware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern Railroad station. Ahead of us is 
the Kittatinny commandingly situ- 
ated and directly overlooking the Del- 
aware 'River flowing below in majestic 
splendor. Kittatinnyi s a word of In- 
dian origin, meaning "Endless Moun- 
tains." It was by this name that the 
mountains of the ''Water Gap" Dis'- 
trict were known by the Minsi or Del- 
aware Indians, and is particularly 
happy and appropriate for a hotel situ- 
ated in a location rich in Indian 
legend and tradition. Adjoining the 
hotel is its private mountain park of 
three hundred acres of beautiful walks, 
lakes, lawns, cascades, waterfalls, 
electric fountains and rustic scenerv. 

There is no lack of amusements, 
either indoor or outdoor ; the mountain 
scenery unsurpassed in the world, with 
an invigorating climate, almost com- 
pels the visitor to participate in out- 
door recreations, such as riding, driv- 
ing, golfing, lawn tennis, bathing, fish- 
ing, boating, walking, or mountain 
climbing. 

Some distance to the south of the 
Kittatinny is the Eureka Creek, a small 
stream flowing down the mmmtain 



side, and up this ravine are located Re- 
becca's Bath, Eureka Falls, Moss 
Grotto and Child's Arbor erected by 
the late Geo. W. Childs, Esq. This 
brooklet rises near the mountain top, 
at Hunter's Spring where "many a 
Lenape huntsman has been refreshed 
and has lain in wait for the deer as 
they came panting for the cooling 
waters." 

High up on the mountain side is an 
elevation known as Lover's Leap. The 
view of the Gap at this point differs 
from the others you have witnessed; 
it is the place selected by artists as 
affording the finest picture. Tradi- 
tion says that Winona the Indian prin- 
cess selected this spot for the execu- 
tion of her fatal leap. The recital of 
this story is very interesting, and will 
probably appear in a future number of 
"The Pennsylvania-German." 

In front of us is the Gap proper, 
formed by the passage oi the Dela- 
ware River through a cleft in the Blue 
Ridge, the mountains rising in a 
sheer wall 1500 feet clear from the 
river, Mt. Minsi on the Pennsylvania 
and Mt. Tammany on the Xew Terse v 
side, standing like grim sentinels and 
surrounded by diversified scenery oi 
which the senses never tire. The lat- 
ter peak received its name from the 
Indian Chief Tamaaend. 

The Blue or Kittatinny Ridge is con- 
tinuous in Pennsylvania, except where 
it is bisected by the streams which 
flow through it : and a singular tact is 
the rivers break through the walls at 
intervals oi twenty-seven miles, it be- 
ing that distance frvin the Susquehan- 
na to the Swatara, from the Swatara 
to the Schuylkill, from the Schuylkill 
to the Lehigh, and from the Lehigh to 
the Delaware, and even the same from 
the Delaware to the hi^llow in Xew 
Jersey kntnvn as Culver's Pond. It is 
difficult to account for such a coinci- 
dence. 



494 



THE PEXXS YLV AM A-G E RM AN 



Very reluctantly we leave this re- 
gion. A glance on the ri\'er with here 
and there a lig-ht canoe brings to mind 
the following beautiful poem by Prof. 
Meschter: 

"The sun goes down I 

Mount Minsi'F crown 
Flames into purpK-. gold and brown: 

Ten thousand notes 

Trill from the throats 
Of vesper birds as my skiff floats. 



In passing by 

The dizzy eye 
Beholds peaks vanish in the sky: 

Then in romance 

Bursts the expanse 
Beyond the cliffs as I advance. 

Daylight has sped, 

And overhead 
A single star peeps from the dead 

And evermore 

From shore to shore. 
Drifts my canoe if life were o'er.' 



(To be continued] 



' Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 

By Cyrus Hamlin Williston, B. S., Shamokin, Pa. 



SHICKELLEMY 




HE Iroquois although not 
the actual occupants of 
any part of Pennsylvania, 
played an important part 
in its history throughout 
the Colonial and Revolu- 
tionary periods. 

They inhabited the fer- 
tile region south of Lake Ontario and 
about the head waters of the Susque- 
hannah and Alleg-hany rivers, includ- 
ing the Mohawk \'alley on the east 
and the Genesee \'alley on the west. 

The orig-inal Indian Confederacy 
was composed of tlie Senecas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas, Oneidas and Mo- 
hawks, called the Five Xations. A 
sixth, the Tuscaroras, was admitted 
about the vear 17 12. After that they 
were known as the Six Xations. 

These Indians were very fierce and 
warlike and soon brought the neigh- 
boring tribes to acknowle<lge their 
leadership. Hence in the extensiiMi of 
their power to the south, the Andastes 
and Lcnni Lenape were brought under 
their control. 

The Shawnese. Canawese. CcMioys, 
and other Pennsylvania tribes also ac- 
knowledged their supremacy. For ti\e 
better go\ernment of thc»se trouble- 
some feudatories the great Onondaga 
CouiK'il was constrained, in the earlv 



part of the iSth Centurv to place over 
them a \'iceroy. To this responsible 
position Shickellemy was appointed, 
and for a score of years his name is as- 
sociated with every imp<3rtaTU transac- 
tion attecting the Indians of the Sus- 
quehannah \'alley. 

Shickellemy was a Susquehann<:»ck 
by birth ; descended from the ancient 
Andastes and thus returned to govern 
the land from which his fathers had 
been expelled. 

Like many of the more enterprising 
youth oi his tribe he had entered the 
military service of his conquerors ; 
proving to be a brave and skillful war- 
rior. His valor in war was rewarded 
by adoption into the Oneida tribe, of 
which he at length became a chief: an 
exceptional honor for one not a mem- 
ber oi that tribe by birth. It is not 
probable that he was appointed \'ice- 
ri\v before 1728, l^ecause he was not 
present at the treaty with the I-'i\ e Xa- 
ti(Mis. at Philadelphia in July 1727. and 
Le Tort does not mentiv">n liim among 
the Indians (U* ccMisequence. "whom he 
met among the upper readies of the 
Susquehannair*. in the winter of 172S. 

The fir<t ccMiference that he attendcvl 
at Pliilailelphia was that of July 4-5. 
1728. It dt^es not appear tliat he t«^«^k 
an\' active part in the proceedings. 



INDIAN CHIEFS OF PENNSYLVANIA 



495 



He was present on a similar occasion 
in the following October (I/2S), 
when at the close of the conference the 
council considered "what present 
might be proper to Shickellemy," ''uf 
the Five Nations, appointed to reside 
among the Shawanese. whose services 
had been, and may yet farther be of 
great advantage to this government." 

The secretary of the council had 
gained a greater idea of his functions 
three years later, when in the minutes 
of August 12, 173 1, he gave his name 
and title as, "Shickellemy, sent by the 
Five Nations to preside over the 
Shawanese." 

At the close of the conference, which 
began at Philadelphia at that date, the 
governor ha\'ing- represented that he 
was, ''a trusty, good man. and a great 
lover of the English ;'' he was com- 
missioned as bearer of a present to 
the Six Nations, and a message invit- 
ing them to visit Philadelphia. This 
they did, arriving on the iSth of 
August, 1732. 

Shickellemv was present on this oc- 
casion, when it was mutually agreed 
that he and Conrad ^^'eiser should be 
employed in any business that might 
be necessary between the high con- 
tracting parties. 

In August 1740 he came to Philadel- 
phia to inquire whether the English 
were making preparations for war, 
rumors that such was the case having 
reached the great council at Onon- 
daga. He was also present at the con- 
ference at Philadelphia in July 1742. 
and at the treaty of Lancaster in June 
and July 1744. He does not appear to 
have taken a very active part in the 
proceedings or rather in the discus- 
sions, as this was a privilege which, 
among the Six Nations, was reserved 
for the Onondagas. 

In April 1748, accompanied by his 
son and Conrad \\'eiser he visited 
Philadelphia for the last time. At this 
visit no public business was con- 
sidered. 

The residence of Shickellemy is tirst 
definitely located in 1729. in a letter of 



Governor Gordon to Shickellemus and 
Kalaryonyacha at Shamokin. Within 
the next eight years he moved some 
miles up the West Branch. 

In the journal of his journey to 
Onondaga in 1737, Conrad W'eiser 
states that he crossed the North 
Branch from Shamokin on the sixth «jf 
March ; on the seventh he crossed 
Chillisquaque Creek, and on the eighth 
he reached the village where Shickel- 
lemus lived. 

Bishop Spangenberg and his party 
passed over the same route, June 7, 
1745. After passing Chillisquaque 
Creek and the "site" of the town "that 
formerly stood there," they "next 
came where Shickellemus formerly 
lived," which was then deserted. 
There is no doul)t that at some time 
between 1737 and 1743, he moved to 
Shamokin, \\'here he resided the re- 
mainder of his life. 

From here he made frequent jour- 
neys to Philadelphia. Tulpehocken, 
Bethlehem. Paxtang and Lancaster, 
as the discharge oi his many duties re- 
quired. 

Shickellemy held a position of great 
responsibility, but one oi honor rather 
than profit to himself. Although he 
was responsible for the good behavior 
of the Indians oi Central Pennsylvania 
and from tiiem or the pro\incial au- 
thorities exacted tribute : yet no pro- 
vision was made for his personal ne- 
cessities, except that the provincial 
authorities contril.nited some small 
part toward them. However he was 
expected to hunt and fish, and in this 
manner support himself, regardless of 
his station. 

In the waning vigor of liis old a^e. 
time had dulled the keen edge or his 
faculties to such an extent, that he was 
forced to relinquish the chase, and de- 
pend on the charity of the English. 
whom he had serveil so faithfully. 

In October 1747- Conratl Weiser 
fi>und him in a condition of utior des- 
titution. This he states in the follow- 
ing letter to the council: 



496 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



"I must recommend Shickellemy as a 
proper subject for Charity. He is very 
poor; in his sickness the horses have eaten 
all his corn; his clothes he has given to 
Indian Doctors to cure him and his family, 
but all in vain. He has nobody to hunt for 
him and I cannot see how the poor old 
man can live. He has been a true servant 
to the government, and may per^^aps still 
be, if he lives to get well again. As the 
winter is coming on, I think it would not be 
amiss to send him a few coats or blankets, 
and a littie powder and lead. If the gov- 
ernment would be pleased to do this, I will 
send my sons with it to Shamokin before 
the cold weather comes on again." 

Upon consideration of this letter it 
was decided by council that goods to 
"the vahie of sixteen pounds should be 
procured and forwarded to Conrad 
\\'eiser. The consignment \vas as fol- 
lows — 5 Stroud malchcoats ; J4 of a 
cask of gunpowder; 50 lbs. of bar 
lead; 15 yards of blue half-thicks; i 
doz. best buck handled knives ; 4 
dufifed niatchcoats. 

In the following month he had so 
far recovered as to visit Tulpehocken, 
and in April 1748, he was at Philadel- 
phia. After this he must have had a 
relapse for in June of the following 
year, the Provincial Counncil was in- 
f6rmed the he was "sick and likely to 
die." His "eye-sight was also failing 
him." Pie again recovered however, 
because in the following year he made 
a visit to Bethlehem. On his return 
trip he became very ill, but reached 
his home with the aid of Zeisbeiger, 
who attended him during his illness, 
and administered the consolations of 
religion. On the seventeenth of 
December, 1748, Shickellemy died, 
his daughter and Zeisberger being 
present. The latter, with the help oi 
Henry Fry, made a coffin, in which the 
possessions he most highly valued dur- 
ing life were placed, after which the 
mortal remains of the great Viceroy 
were interred in the burial grounds of 
his people. 

"Where Susquehannah's tranquil branches 
meet. 

Like Prince and Princess eacli from far re- 
treat, 

EUue Hill, which has for many ages 
frowned, 



Upon the less imposing hills around, 
Rock breasted, mountain ribbed, had ever 

been. 
The legendary home of wondrous men. 
Halfway up those rocks conspicuous in 

place. 
Time's hand had chisell'd Shickellemy's 

face." 
At Blue Hill near Sunbury, (the 
original Shamokin) a face is 'plainly 
seen, carved by "Time's hand." out of 
the solid rock; hence the origin of the 
above verse. 

At his first appearance in Colonial 
affairs Shickellemy had a son and 
probably other children. A present 

was provided for his wife and daugh- 
ter at the conclusion of the treaty of 
October 1728. and on the i8th of 
August 1729, the Governer sent a 
message of condolence ' upon the 
death of his son, and a shroud to burv 
him in. 

Another son, Unhappy Jake, was 
killed by the Catawbas, with whom 
the Six Xations were at war, in 1743. 
In a letter dated January 2. 1744. 
W'eiser informs us that he spoke to 
Secretary Peters about it. and sug- 
gested sending "A small present to the 
bereaved father, to wipe off his tears, 
and comfort his heart." 

Several days before Weiser arrived 
at Shamokin, Xo\-ember 9. 1747. there 
had been three deaths in his family — 
Cajadies his -son-in-law "who had been 
married to his daughter above fifteen 
years." Cajadies was considered "the 
best hunter among all the Indians." 
The wife oi his eldest son and a grand- 
child, also died, at this time. It is evi- 
dent that he had more than one daugh- 
ter. His three sons were also men- 
tioned. 

TachnecluK^rus. the eldest son. suc- 
ceeded to the authority of his father, 
and with two other "Sachems." or 
chiefs of the Indian Xation. called the 
Shamokin Indians," affixed his signa- 
ture to the Indian deed of 174O. 

Sa\'tightowa. a younger bnnher of 
Tachnechdorus was ^the nu^st cele- 
brated oi Shickellemy's sons. His In- 
dian name was James Logan. He was 
named for the distinguished Friend, 



INDIAN CHIEFS OP' PENNSYLVANIA 



497 



who was prominently identified with 
Colonial atlairs in Pennsylvania. He 
is however generally known in history 



as *'Log-an the Mingo.' 



Mr. M. L. Hendricks, of Sunbury, 
Pa., claims to have discovered and 
opened the grave of Shickellemy. In 
the year 1858 he found a grave sup- 
posedly of an Indian chief, who was 
buried about 200 yards from the old 
Fort Augusta, along the foot of the 
hill. In the grave were found a scalp- 
ing knife, a tomahawk or stone ax, 
bracelets^, the barrel of a horse-pistol, 
paint and a paint cup, finger-ring and 
bells, bones, the hinges and nails of a 
coffin, a pint bottle with a long neck, 
an English made pipe which ^Ir. Hen- 
dricks claims was part of the original 
purchase price of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, a medal with a head of King 



George the Second on one side, and on 
tlie other, a hunting scene (an Indian 
shooting a deer), copper dangles from 
a blanket, and a large bunch of black 
hair which fell in pieces when exposed 
to the air. The evidence on which 
Mr. Hendricks bases his claim is the 
fact that •'Shickellemy was buried in 
a coffin near the foot of the hill." It 
is only fair to add however that the 
Moravian Records state that Shickelle- 
my was buried near Lewisburg, Pa. 
Bibliography : 

Linn"s Annals of the Bufialo Valley. 
Legends of the Susquehannah Valley — 

Purdy. 
Colonial Records. Vol. 2-3-4-5. 
Pennsylvania Archives, Vol 1. 
Pennsylvania Colonial and Federal, 

Vol. 1. 
I am greatly indebted to the History of 
Northumberland County, by Beers 
and Wanner. Also to F. B. Musser 
of Shamokin for use of material. 



A Chronological Table 



This table, based on Faust's "German Ele- 
ment in the United States." supplements 
Ratterman's Table which we printed in 
our June issue. 



1369. 
1459. 

1480. 
1492. 

1512. 

1562. 

1607. 

1618 
1621. 

1626. 



John Huss born, burned at the 

stake 1415. 

Birth of Martin P)ehaim in X'ur- 

emberg. made a globe 1491-2, 

died 1506. 

Martin Waldseemiiller born. 

Birth of ^lenno Simons (died 

1559V 
Mercator 
born. 
Germans 



(Gerhard Kremer) 



at 



1638. 



with Huguenots 
Port Royal, South Carolina. 
Germans among first settlers at 
lamestown. 
48. Thirty Years' War. 
August in R e r m a n born at 
Prague. 

Peter Minuit. born in W'esel. 
arrived at Xew Amsterdam, as 
governor built foundation of 
Xew York. 

Peter Minuit arrives in Dela- 
ware Bay. 



1638. Dr. Hans Kierstede of Magde- 
burg, arrives in Xew ^'ork, the 
first practicing physician and 
surgeon in that colony. 

1651. Franz Daniel Pastorius born in 
Sommerhausen. 

1660. Jacob Leisler. !)orn in Frank- 
fort, arrived in Xew York. 

1660. Prior to, a few Germans settled 
in province of Maryland. 

1663. Peter Fabian, a Swiss German, 
sent out to explore the Caro- 
linas. 

1669-70. John Ledcrer explored the 
land south and west of the 
James River. 

1673. Kaskaskia. Illinois, founded. 

1683. August 20. Pastorius. with a 
few Germans, landed at Phila- 
delphia. 

1683. October c\ arrival of ship Con- 
cord with German immigrants 
at Philadelphia. 

1684. Fabadists settled on the Bohe- 
mian River. 

1687. Hans Hiens a member of the 
La Salle expedition. 



498 



THE PKXNSVLVAXIA-GERMAX 



1688. Gcrinantown's protest against 
negro slaverv. 

1689. Angust 12, Germantown incor- 
porated as a town. 

1690. William Rittenhouse of Arn- 
heim, Holland, built first paper 
mill in the colonies at German- 
town. 

.1690. First Congress of American 
colonies met by invitation of 
Jacob Leisler, governor of Xew 
York. 

1691. Leisler excuted. 

1693. Christopher Saner born. 

1694. 'Mystics settled on Wissahickon. 
1696. Annapolis, ^Id., made a city. 
1700. Daniel Falckner, Johann Kel- 

pins and Johann Jawert ap- 
pointed agents of the Frankfort 
Company. 

1702. Mennonite settlement at Skip- 
pack, Pa. 

1703. First Lutheran preacher or- 
dained in America, Justus 
Falckner. 

1705. Toleration in the Palatinate 
granted the Reformed church. 

1707. War of the Spanish succession. 

1.707. End of Germantown's indepen- 
dent government. 

1709. Thirty-eight himdred Palatines 
settled in Ireland. 

1709. Thirteen thousand Palatines ar- 
rive in London. 

1709. Newbern. North Carolina, 
founded by 600 Palatines from 
London. 

1709. Newburgh on the Hudson River 
founded by Kocherthal colonists. 

17 10. 3000 Palatines migrate from 
London to New York under 
Robert Hunter. 

1 7 10. Germans settled in New Jersey. 

17 10. (circa) Lii migration of Swiss 
Mennonites. 

1710. First German settlers in North 
Carolina imder Graffenried and 
Michel at Newbern. 

1714. Gcrmanna in Virginia founded. 

17 16. Governor Spotswood's explor- 
ing expedition. 

1718. Envoys sent to England by 
Palatines in New York. 



1719. First group of Dunker families 

(20J arrive in Pennsylvania. 
17 19. Death of Pastorius. 
1 72 1. Germantown, \'a., founded. 

1721. Baron de Kalb born. 

1722. Moravians settled in Herrnhut. 

1723. Migration of Palatines from 
" New York* to Penns3'lvania. 

1724. Christopher Saner came to 
America. 

1726, or 1727. Adam Miller settled in 
the Shenandoah \'ailey. 

1728. Redemptioner system began to 
be apphed extensi\ely to Ger- 
man immigration. 

1728. Second migration of Palatines 
from New York to Pennsylva- 
nia. 

1729. Lancaster County organized. 

1729. First Germans in western Mary- 
land. 

1730. (circa) Baltimore laid out. 

1730. Lutherans found church in Ger- 
mantown. Pa. 

1731. First German Lutheran church 
opened for worship in New Jer- 
sey. 

1732. Purysburg, S. C, settled. 

1733. Zenger started the New York 
Weekly Journal in Nev\- York. 

1734. Salzburgers arrived at Charles- 
town, S. C, and settled Ebenez- 
er, Georgia. 

1734. ?^Iigration of Schwenkfelders. 
1735- Orangeburg. S. C. settled. 

1735. Moravians locate in Georgia. 

1735. Zenger's trial laid the founda- 
tion of the liberty of the press 
in America. 

1737. Conrad Weiser secured truce 
between Indian tribes. 

1738. Christopher Sauer established 
his printing press. 

1740. Hebron church built in \'irginia. 

1740. Germans under Waldo settled 
Waldi^burg in Maine. 

1741. Muhlenberg arrived in Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

1743. Gorman Bible primed, in Phila- 
delphia. Pa. 

1744. Leonard Schell's missionary 
journey. 

1745. Frodericktown. Md.. laid out. 



^mm 



A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 



499 



i: 



1746. ^Michael Schlatter arrived in 
Pennsylvnaia. 

1748. Conrad W'eiser visited the In- 
dian villag-c called Logstown. 

1748. Moravian church organized as a 
separate denomination in Beth- 
lehem, Pa. 

I7/J9. Young Ladies' Seminary found- 
ed at Bethlehem, Pa. 

1750. Germans settled Halifax, Xova 
Scotia. 

1750. ^ (circa) Johann Schwerdkopf, 
noted strawberry gro\\-er, • mi- 
grated to America. 

3750. New Germantown, near Boston, 
Alass., founded. 

1753. ^Moravian settlement of Salem- 
Winston established. 

1756. Mittelberger's journey to P^enn- 
syivania. 

1758. German church built in Balti- 
more. 

1758. Christian Frederick Post i>aci- 
fied Indians. 

1759. First Lutheran church built in 
Charleston. S. C. 

1760. Heinrich Miller beg-an printing. 

1761. Post became first white settler 
of the Ohio district locatine: in 
what is now Stark county. 

1763. Heinrich Cotta born; 1764. 
Georg^e Ludwig- Hartig born, 
fathers of modern forestry. 

1764. Punitive expeditions sent against 

Indians, 206 prisoners sur- 
rendered to Colonel Bouquet. 

1764. Formation of German Society 
of Pennsvlvania. 

1766. Zion Lutheran church in Phila- 
delphia begun. (consecrated 
1769). 

1766. "German Benevolent Society" 
of South Carolina formed. 

1769. Boone explored Kentucky. 

1770. Schonbrunn on the Muskingum 
founded. 

1770-73. German colonists in ^^aine 
migrated to South Cari^ilina. 

1773. -Johann Ludwig Roth, first white 
child oi Ohio born. 

1774. Harrodsburg. earliest settlement 
in Kentuckv. founded. 



1774- 
1775. 
1775- 

1775- 

1777. 
1780. 

1781. 
1782. 
1784. 



1787. 
1787. 
,1788. 

1792. 



1794. 
1796. 
1796. 

1800. 

1803. 

1803. 

1805. 

1806. 

1808. 
1810. 

1813. 



1819. 
1820. 



Revolutirjnary meeting held at 
\\'oodstock, \'a. 

German Fusilcers organized in 
South Carolina. 

Germans issued appeal for 
armed resistance against Eng- 
land. 

Germans of Mohawk \'alley or- 
ganized four battalions. 
Battle of Oriskany. 
Harrisonburg. \'a., established 
by law. 

Lexington, Kentucky, settled. 
Gnadenhiitten massacre in Ohio. 
Fleecy Dale. Md., settled by 
Amelung, w h o manuiacture»l 
first hollow glassware in Amer- 
ica (?) 

Frankfort, Kentucky, founded. 
Franklin College founded. 
Fifteen German churche^ oi 
South Carolina incorporaterl. 
Transylvania Seminary. first 
College in the \'allev of the 
Ohio, located at Lexington, K>-. 
Death of Baron Steuben. 
Reading Adler started. 
\'evay in Indiana settled by 
Swiss. 

Migration to Canada from Penn- 
sylvania. 

North Carolina Synod oi the' 
Lutheran church organized. 
Louisiana Purchase caused 
great sweep oi immigration to 
Tennessee. Kentucky and South- 
west. 

Harmony i n Pennsylvania 
fcnmded by the Rappists. 
Ilenkel press established at 
New Market. \'a. 
David and Tobias Ruttner born. 
Swiss at \'evay. Indiana, made 
2400 gallons of wine. 
Reverends Schercr and Gobel 
were sent on a missi«Miary tour 
to (^hio. Kentucky and Tennes- 
see and organized thirteen con- 
gregations Cv^nsisting of 1 175 
members. 

Catawba grape origii\ated. 
Tennessee Synod of the Luth- 
eran church formed. 



500 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



1820. Sale of redemptioners abolished. 

1822. Ferdinand Schumaclier born, 
pioneer maiuifacturer of oat- 
meal. 

1822. Adolph Strauch, noted land- 
scape g-ardener, born. 

1828. Clans Spreckels, sugar king, 
born. 

1833. E. A\\ Hilgard, the Nestor of 
agricultural science, born. 



1839. George Elhvanger born, a 
founder of the most famous 
nursery in the United States. 

1851. B. E. Fernow born, director of 
first school of forestry. 

1869. George Husman began to pub- 
lish the ''Grape Culturist" the 
first American journal devoted 
to a single type of fruit. 

1882. First School Arbor Day cele- 
brated due to German influence. 



In the great struggle for the posses- 
sion of the Xorth American continent, 
it has been well said, the Latin nations 
sent officers without an army, the 
English, both officers and an army, 
the Germans, an army without officers. 
The Latin nations, with distinguished 
leaders such as Cortez, Pizarro, De 
Soto, Champlain, Marquette, and La 
Salle, whether in quest of gold or of 
the fountain of youth, engaged in great 
voyages of discovery or grand schemes 
of empire. The English, with a clearer 
view of the future, knew that an em- 
pire could not be established otherwise 
than by colonization. Selecting the 
zone best adapted to the needs of the 
Teutonic stock, they invited other 
branches of the same racial group to 
cooperate in the building of an empire. 
The Germans, not united in one nation 
at home, poured streams of people into 
the English territory. Without organ- 



ization, compelled by the -need of 
subsistence, or conditions intolerable 
at home, they appeared on the thresh- 
old of a new country as in the flays 
of Marius and Sulla, desiring land, not 
conquest. Their ancient kinsmen had 
beaten ap-ainst the barriers of this 
Roman Empire until they had shat- 
tered them, and then rejuvenated all oi 
Italy, Spain, and Gaul. Similarly in 
modern times a migration by the same 
stock took place to the land 01 promise 
called America, the very name convey- 
ing to the Teutonic mind a peculiar 
fascination. This \'olkerwanderung 
was not accompanied by the glory of 
war or the glamour of fame, but went 
on in quiet, incessantly and irresistibly, 
for more than two centuries, until to- 
day more than a quarter oi the popu- 
lation of the United States is of Ger- 
man blood. — Opening Paragraph of 
Faust's The German Element. 



oOl 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 

O, Muttersproch, du blst uns lieb " — A. S. 



Die alte kcrsclio heeui 
By J. H. Longeiiecker 

1. Es is nail iwwer fufzig iohr. 
Das ich en kleenes biiwele war 

In meim nnschulds kleed daheem. 
,Dort newe am hivvel war's alt haus, 
Un iiist en wenig weiter naus. 
. Zwee sehr alte kersche beem.. 

2. 'Sis mit selle beem connect, 
In Pennsylvania dialect 
Det, ich dir's gern verzehle. 

Un awver ich kan naii schon g'seh, 
Das ich gantz viel musz iibergeh. 
Die zeit, un worte fehle. 

3. Friihiohrs is en leben-saft 
In stiller, wunderbarer kraft 
In selle beem niif g'stiege, 
Schnell ware sie g"kleed in weis, 
Herlich, prachtvcll wie'n paradels. 
Wer kan sell pictur ziehe. 

4. Die eeme hen mit grosem fleis, 
Der lang dag g'sucht ver ihre speis 
In selle schone blume. 

Der honig hen sie kiinstlich g'schtor' 
In feina rosa iifbewahrt 
Ver'n kalter dag zu kommfe. 

5. Die amsle hen en nest gebau't. 
So fei un schlick s'war iust about 
Kios wie sie's verspunue. 

Na hen sie innge raus-gebriit, 

Un friih un schpot en herlich lied 

Uf selle beem dort g'sunge. 

•6. En schlaue katz die schleicht dort naus, 
Versteckt im grass am brumme-haus, 
Bass uffi nau gebts mol sache. 
Die iunge vogel sin schier flick, 
Dort fliegt en naus zu seim ungliick 
Der feind hut ihu im rache. 

'7. Sell bringt awwer en groszer schmertz 
In selle vogel ihre hertz. 
Guch iust mol wie sie lliege. 
Sie zanke iammerlich dort rum. 
Die schlau alt katz die springt davon. 
Sie lost sich net bewege. 

.S. Im schatte dort der schleifschtee schteht. 
Un wan's als an die hoyet geht 
Na geht mer s'erst ans schleife. 
Der schtee dreht hart, die sens is dull. 
Sell is ken fun ich wees es woll. 
S'vertreibt da buwe s'peife. 

'J9. Es spiel -haus war gantz noch dabei. 
Sell war als schi)ort dabei zu sei. 
Ver kleene meed, un buwe. 



Maibels. un scharbe, schtee. un moss. 
Mer hens uf-gTixt. nau mind s'war boss. 
Just rechte schone stuwe. 

10. Eb lang na wars als kersche-zeit, 
Na sin die leit von noch un weit 
Ufs kersche fest hie komme. 

Der grand-pap, hut en Uianches mol 
Als kersche g'rupt, beim kivvel voll 
Un hut sie mit genomma. 

11. Die gantz historie kommt mir vor. 
Un lebt in mir von iohr zu iohr 
Von selle beem am hivvel. 

Von selle kersche Schwartz un roth, 
Wo g'rupt sin worre friih un spot 
In box, un karb, un kivvel. 

12. Es is mir immer fiir un fiir 
Bis uf der heitig dag plesier 
An selle zeit zu denke. 

Ich guck as wie im traam zurick 
Un g'seh die alte beem gantz dick 
Voll schone kersche henke. 

13. Ich seh die leder noch dort steh 
Die Mammi sachte dra nuf geh. 
Gel) acht, sonst konst du falle. 

Ea well, ich denk s'gebt dumplings nau 
Ver's middag-esse. any-how 
Sell dat mir firstrate g'falle. 

14. 'Sis warm un smotrich, s'gwiddert hart. 
Es thut ein wetter unerwart 

Von north-west rivver ziehe 

Die alte beem wehn hin un her, 

Es blitzt. un schlagt. un regeri schwer. 

Die dicke wolke tliege. 

15. Doch is das wetter bal vorbei. 
Es firmament wird widder frei. 
Die wolke sin verzogo 

En sanfter wind en wenig weht. 
O senst du nau am hinimel steht 
En schoner rege-boge. . 

16. Uf selle beem dor wippr-ee-will. 
Am owet spot wan alles still. 
Macht als der wald erklinaren. 

Kom mit mir saoht. mit leiseni schritt. 
Nau horch en haver-gas. un katy-did 
En weh muth liedly singen. 

IT. Un horch. dort drunne in der wiss. 
En tausod frosch; I sniaoht so g'wiss 
Mer kont sioh io schier ferche. 
Ke g'fohr. es is nix as natur. 
Ke geist. ke gspook. sell bin ich sure. 
Es shad uns nix zu horche. 



502 



THE PENXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



18. Ea well ich musz ietz awwer geh 
Ich kail do langer nimme steh 
Die worret dir zu sage. 

Die gantz iiatur tont iiberall 
Mit leedniiithigein wiederhall 
Ich kan des net ertrage. 

19. Der herbst komt bei mit frost un wind, 
Die kerscbe-bliitier falle g'schwindt, 

Un fliege in alle ecke. 
Der change wo"s bringt is wunner-grosz, 
Die alte beeni stehn blut un bios, 
S'guckt just wie derre hecke. 

20. Bei selle beem am hivvel dort, 

Wan schnee un frost kommt von der 

north, 
Na is's ans coasta gange 
Es war ia so von alters her, 
Es is der iugend nix zu schwer, 
Wan's iust geht noch verlauge. 

21. Die alte beem sin nimme dort. 
Die spiel-komrade sin nan fort, 
Die freurid un freude-stunde. 
Sie sin dahin, 'sis alles leer, 

Die iugend-zeit die kommt nicht mehr, 
Es is wie'n traam verschwunde. 

22. Ich steh un ruf ; O, kersche beem, 
Der echo rufet "kersche beem" 
Vom berg un wald dort drivve, 
Ich steh a leh — ich halte still. 
Kan niemand sage wie ich fiihl 

Un huts noch niemand g'schrivve. 



23. Mei gantzes hertz schwelt uf in mir 
Ich hab en g'fiihl das uf papier 
Gar net is aus-zuspreche. 

Ich denk es is en heemweh schmertz 
Das mich so kranket in nieim hertz 
Un thut mir's schier verbreche. 

24. Sie sage mir es gibt en land 

Wo abschied-schrnertz is unbekant 
Ke ferre-well, ke siinde 
En weit geziertes blume-feld, 
En paradies, en himmels-welt 
Wo truwel net zu finde. 

25. Es wird a g'sat es wer en stadt. 
Die wunner-bare griinde hat 
Mit edel-stein gebauet. 

Mit lebens baume en der strass 

Die man els ein durchscheinend glass 

Im lichte Gottes schauet. 

26. Wo freunde sich erfreuen sehr 

Zu trieffen an dem glassernern Meer 
Un Gottes harfen bringen 
Wo ewig keine trennung mehr. 
Wo's ganze blut— erkaufte heer 
Ein triumph-lied anstimmen. 

27. Wo alle um den lebens l>aum 

Gott anbeten un das Lamm. 

O was viir "vviinder namen. 

O halleluia, selige zeit 

Viir die zu solchem gliick bereit. 

O halleluia — Amen. 

Palmyra. Pa 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 

By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton. N. J. 



Moffat, Yard & Company, Xew 
York, lately published "What is So- 
cialism?" by Reginald Wright Kauff- 
man. 

Georg Schock ( Katherine Riegel 
Loose) is spending the summer in a 
bungalow on ^^laidencreek. Pa. It is 
the scene of her latest published 
novel, "HEARTS COXTEXDIXG." 

George E. Knapp, oi the editorial 
staff of The Rocky Mtnmtain Xews. 
recently sailed for Europe. This fall 
the Eippincotts will publish his first 
novel, "THE SCALES OF JUS- 
TICE." 



GERMAN LITERATURE, LAND 
AND PEOPLE— r.y Franklin J. 
Holzwarth. Professor. Syracuse 
L'niversity. Cloth. Price $i. 
American P)Ook Company. Xcu" 
York. 19 lo. 
This is a sort of handbook or man- 
ual for students. It contains a brief 
histcM-y ni German civilizatit^n. and a 
brief outline oi German Literature. 
There are some gMml descri ;)li«in> and 
criticisms of German literary master- 
pieces: and the specimens are well 
chiwen. In addition to this it has an 
appendix devoted to the language, gov- 
ernment, and gci'graphy. and the in- 
tlustries of Gennanv- The part de- 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 



503 



voted to the Government and the Geo- 
graphy is good and valuable, while the 
part devoted to German composition, 
or whatever it is to be called, is not so 
valuable. On the whole it is a good 
reference book to have, and can be 
readily nsed in the class room. 

MY HEART AND STEPHANIE— 

By'"' Reginald Weight Kauffman, 
Author of "Jarvis of Harvard" ; 
"Miss Frances Baird, Dectective," 
etc. Cloth, decorative, 233 pp. Il- 
lustrated in color from paintings 
by A. C. Learned. Price $1.25. L. 
C. Page & Co. Boston, 1910. 

Here is a goodly story of love and 
mystery. The scenes are laid for the 
most part in Paris and in ^lountville, 
Lancaster, Co., Pa. The story deals 
with the scandals and intrigues of the 
Austrian Court; it is woven around 
Countess Stephanie, a Polish Con- 
spirator, the principal character in the 
story, and around Rudolf, the Arch- 
duke and Crown Prince of Austria- 
Hungary and the only son of Eniper(~>r 
Francis Joseph. Rudolf died January 
30, 1889. But history has never been 
sure whether he was assassinated 
whether he died a natural death, or 
whether he committed suicide at My- 
erling near Vienna. 

Fie incurred the displeasure of his 
father by his marriage and divorce 
scandals; but what is of more impor- 
tance is the stealing of some valuable 
court pa'^ers in c(Minection with Ru- 
dolf's actions. 

All in all this is a clever and ex- 
ceedingly interesting detective story. 
It is in reality a continuation oi the 
stirring career of Frances Baird. an 
American girl aiid the heroine oi Mr. 
Kauffman's detective sturv, "Miss 
Frances Baird, netectixe." The sn^ry 
is concise, it is to the p ^int. \\"ii(->- 
ever likes fiction will i\nd it doligluful 
reading. The style is ionrnalisric. a'ul 
is just what one woiiKl c\ leot from a 
writer wh ) is an experio'icod newspa- 
per man. 



HEARTS CONTENDING — li y 

Georg Schock ( Pseudonym j Cloth; 
2y2 pp. Price $1.50. Harper 
Brothers. New York, 1910. 
This is the author's first appearance 
as a story writer in book form. Nu- 
merous short stories by Ge<»rg Sch.'«ck 
have at different times ai)peared in the 
magazines. 

Here is a story of the Pennsylvania- 
Germans that is surely diflferent from 
anything of its kind. This ditTerence 
is noticeable in two respects : there is 
no attempt at dialect, not even at an 
English version of it. To master dia- 
lect skillfully requires some clever- 
ness ; and it is only here and there that 
a writer is found that knows how to 
handle a dialect. And in the second 
place there are no slighting and sar- 
castic remarks made about the Penn- 
svlvania-Germans; there is no catering 
to the morbid curiosity of the reading 
public, and no exciting of their inter- 
est by trying to picture the undesir- 
able and uncouth phases oi the life >n 
a people who are trequently sneeringly 
referred to as the Pennsylvania-Dutch ; 
this expression does net appear once 
' throughout the whole book. 

The incidents of th's book have to 
do entirely with the Pennsylvania- 
Germans, and with them only and with 
no one else; no outsiders are intro- 
duced. The incidents occur in one 
place and have to do with one particu- 
lar familv — the Heiligs. 

Job Heilig is the patriarch of Heilig- 
thal, the Valley of Heiligs. He is a 
prosperous farmer; is a man whose 
opinion is respected, and whose word 
and counsel carry great weight. He 
has three sons and tMie daughter. He 
makes the mistake when he attempts 
to control the lives of his children, es- 
peciallv at a time when they should be 
permitted to follow their own inclina- 
ti--s and to work out their own sal- 
vation. The trouble begins when he 
takes into his home, as a sort of 
adopted daughter, an orphan^ girl. 
r.crtha Lob. Two oi the sons fall m 
love with her ami the (lisrupti«ni of ilie 
home ensues. 



i04 



TH E PEXXS YLV AX I A-GE RM AX 



The book is highly interesting and 
even nerve racking. It is filled with 
tragic incidents ; it is dramatic in the 
desirable sense. There are no episodes 
or side issues. Everything in the story 
has a vital bearing on the working out 
of the lives of these people. It could 
be easily dramatized; it would give a 
fine picture of the pastoral simplicity 
of these people. There are a few 
places, however, where we think it is 
just a little overdrawn, and- conse- 
quently a little unnatural and impnjb- 
able. The one place is where the three 
bovs start a quarrel about Bertha and 
try to cut each other down with their 
grain cradles while harvesting the 
wheat. And the other is the mountain 
house left vacant by Bertha v.hen her 
father died and she went to live with 
the Heiligs. Jt is rather peculiar that 
the parties belonging to the different 
factions should retreat to this lonely 
place as a sort of rendezvous at all 
hours of the night. 

It works up to a powerful climax; 
one never anticipates such commotion 



and fate that is absolutely tragic when 
one l)egins the story and reads of'prim 
Susanna. in(lustri(jus. and God-fearing, 
who looks up to her husband as her 
liege and lord. 

The characters are of a rugged type, 
and are de\-eloped under a religious 
and disciplinary atmosphere. The au- 
thor had the good sense to keep the 
German names of the people' and the 
places and to adijpt an old style of 
conversation ; all these features hel;j 
to give the story a quaint effect that is 
highly desirable. Even the grain 
cradle as a weapon is in this respect 
more in keeping with the tone of 
things than what a revolver would 
have been. We wonder. howe\er. 
\\'hether Blaueberg should not be Blo- 
bero-. 

It may be said that in all likelihood 
this is the strongest the most power- 
ful, as well as the fairest and most ar- 
tistic presentation that has as yet ap- 
peared of the PennsyKania-German in 
fiction. 



n 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



Berks County Historical Society 
We have received, "Transactions of 
the Historical Society of Berks Coun- 
ty, Volume II, embracing papers con- 
tributed to the society 1905- 1909." 
This is a well printed, well bound 
book of 422 pages, with illustrations, 
table of contents, index and an abun- 
dance of valuable historic lore. We 
give .herewith the introduction and 
table of contents. 



Volue II of the transactions of the 
Society, embracing the period of five 
years from 1905 to 1909. inclusive, i s 
herewith submitted to its members 
and patrons. The book is made up of 
the several annuals issued in pamphlet 



form, paged consecutively, and con- 
taining an index of the contents of the 
whole. In the latter respect \'olume I 
was defective, from the fact that most 
of the papers it included were repro- 
duced from the columns oi the Read- 
ing Times, which originally published 
them, and were not consccutively 
paged, thus reuilering a general index 
impossible, h^-om the beginning of the 
present volume the papers have been 
separately printed, in unifvirni style, 
the annuals preserving the ccMisecutive 
paging thnuighout. 

Attention is called to the note in- 
serted in the suocessi\e annuals, re- 
questing members to preserve and re- 
turn them for binding-. B.v action of 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



Reading during 



the Society • members will receive a 
proportionate allowance therefor upon 
the cost>.of them of the j^resent bound 
volume, the price of which has been 
fixed at one d(;llar. It is desirable that 
as many as possible of these annuals 
be returned to the Society, for future 
use in binding- additional copies of the 
Volume as occasion may require. 
June I, 1910. 

Members of the Society. 
Contributions to Ijuilding Fund. 
Papers Read before the Society : 

Statement of ^Iqu Supplied by the 

County of Berks in the Civil War. 

By Morton L. ^Montgomery. 
President's Address, 1905. 
Berks County ^Militia at the Battles 

of Brandywine and Germantown. 

By IVIorton L. ^lontgomery. 
Old Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern 

Section of Berks County. By FI. 

Winslow^ Fegle} 
War's Alarms in 

the Confederate Inxasion of 1863. 

By^ Louis Richards. 
The Pennsylvania ^^lilitia called in 

1862 for State Defence. By Rich- 
mond L. Jones. 
Meetings of the Historical Society. 

Report of Treasurer for 1905. 
Officers and Committees of the 

ciety, 1906. 
President's Address. 1906. 
Sketch of Dr. D. Hebcr Plank. 

•Morton L Montgomery. 
Sketch of John D. ^Nlissimer. By 

bert X. Bur'khcilder. 
Indian Massacres in Berks Count}' 

and Storv of Regina, the Indian 

Captive. ' By Rev. J. W. Early. 
Early History of the Reformed 

Church in Reading. Bv Daniel 

J\riller. 
The Caves of RichnuMul and Perry 

To\vnshi])s. Berks County. By 

William J. Dietrich. 
A A'isit to Reading. England. r>y 

Rev. AVilliam Emory Henkell. 
Meetings of the Historical Society. 

1906. 
Report of Treasurer. 190^). 



So- 
Al- 



Officers and Committees of the So- 
ciety, 1907. 

l^resident's Address. 1907. 

The Hiester Homestead in Ger- 
many. \\y Isaac Hiester. 

Incidents and Reminiscences, Politi- 
cal, Militarv and Cdngressional. 
TS53-1868. By S. E. Ancona. 

Old-Time Battalions in Berks C'jv.n- 
ty. V>y Alfred S. Jones. 

The Eight-Cornered School H^us'e 
at Sinking Spring. By Eli Rap :>. 

Conrad W'eiser Memorial Tablet. 
Dedicatory Address. By Thomas 
C. Zimmerman. 

Conrad W'eiser Memorial Tablet. 
Exercises upon Unveiling. 

The Eight-Cornered School House 
at Sinking Spring. By Andrew 
Shaaber. 

The Introduction of the Morse Tele- 
graph into Reading. By Charles 
^F Lewis. 

Meetings of the Historical Society. 

Report of Treasurer tor 1907. 
Officers and Conmiittees oi the So- 
ciety, 1908. 
President's Address. 1908. 
Berks Countv in the French and 

Indian War. By H. M. Muhlen- 
berg Richards. 
The Earliest Japanese \'isitors to 

Reading. By Louis Richanls. 
Pilgrimage of the Society to the Old 

Mora\ian Church r)uilding in 

Oley Township. 
The Early Mc^ravian Settlements in 

Berks County. By Daniel Miller. 
The First Xewspaper in PennsyF 

vania. By Louis Richards. 
Meetings oi the Historical Society. 

1008.' 
Rejv-trt of Treasurer for 1008. 
Officers and Committees oi the S.->- 

ciety. looc). 
President's Address, iqck). 
The Berks Cmmty .\ncestry oi 

Abraham Lincoln. B\- Louis 

Richards. 
Index. 
The Keyst«^ne State Xonnal Scn-^-^! 

at Kutztown. By Rev. W. W. 

Deatrick. 



506 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The Hug-iiciiot Element in the Set- 
tlement of I'erks County. By Rev. 
Anion Stapleton. 

The German I^eddler's Grave — A 
Mountain Tragedy of 1797. By 
Louis Richards. 

Meeting of the Historical Society, 
1909. 

Report of the Treasurer for 1909. 

Officers and Committees of the So- 
ciety, 1910. 



Bucks County Historical Society 
^This society held an interesting 
spring meeting at Bristol, May 24. 



Papers on the following subjects were 
read : 

"The Home of the Paxsons," by the 
late Chief Justice Edward M. Paxson, 
read by Mary Rodgers Paxson, of 
Bristol; "Reminiscenses of Bristol,'' by 
Joseph Warner Swain, of Philadelphia, 
a fr>rmer resident of Bristol; "History 
of Bristol," by Wesley Minor; "His- 
tory of Bristol's Old Episcopal 
Church," by George M. Dorrance ; 
"The :\Iills of Bristol." by Joseph R. 
Grundy; ''Two Xew Hope Relics." by 
J. A. Anderson, of Lambertsville. X. J. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 

G>nducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German. Litilz, Pa. 



d; 



Descendants of Jeremiah Miller 
Hon. W. H. ^liller. of Stoyestown, 
Pa., is desirous of locating some of the 
descendants of Jeremiah, brother of 
Yost ^filler both of whom were sworn 
into tlie Revolutio-narv service -^t Eph- 



rata. Pa., Xov. 3. 17 



///• 



Jeremiah 

served as an executor of the will of 
his brother who died in Somerset 
countv in 181 1. 



Early Item 
For J. \\^ Early 

Register's office. Book C. page 424. 

W"\\\ of Jacob Early of Donegal 

township. 

\\'ife, Christina ; scmis. John and Ta- 

col) ; daughters. Lutey Smith. Agnes 

Wonogle, Eve Iiarly. 

Will signed April 27, 1777. 
Proved ^^lay 5. 1777. 



Descendants of Peter Faust 
Peters Faust. b(^rn in Germany. 
April 24, 1723. came to .\nurica in 
1750 and Settled in I*>ederick t<Avn- 
shi;). Mvuitgiunery county. F'a.. where 
he died lanuarv i, 170^ Had son 



John Xicholas Faust, born 1767. mar- 
ried Elizabeth Walvert, and lived on 
his father's homestead where he died 
in 1837. Will some subscriber kindly 
sav whether Peter Faust had anv other 



sons, 
etc. 



if so kindly give names, dates, 
W. W. XEH-'ERT. 

Hartford. Conn. 



Gish Data 
Reply to K. E. Beard 

Refrister's office. Lancaster, original 
account oi Administrators c^f es- 
tate of Abraham Gisch oi Done- 
gal township, tiled Oct. 16. 1705. 
£3906. 14s. i^jd. to be divided 

among ten children, of whom Jac«'»b 

Abraham, John and Catharine are 

mentic^ned as being of age. 

Recorder's office. Btn^ik K. K. page 447. 
Sale ot land by Abraham tiish of 

Mount joy township and Susana his 

wife ^ia^• I. I7S:>. 



Wise Family in Virginia 

11. W . r.yrd. r.ridgewater, X'irginia. 
is gathering data in reference to St. 
Michaels church near that place, origi- 



GENEALOGICAX. NOTES AND QUERIES 



507 



nally a Lutheran chiircli, afterward 
Lutheran and Reformed to 1876, since 
which time it has been Reformed. The 
old church records have long been 
lost, but it seems tliat the land for the 
church was given by the Wise family, 
who came from Pennsylvania. If any 
subscriber can help to determine when 
this Jamily migrated lie will confer a 
great favor b^' corresponding with Mr. 
Byrd. 

Kreiner Family 

In reply to Jacob W'. Hege. P. 440. 
July number. Recorder's office, 
Lancaster. Book L page lOQ. 

John Kreiner and Christina his wife 
sold ¥2 lot in Lancaster Borough to 
William Hamilton. March 7, 1807, for 
£64. 

Register's Office. Book H. page 466. 
Will of Adam Greiner of War- 
wick township. 
Mentions sons Martin and Jolin. 
Son-in-law Michael Steckbeck, to 
whom he leaves land in Dauphin 
county. 

Will dated :\Iay 19. 1798. 
Proved March i, 1804. 
M. X. ROBLXSOX. 



The Fyock Family 

My great-grandfather on my moth- 
er's side was a Bavarian. I am told. 
When a young man he was found 
poaching and the officers of the law 
got after him upon which he jumped 
into the river and swam across to 
Switzerland. Later he came to Amer- 
ica and settled in Pennsylvania and 
married an American wife. He is 
said to be buried in Somerset county. 
His name was \'eock. changed to 
Fyock. One of his grandsons was a 
very conspicuous character during th.e 
Civil \\ ar. nn account of his stri>ng 
republicanism he was driven out oi 
his mountain home by deserters of the 
Union Army; his buildings were 
burnt o\er his head a:id he himself 
was shot at several times, lie later 
moved to Morrison's Love, r.edfonl 



county. D. D. Blauch, Johnstown, 
Pa., who wrote the above desires in- 
fcjrmation about the immigrant Fyock. 



A Binckley Item 

John Binckley, wholesale furniture 
dealer of Columbus, O., a recent sub- 
scriber, says : "Three Binkley brothers 
left German}' to seek their fortune in 
the new country, two of whom settled 
near Hagerstown, Md. They sooa 
became so numerous that they had ta 
hunt new territor}'. One swarm went 
to Berks and Lancaster counties, 
Penn.; my great-great-grandfather 
(whose nanie was John) came to- 
Perrv and Fairfield county, Ohio, in 
1 80 1, and the tribe soon became so- 
numerous that they are found in every 
state in the L'nion. .My great-grand- 
father had 14 children ; my grand- 
father 13, and my father ii. So you 
see ''Teddy'' has not hit at us. My 
grandfather died only a few years ago 
at the age of 97 and was as erect as 
an Indian." 

Who can help Mr. Binkley to es- 
tablish his relationship with the 
Bincklevs oi Lancaster countv? 



10 10. 



ot 



the 



The Scholl Family 
Dansville. X. Y 
July 4 
Editor The Penna. -German. 
Lititz. Pa.. 
Dear Sir: The June issue 
magazine containetl a genealogy of a 
branch of the Scholl family. There are 
manv oi the name in this neighbor- 
h(-)o{i where the name is usually 
sindletl Sholl. I wish to get informa- 
ti(Mi oi the genealogy of Dr. Wi!lian> 
Sholl. .if Phila:lelph'a, wlu)se son Ja- 
c 'b Sholl mined it^ Panville and mar- 
ried Sarah Lemen. had tw«i children 
Willam ilenry and Cailierinc Lcmen 
Sholl. C'atherine was the lUinher of 
the writer. Jacob Slu^ll died a!>out 
iS.?')-7? he h.ad a brother livin*^ in 
Philadel:»hia in 1S71. P.oih of the 
children oi jaci-b moved' to Cleveland^ 



"""■■wnvsR 



508 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Ohio, about 1S45 ^'^^^ ''-^^^''J tliere. W'il- 
lian Henry had no issue. 1 \vc>ulcl be 
obhg-ed for any information of this 
branch of the Sholl familv. 

Very trulv yours, 

E.' V. SCOMLL. 

Gerniajitown, July 2. 1910. 
Editor The Penna.-German, 

Dear Sir: 1 was much interested in 
reading- the historv of the Frederick 
Scholf family by '.Mrs. C. D. Fretz, 
pubHshed in the June issue of your 
mag-azine. An error occurs in the 
statement that Peter and Frederick 
Scholl were residents of ^Milford town- 
ship at the same time. Peter did not 
arrive in America until Aug'. 27. I/39. 
and in 1743 he purchased from ^lichael 
Hilleg-as a certain water grist mill and 
■saw mill. This property is now owned 
by Peter's great great grandsons. 
Granville and flenrv Gerhart. situated 
on the Swamp Creek at Finland. Of 
the Scholls who arrived in America 
previous to the war of the Ameri- 
can Revolution — Frederick 172S — John 
17^1 — Michael 1738— Peter 1739 'and 
Tobias 174S, five settled within a circle 
whose diameter was not more than 15 
miles. Peter in ^lilford — ^Michael in 
Rockhill — John in Upper Salford — 
Frederick in Franconia. and Tobias in 



Hilltovv'u and \ew Britain township. 
Possibly all were brothers. At least 
there was a degree of relationship as 
they interchanged visits and were of 
material assistance to each other. A 
search of the Scholl genealogy showed 
a common ancestor in Germany about 
1 160. They were of the feudal class 
and when the German search was 
made the old Scholl Castle was still in 
existence. The descendants of Peter 
Scholl are through fifteen lines. 
Through Peter's fifteen grandchildren 
I have worked out twelve of these 
lines to the 7th or present generation. 
I have failed utterly to find trace of 
three lines later than 1836. 1 he line 
through Solomon Scholl, that thr.jugh 
Catherine Scholl intermarried with 
Geo. Smith, and that of Magdalcna 
Scholl intermarried with ^lichael 
Seno. r^Iagdalena was dead in 1S36 
and the mother of Eliza Seno iiiter- 
married with John Philli])s — William 
Seno — Frederick Seno. Julia Ann Seno 
and Flamiah Seno intermarried with 
Andrew P)olt. Can your readers tell 
me where to locate the descendants of 
Solomon Scholl — Catherine Scholl and 
of Magdalen.a Scholl as abo\-e? 
\'erv truly ours, 

h'. G. SMULL. 
141 \V. School Lane, Germantown. 



n 



THE FORUM 

The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications In\itecl 



MEANING OF NAMES 



By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M.,Ph.D. 

[EDITORIAL NOTE. Dr. Fuld 
has kindly consented to give a brief 
account of the derivation and meaning 
of the surname of any reader who 
sends twenty-five cents to the editor 
ior this purpose.] 



49. STOFFLET 
STOITT^ET is a corruption of 
CHL^TC^PIIER which originally 
meant "Christ carrier" and was ap- 
plied to one whi^ in war carried a ban- 
ner on which was emblazoned an ini-* 
age of Christ. The successive cor- 
ruptii^ns ot CHRIS! cM^l lER were 
CHRISTOX'AL. C 11 R V ST A L. 
CtlRVSriK. STOFFEL and tlnallv 
SrOFlTT"r. The sut^x LET is a 
diminutive oi endearment. 



THE FORUM 



509 



House Mottoes Wanted 
Rev. J. B. Stoudt, of Emaus, Pa., 
desires the assistance of tlie readers of 
the P. G. to assist him in collecting 
House ]\lottoes and Inscriptions of the 
Penna. Germans. ^lany quaint and 
curious mottoes are found on old 
houses, churches and cemetery en- 
trances, church bells, etc. We believe 
such a collection would not only be 
tpund interesting but would be of 
permanent historic value. In the case 
of houses most frequently only the 
names or perhaps only the initials and 
date of erection are given, but occa- 
sionally a proverb or sacred phrase is 
added, see P. G. in Vol. II p. 128, 172. 
Vol. V. 127, Vol. VIII, p. ^2. Kindly 
send to him or to the P. G. any in- 
scription coming under your observa- 
tion. 



Proposed Plan for the Publication of 
the Complete Works of Wliliam 

Penn 
Citizens of early German American 
ancestry owe a perennial debt to Wil- 
liam Penn and must take an abiding- 
interest in whatever tends to present 
him in his true light and relationship. 
Our readers will be interested to know 
that plans are under way looking to 
the issuing of a complete critical edi- 
tion of the writi.igs of William Penn 
under the editorship of Albert Cook 
Myers, of Moylan, Pa. Almost $18,- 
000 has been pledged as a subscription 
fund to cover cost of editorial work. 
It is estimated that the materials 
would make at least ten large octavo 
volumes of 400 or more pages each. 
The editor has alreacb' done much pre- 
liminary work and mav go abroad this 
summer to take up research work in 
England. We wish the undertaking 
success. 



^ German Societies 

We copy the fc^llowing paragraph 
from the introductory words of the 
Souvenir program of the "15 Connec- 
ticut Staats Saemrerfest." 



"The Germans in America do not 
organize societies for the purpose of 
forming a special political party or a 
separate body, but solely for the pure- 
ly social purpose of fostering old com- 
radeship. We chietly find them or- 
ganizing the kind of associations 
which are particularly popular in their 
old home, especially gymnastic and 
musical societies. Such associations 
give the Americans of German origin 
the opportunity of cementing the 
bonds of love which unite them with 
the Fatherland and its beautiful old 
culture, of keeping up their language 
and the essential traits of the strenu- 
ous German character. In organizing 
these societies the Americans of Ger- 
man origin are prompted b\' the con- 
viction that the German culture is of 
verv high value, and that it has done 
much and can still do more to shape 
the character of the American nation. 
The language the Germans speak is 
that of Goethe, of whom Emerson has 
said : "The old Eternal Genius who 
built the world confided himself more 
to this man than to any other.** The 
music the Germans cherish and culti- 
vate was raised to a high standard of 
perfection by the genius o\ Beethoven, 
and in Richard Wagner reached the 
summit of the nineteenth century 
school of musi'c. The latter, although 
more essentially national than any 
other, was nevertheless the first o\ the 
German geniuses who not only gained 
a world-wide fame among the highly 
cultivated spirits of other nations, but 
als(^ became universally popular 
throughout the whole world. 



Who Can Supply the Following? 
We have recei\ed from one oi our 
readers a valuable suggestion about 
reailing matter in the words we quote 
herewith. W'e yV^ not Iiave the articles 
in ([uestiou and lu>pe some one of our 
subscribers may be able to favor us 
with copies. 

'it at any time you run short of ma- 
terial, let me suggest the propriety of 
vour examining the following wii'.i a 



mmmmtm 



510 THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

view to reproducing- the same in your 



"Life Among the Bushwhackers" 
•a serial which 1 think originally ap- 
peared in a city newspaper. It was 
written by a ]\Ir. Beck of Lititz about 
1857. During the summer of iSfxj 1 
was temporarily employed during my 
vacation as '"Devir' on the Easton 
Free Pfess. ^ly first duty was to 
bring to the Free Press office from the 
office of a riyal newspaper located 
some three squares distant a "Long 
Primer Shooting Stick" which the lat- 
ter had borrowed from the former. I 
obeyed orders and can yet feel the 



Reiniblican Democratic party and the 
opposition party was known as the 
Federalists. This is the reason that 
the name of the paper was Der Unab- 
haegige Republikaner, signifying The 
The Independent Repul)lican, the 
name which it still bears. It is an un- 
usual circumstance for a newspaper to 
bear the same title for 100 years. 
People often wonder why it called 
The Repul)lican, \yhcn it is a Demo- 
cratic paper. 

Christian Jacob Hutter remained the 
publisher until July 24, 1812. when he 
took part in the war with Great Brit- 
ain and his son, Carl Ludwi": Hutter. 



weight of the pail of molten type ^yhich became the editor in place of hi: 
I was hardly able to carry the three 
squares and up a flight of three pairs 
of stairs much to th^- enjoyment of my 
fellow employes, and my determina- 
tion that the new man next coming to 
the office should be the "goat" for my 
amusement. Soon afterward I was 
promoted to the editorial irooms where 
I transcribed from the files of an ear- 
lier Easton newspaper the article in 
question, so that the Easton Free 
Press of the summer of 1869 contains 
the article copied from an Easton pa- 
per of about 1858 (name not remem- 
bered) which latter paper probably 
copied it from the city paper in ques- 
tion. Possibly someone in Lititz can 
give vou the facts. 

2. 'The Travels of Anne Royall" to 
various inland Pennsylyania - German 
localities in Pennsylvania in 1828 are 
not without interest and would I think 
prove enjoyable reading to many. 



AUentown Unabhaengiger Republi- 
kanner. 
(Established 1810) 
The first issue of Der L^iabhaengige 
Republikaner of AUentown, Pa., ap- 
peared July 2/, t8io. The first pub- 
lisher was Christian Jacc^b Hutter, 
formerly of Eastcui, Pa., where he had 
published The Xorthamptv^n Corres- 
pondent. -\t that time the Democratic 
party was known as the Intlependent 



father. In the fall of 1S20 Carl Hutter 
was elected as Sheriff of Xorthampt'Ui 
County, to which at that time Allen- 
town belonged, Lehigh county not 
yet having been formed. Xovember 
2, 1820, George Ilankee became the 
publisher. He died on January 2'). 
1824. February 5. 1824, Carl L. Hut- 
ter became again the editor and pub- 
lished the paper for the estate of the 
widow and children of ^Ir. Hankee. 
June 17. 1824, Carl L. Hutter again be-, 
came the publisher and sole owner. He 
died September 21. 1830. having been 
publisher and editor oi the paper for 
nearly fifteen years. 

Edwin \\'. Flutter, son oi Carl L. 
Hutter, became the editor of the paper 
October 14, 1830. and published it for 
the benefit of the widow and children 
until March 27. 1830. when it was sold 
to Reuben Bright. The paper was pub- 
lished by the Hutter family for over 
twenty-five years. 

Reuben Bjright remained the pub- 
lisher until December i, 1841. when 
James W. Wilson became the publisher 
and editor and remained until August 
2, 1854. when Reuben r.right and E. 
B. Harlacher becatue -the pu!)lishers as 
Bright ♦.^ Harlacher. 

January (>. 1858. Mr. I'right with- 
drew and B.. F. Trexler became tlie 
partner of Mr. Harlacher. auvl the 
firm was Trexler ^^- Harlacher. July 
7. 185S. Xelson W'eiser became a mem- 
ber of the firm, w Inch became Trexler. 



^^™ 



THE FORUM 



11 



Harlacher & A\>iser. June 19, 1867, 
Mr. Trexler withdrew and the firm re- 
mained as Harlacher *.K: U'eiser until 
March 4, 1874, when Mr. 'W'eiser 
withdrew. Edwin J. Young and L. P. 
Hecker then became partners of Mr. 
Harlacher, but Mr. Hecker witdrew 
in a few weeks and the firm was 
known as E. B. Harlacher & Co. until 
September 30, 1874, when ^Ir. Young 
withdrew, and ^Vlr. Harlacher con- 
tinued to publish the paper until July 

I, 1875- 

E. E. Rinn and A\ illiam F. Schlechter 
became the publishers July 7, 1875 un- 
der the firm name of Rinn & Schlech- 
ter, and carried on the business as such 
until March 3, 1886, when ^Ir. Rinn 
withdrew and ^Ir. Schlechter became 
the sole publisher and owner, and is 
still such, having been in service for 
thirty-five years, so that he is today 
the oldest publisher in the City of Al- 
lentown. Pa. 



Maternal Influence 

Genealogical research and biographi- 
cal investigation constantly show what 
is hicWen from the non-student. In 
various parts of the world a married 
woman retains her maiden name, is 
addressed by it and even signs it. The 
English-speaking world decrees that 
Mary Brown becomes Mrs. Smith, and 
if she moves to anothers community 
nobody knows that Mrs. Smith was 
named Brown. 

The importance of the maternal 
strain is always great, and sometimes 
the deciding force physical or moral. 
For instance, Charles Darwin of the 
"Origin of Species'' was the son of a 



physician and the grandson of a phvsi- 
cian. "^'et his medical studies were 
rather amateurish, vvdiile his love for 
experiments and detailed observations 
lasted while the breath was in his 
body. Charles Darwin's mother was 
the daughter of Josiah \\'edgw«j.jd. 
the potter,. and on the maternal si<.lc « •! 
the house he (obtained the qualities 
that made the naiuralis.t. It was from 
his UKJther that Sir \\'alter Scott drew 
his Cavalier sympathies; it was ir^>m 
their mother that John and Charles 
Wesley drew their odd bearing toward 
the vStuarts ; Xelson was fond oi say- 
ing "my mother hated the French." 

Along our Xorthern borders '^ne 
may occasionally find a John Thoms<:>n 
or William Green, whose name might 
appear in a London directory, hm who 
has many traits not English :■ — perhaps 
his mother was Babette or Jeanne. Be- 
side the Rio Grande there are men 
Avhose fathers may be c^f unbmken 
Anglo-Saxon line, but whose m<>thers 
were Spanish. Under the eye brows 
of Gustav Schwenkfelder there may be 
a twinkle that came from his mother, 
who used to be Maggie O'Brien. 

Here in Pennsylvania men of Eng- 
lish, Irish and Sc<^tch blood ha\e mar- 
ried women of German descent, and a 
long roll of prominent citizens can fair- 
ly be claimed as German on the nit'itii- 
er's side. The study of biography dis- 
closes a thousand facts pertaining ^t'^ 
racial intermixture, and the study is 
not new: — it was a matter oi observa- 
tion long before the Hebrew chronicler 
noted that David, the wanderer of the 
mountains, had the wild roving blood 
of Ruth, the Moabitess in his veins. 

R. R. 



532 

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PENNSyLYAXIA 

Daniel Grira — 4 — 11 

W H Sallade — 1—11 

W K Madeira — 6 — 10 

R D Bierlv — 12 — 10 

H S Bfrt^ville — 12—10 

W H Buch — 12 — 10 

W DeLong — 9 — 10 

W M Mervine — 6 — 10 

Emma S Kripbel — 12 — 10 

J H Behlcr — 12 — 10 

G Von Bosse — 12 — 10 

J A Miller — 12 — 10 

Emma Bower — 12 — 10 

W M Mervine — 8 — 11 

L Knipe — 10 — lU 

J D Erdman — 6 — 11 

R G Hongey — 6 — 11 

Mrs Daubman — 6 — 11 

L \V Kiiihr — 12 — 10 

L K Miller — 6 — 10 

W S Heist — 12 — 10 

H H Bomherper — 6 — 11 

M Herbein — 6 — 11 

A F Kemp — 4 — 11 

H R Spoice— 12 — 10 

A.C Biehn — 12 — 10 

D C Kauffman — 12 — 10 

H F LuTz — 6 — 11 

A .\ Wertman — 6 — 11 

G N Falkenstein — ti — 11 

A W SchaUk — 12 — 10 

P N Becker — 12—10 

R H Koch— ,=i— 11 

H E Hartinun — 6 — 11 

\V C Bailev — 7 — 10 

L W Fox— 4— 11 

E Brinknijin — 6 — U 

C t^-henrk — (5 — 11 

H G Reedimrer — [i — 10 

E I. Reii.hold— (>— 11 

H R Mover— r. — 11 

F F Suniney — tj — 11 



Minnie F Mickley — 6 — 11 

C G Derr — 6 — 11 

W Veit — 12 — 10 

G Gebort — 6 — 11 

H A Welker— 12— 10 

J A Shenk — 4 — 11 

J H Sohellv— 12— 10 

J J Miller— 6— 11 

A P Fogelman — 12 — 10 

F W Huber — 4 — 11 

H M Livingood — 4 — 11 

H K Kriebel — 6 — 11 

E S Fornwald— 12— 10 

C G Karsch — 12 — 10 

.J I Zerbe — 12 — 10 

W H Kern— 12— 10 

C W Unger — 7 — 10 

H F Heinlv — 6 — 11 

H S Gottschall— 12— 10 

P Herman V— ^6 — 10 

S E Forrv— .5— 11 

G \V Hoover — 12 — 10 

J R Laubach — 12 — 14 

A F Berlin — 6 — 11 

Amanda Anders — 2 — 11 

C J Cooper — 12 — 10 

A J Welker- b — 11 

F D (^earv — 10 — 10 

E S Dieter — 6 — 11 

A Steiinle — 6 — 11 

J C Rausch- 6 — 11 

N B Wilsoi) — 4 — 11 

S T Leopold — 6 — 11 

John Lear — 4 — 11 

H M Civmer — 12 — 10 

A H Wriijht— 7— 10 

H S Musser— 7— U 

Mrs A C .Tones — 12 — 10 

Lueina K Sehultz — «i — 11 

R A Waidelioh— 7— 11 

H L Zieirler— 12 — 10 

C A baohin.-in — 12 — 10 

Annie M Biery — 4 — 11 



Louis Brunner — 6 — 11 

W J Ker.«;chner — 7 — 1 1 

Mr.s. Yanderslice — 6 — 11 

J J Kutz — 6 — 11 

OHIO 

J F Cramer — 12 — 10 

A F Kistler — 12 — l<t 

A W Cramer — 12 — 10 

W Brobst— 12— 10 

Mrs C L Bnilov— 12— 10 

•John Bucklev — 6 — 11 

E S Young— 12 — 10 

J Johnson — 12 — 10 

M Wagner — 4 — 11 

NEW YORK 

E G Scovill — 10 — 10 

S G Trexler — 12 — 10 

P .T Biokel — 5 — 14 

CALIFORNIA 

Paul HetTehnan — 12 — 10 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

G M Brumbaugh — 12 — 10 

ILLINOIS 

A C Beohtel — 12 — 10 

N R Yer-er— 12— 10 

U G Case — 4 — 11 

WISCONSIN 

Mrs A C Nehf— 9— 10 

E Y Cook — 6 — 10 

MISSOURI 

G H Breinic— 4— 11 

NEBR.VSK.V 

Mrs .V S Tibbets— 4 — 12 

CONNKCTICIT 

O Kuhns— (i — 11 

OREGON 

A C Funk— 12 — 10 

CAN.\D.\ 

.\ B Slurk— n— 11 

To July 20, 1910 



c* 

^^% 









NOTICES 



Subscription Price To Be Raised 

The subscription f)rJcc of The Penmyloania German after October I, 1910 will be 

$2.00 per year, payable in advance 

$7.00 a four year subscription, payable in advance. 

Subscriptions To Be Paid in Advance 

Beginning with the October issue, '^he "T^ennsvlvanio.-Qcrman. will be sent only to those 
who have either paid their subscriptions in advance or promised to pay them wilhin ninety day^. 

A Palatine Club 

A subscriber in Chicago writes — " I do not know of a single f-'a.-Gerrnan In all Chicaco. 
Will soon lose dialect ! Can't practice !! " 

Brother, let's organize a Palaline CIvb through the mcdiunl of which subscribers can beconjc 
acquainted. Was denk-t, Bruder ? 

Just One 

The following letter dated June 25, coming j'rom the proprietor of a wholesale furpiluo 
hous<_ in Columbus, Ohio, is self-explanatory. 



"DEAR SIR. 



one of the teach? 



the school of v.hich I have been a trustee for 



20 years, handed me a copy of your publication. 1 confess I am very much Interested, inas- 
inuch as I am a thorougli-bred Penn, German. Of course I know the language is only a dia- 
lect, but I could speak nothing else until 1 wms 8 years old and in our family heard nothing cL-e 
until 1 was I 9 years old. You will not wonder that my heart feels light when I can get hold oi 
my mother's dialect in such a form as "f^arbaugh's Heernweh" — "Des All Schuih.aus an der 
Krlck" and in your March copy "Tswa Klina Schu." Find enclosed check for 51.30 for 
which send magazine regularly to above address. I wish you all the good luck you can have.' 

If each subscriber would resolutely determine to show the magazine to his frietids, and gel 
at \co.u one subscriber a month the editor would get m.any letters like the above, the subscription 
list would grow by leaps and jumps and the value of the magazine would in ever>- respect be 
greatly enhanced. As an experiment will you not resolve to get One New Subscriber in 
August? Easy as rolling off a log. Try it? 



THE NO. 12 
MODEL 




J.L 



Mr^IONJ3 



Is a total visible Typewriter, always havlni; Perfect and Per- 
nmnent .Alignment, Uniform Impression and Interchangeable 
Type. Any Language can be written on the one machine. 

You are cordially invited to stop in and have It's many .-Hdvan- 

tages demonstrated to you. Write for catalog. 

nil: HA/.\MOi\D fVi'LWklTER CO. 

33 and 35 S. lOth. St.. - PlllU.Vnn VHIA. PA. 



V/h. 



11 .■jn.-'-.v«>rir;i^ n< 



>nt<« i>!.m;*» nv^iui.-n VHK Tinns^ uv.vm v-v'.f KM vs. 









^fe 



m 



VOL. X! NO. 9 






SEPTEMBER, 1910 



^4 









c- ■ - I 




'J ^ --- . 



•/OrpV 



Ml 
CO 

3m. 



fTTH 



illi 



CONTENTS 



BROTHfclK ALBRECHT'S SlCKF:T CilAMBEK , .'. 513 

T>*E DiLLER Family 529 

Maryland Dillrrs :."jl 

Some Dillk?. BArrisMAL Records Da.j 

Causes of Micjkatton to Ame!uca 536 

PeNNS VLVAKJ.A GERMAN pLAxN'T Na M KS T ^G 

The Lehigh County Fair 547 

Lndian Cnn'3rs or Pennsylvania. Tadetjskund 5i9 

The Bkthlekems 552 

He^imbach Family 55(* 

^■AKGAaET Weiser 5<» 

Die Muttkrsproch 562 

P.EViEws AND Notes 56 1 

ii:sT*};-:iCAL NoTr.> and News 56<> 

Gfnealogical Notes and Quehies - 5G9 

The Fokum 571 

EoiTORIAL DKPAin-MKNT 575 






:T': - ' ' 






Publisher.;: THE EXPRESS PRINTING CO. Editor: H. W. KklEBEL. Lititz. ! 

Coti>riy:hl liJlO by H. W. Kriob«l. Entered a,i i^ecoiivi C!a w Mail MaUtT at tJ.c Tnst C'.icc u* Lititc. 






W\ 






jin'r^^n?:r~> 






ii-'t^ 



^"^**'"n'*KiS9"SPip 



Vol. XI SEPTEMBER, 1910 No. 9 



Brother Albrecht's Secret Chamber 

A Legend of the Ancient Moravian Sun Inn at Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, and What Came of It 
By James B. Laux, New York 

(CONCLUDED FROM JUIvY ISSUE) 




ISHOP Ettwein, the fa- 
mous Moravian Brother 
oa whose shoulders rested 
the bulk of the burdens 
and responsibilities of the 
Community during the 
Revolutionary period, who 
had entered the drawing 
room with the Sisters now stepped 
forward and after paying his respects 
to Washington and Lady Washington 
who greeted him most warmly for 
they were friends of long standing 
spoke as follows : ''Your Excellency 
and friends: I cannot refrain from 
adding something to the sentiment of 
the beautiful hymn sung in honor of 
the valiant soldier, the Count Pulaski, 
whom we learned to love and to ad- 
mire during his stay with us in the sad 
days of the Revolution. We Moravi- 
ans can never forget his chivalr'O 
treatment of the Sisters in the spring 
of 1778; the protection he atlordcd 
ihem, surrounded as they were by a 
rough and uncouth soldiery, some- 
times forgetful of the courtesy atul re- 
spect due to womanhood, and hcnv he 
himself often in person shared the 
duties of the sentinel he had appointed 



as a special guard around the precincts 
of their House ; nor the May day he at- 
tended divine worship in our chape! 
with his Legion in martial array. In 
spite of our creed which forbade a 
warlike spirit we could not feel other- 
wise than thankful that there was 
stationed in our community so gal- 
lant a soldier and so redoubtable a 
body of followers.^ Right- worthily 
did he bear himself during his stay and 
with much sadness we saw him depart 
on that long journey south to the home 
of our dear friend Henry Laurens the 
honcued President of Congress, where 
he was to win great glory and lasting 
fame." 

The reception accorded the Sisters, 
whose spokesman the beloved Brother 
Ettwein had become, was an enthusi- 
astic one. for all in that assembly had 
intimate knowledge oi their devoted 
lives, and their services t«> the cause oi 
Liberty, which many like Washing- 
ton. (>ocno. Ethan Allen, the Bayards 
Livingstons, and Lee family showed 
their appreciation of. after the close of 
the Revc^lutitMi bv sendinij them their 



i.Uur(/ii'(in Sfniinnrtj Souvenir, p. 39. 



514 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



daughters or relatives to l^e educated. 
The trainiiic;- young- ladies received in 
those far oil days fitted them for the 
most exalted spheres of life and was in 
no wise impaired by the note of sim- 
plicity and utilitarianism that was 
dominant throughout. 

The useful arts ab ^vell as the orna- 
mental lu-anches were taught by the 
Sisters and were specialh' pleasing to 
Washington who hated sham and idle- 
ness, as any one may discover who \\\\\ 
read his homilies to his nephew and 
niece. Spinning, knitting and ^veav- 
ing Avere among the accomplishments 
of the Sisters and it is said that A\'ash- 
ington supplied himself with domestic 
goods from the "first domestic manu- 
factories of the land'' as he styled the 
weaving department carried on in the 
Sisters' House. Here he made a selec- 
tion of "blue stripes'' for his lady and 
"''stoui woolen hose" for himself. 

Bishop Ettwein's reference to 
Henry Laurens brings to mind the 
close friendship that was formed be- 
tween them at Bethlehem and which 
continued unbroken to their lives* end. 
The intimacy thus formed became on 
many occasions of the greatest service 
to the ^loravian Community, notably 
so in the month of September, 1777. 
"While Brother Ettwein wa^ conduct- 
ing the lately arrived Delegates to Con- 
gress through the Widows' and Sis- 
ters' Elouses, he took occasion to plead 
for their inmates, whose removal from 
their homes had been urged by the 
surgeons in charge to meet the grow- 
ing wants of the army hospital which 
had been established here. The ap- 
peal resulted in Laurens as President 
of Congress authorizing Richard 
He^iry Lee to make the following 
order which was signed by the Dele- 
gates to Congress present at Bethle- 
hem, all of whom were the guests of 
the Sun Lin. where a fac-simile re- 
production of the original order and 
autographs of the signers can be seen 
at the present day.- 



Bothlehem, 22d, Sept., 1777. 

"Having here observed a diligent atten- 
tion to the sick and wounded, and a benevo- 
lent desire to make the necessary provision 
for the relief of the distressed as far as the 
power of the Brethien enables them. 

"We desire that all Continental officers 
may retrain from disturbing the persons or 
property of the Moravians in Bethlehem; 
and, particularly, that they do not disturb 
or molest the houses where the women are 
assembled." 

*T3cr r>aron und General, Johann 
von Kalb'' from the lips of Brother Al- 
brecht announced the entry of the cel- 
ebrated German soldier who like Steu- 
ben became a devoted supporter of the 
American cause, eventually giving up 
his life in the vSouthern campaign un- 
der Gates. Lie Avas in command of the 
Delaware and ^Maryland troops at the 
disastrous battle of Camden in which 
he received eleven wounds, fighting 
against overwhelming odds. Xo more 
heroic figure ever drew sword in bat- 
tle. "Bareheaded and dismounted, with 
sword in hand, he engaged in one per- 
sonal encounter after another, en- 
couraging his men with his voice as 
well as his example." He died three 
days after the battle and was buried 
at Camden, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 

In passing, attention may be called 
to the interesting historic fact, that, 
men of German blood and lineage 
played a much larger part in the Rev- 
olutic^nary struggle than is generally 
known or suspected. German sol- 
diers, mercenaries, constituted proba- 
bly a majority of the British forces, 
The records show that 29,867 Hessian 
troopers came tc^ America oi which 
number only 17,313 returned. Of the 
remaining 12.554. more than 5.000 de- 
serted, either making common cause 
with the Americans as combatants or 
identifying themselves with the com- 
munities in which they found a refuge. 
Many of their descendants can be 



-Jdhii HanoiH'k, S;inuiol A(l,^ms. .Truni^s Du.ire. 
Xathan Brownson. N;ithaniol Folsotn. Richard Law, 
Kliphalpt Dyer, ironr> Maroh.int. Rioh.ml Henry- 
Loo, Hoi\ry Laurens, William Ouer. Cornelius Har- 
net'. Benjamin Harrison, .loseph .Tones, John Adams, 
William Williams, 

"Delegatet to Cougres$." 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



515 



R.T7fcj.!W-sr^^^fi;?f?ES^p.^W|i^ 



TSS?^*'^ 








GENERAL DANIEL MOKGAN 

found in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and 
Maryland today. Over 7,000 were 
killed, or died of wounds or sickness. 
The greatest number of soldiers 
tinder British otlcers in any one of the 
Revolutionary battles was 20,000 at 
the battle of Long Island Aug. 26, 1776, 
where so many Pennsylvania Germans 
were present. At the battle of Bran- 
dywine Sept. 11, 1777 the British for- 
ces under Howe numbered 18,000 and 
15,000 at Germantown Oct. 4. 1777. 
xAt Monmouth. June 28. 1778, Sir 
Henry Clinton's army numbered only 
11,000, and at Chariest* >n May 12, 1780 
but 9,000, while Lord Cornwallis com- 
manded only 7.500 men when he sur- 
rendered his army at Yorktown Oct. 
IQ, 1 781. Burg<^yne surrendered with 
but 6.000 men to Gates at Saratoga 
Oct. 7, 1777. 

Generals Knyphausen, von Heister, 
von Ricdesel and Rahl. the command- 
ers of the Hessians were veteran sol- 



diers who were trained in the school of 
hVederick the Great in the Seven 
Years' War and in military capacity 
were the superiors of the English com- 
manders. The service in America was 
extremely distasteful to the German 
officrs. When Knyphausen returned 
to Europe in 1782 bnjken in health and 
minus an eye, he voiced the opinion of 
the German officers when he said he 
had "achieved neither glory nor ad- 
vancement." 

The German element in the Conti- 
nental army was a large and most im- 
portant one and on several occasions a 
decisive factor for the American cause. 
The battle of Oriskany fought under 
the heroic Herkimer was fought and 
won by the Germans of the Mohawk 
valley and Schoharie. The story of the 
achievements of Morgan's famous 
ritlemen is the recital oi the val<.)r of 
soldiers of German blood, for more 
than half of his gallant companies wr-re 
Germans from \^irginia, Maryland 
and Peimsylvania. The rifle with 
which his corps was armed was a Ger- 
man weapon brought from Germany 
by the first settlers, many oi whom 
had been soldiers, and perfected by the 
Pennsylvania German gunmakers in- 
to the firearm that wrought such ha\-- 
oc with British officers during the Rev- 
olution and in the war oi 1812. 

The muster rolls, of Bucks, Lancas- 
ter, York, Berks, Old Xorthampton. 
Montgomery and the border counties 
as far west as Westmoreland County 
reveal an overwhelming German ele- 
ment in their makeup, showing not 
only its numerical preponderance but 
the intense patriotism of the Pennsyl- 
vania German, and devotion to the 
cause of liberty. A list oi German of- 
ficers in our Revolutionary army 
headed with the names of Herkimer 
and Muhlenberg to the Captaincies in 
the militia would present a formidable 
appearance and prove to be an instruc- 
tive chapter in the history of the .Amer- 
ican Revolution. When to these we add 
the names of Steuben, and Kalb. sol- 
diers who had >erved umlcr Frederick 
the Great with tlistinction. we can»u»t 



516 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



fail to be impressed with the great part 
played by men of German blood in our 
war of Independence and to wonder 
that so little has been said in Ameri- 
can histories in praise of their achieve- 
ments and patriotism. Not until the 
record of their work in the building of 
the nation shall have been as fully and 
faithfully set forth as the achievements 
of men of English blood have been in 
the past, can it be said that we have a 
really true and impartial history of the 
American people. 

In the midst of the festivities now 
growing more animated with every 
new arrival a strange hubbub was 
heard in the hall of the Inn in which 
raucous sounds, guttural alien speech 
were mingled with the energetic pro- 
tests of Brother Albrecht in his halt 
English and half German accents 
finally ending in the announcement by 
the faithful Albrecht of "die heidnisch, 
unmenschlich Indianer von der wilder- 
ness" with several muttered side re- 
marks in German not intended for the 
ears of the company assembled — 
among them expressions like : "die 
schandlich niedertrachtig hunde" etc. 

Now took place the most imposing 
spectacle that had yet been enacted 
that memorable evening. Fifty one 
chiefs and warriors of the Iroquois 
Confederacy or Six Nations entered 
the drawing room much to the disgust 
of Brother Albrecht who had 
attemj^ted to limit the number to the 
Chiefs, but without avail and who had 
moreover vivid recollections of the 
visit long since, of the celebrated 
Teedyuscung and his unwashed fol- 
lowers, across the Lehigh at "The 
Crown" the ancient predecessor of the 
"Sun Inn" and of the rejoicings of 
Ephraim Colver, the long suffering 
publican, when they had departed for 
the lands of the \\'voming and he could 
sleep in peace and cleanliness once 
more. 

The Ijidian visitors were headed by 
Red Jacket or Sa-go-ye-wat-ha (He 
keeps them awake) the famous warrior 
and orator of the Seneca nation fre- 



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RED JACKET 

quently called the Indian Demosthe- 
nes. With him was the noted Corn- 
planter, the first temperance lecturer 
in the United States, the uncompro- 
mising foe of strong drink in the Indi- 
an nations. 

There were also Good Peter or Dom- 
inie Peter, Big Tree, Farmer's Brother, 
Little Billy, Captain Shanks, the In- 
fant, or Hanangaikhon, the tallest war- 
rior in the Six Nations, measuring ful- 
ly six feet and four inches, and Pierre 
Jaquette or Otsiquette the young and 
intelligent Oneida chief wh>> had been 
adopted into the family o\ Lafayette 
and taken to France at the close of the 
Revolution to be educated. 

Red Jacket in spite oi his antagonism 
t(^ the arts of ci\ilized life appeared 
this exening wearing the richly em- 
broidered scarlet jacket which had 
been presented to him by an English 
ofhcer stH~)n after the Revolution as a 
rewanl for his fleetness of ft^ot in a 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



51' 



running contest, and which gave him 
this nickname by which he is best 
known to the American people, lie 
also wore the medal of solid silver 
which Washington gave him on the 
conclusion of a treaty of peace between 
the United States and the Six Na- 
tions in 1792. His tall erect form and 
dignity of manner in walking made 
him an impressive figure, while his ad- 
dress while speaking at Council meet- 
ings has never been surpassed for ma- 
jesty by any of the great orators of the 
white race. In spite of his implacable 
hostility to Christianity he was most 
friendly to - the Moravian Brethren 
whose unselfish devotion to the Indian 
race he had long been cognizant of and 
reluctantly acknowledged. "The ma- 
jority of the party were dressed in 
white linen shirts, short woolen coats, 
Indian leggins, consisting of a piece of 
cloth bound around the calf of the leg 
with thongs, and snugly fitting moc- 
casins of deerskin, which latter the 
wearer is wont to dip into cold water 
in winter before going abroad in order 
to protect the feet from frost. A num- 
ber had the sleeves of their coats adorn- 
ed with large plate of silver, or wore 
trinkets of the same material on their 
bosoms. Some had silver rings and 
pendants inserted through the cartilage 
of the nose; most of them wore mas- 
sive ear-rings oi silver or copper, which 
by their weight drew down the extrem- 
ity of the ear and lengthened the slit 
.through which they were passed. 
Their faces were curiously painted in 
red, and vermilion was strewed on the 
lock of hair left on the crown. A few 
carried ritles, the rest were equipped 
with tomahawk, knife, tobacco pouch, 
and tlie trusty bow and arn.nvs. The 
more civilized were dressed st^mewhat 
after the manner of the whites, wear- 
ing in place of cloaks, the favorite 
blanket around the shoulders, and on 
their heads uncouth caps oi fur."' 

No guest in the Assembly was more 
astonished at the entrance of the dusky 
procession than Landlord ^fi^rgan whti 
began to say things that were more 



forcible than poetical, and particularly 
so when he expressed himself in the 
Pennsylvania German patois. 'AVass. 
ist loss da!" he exclaimed "wass fa 
dumhia socha sin do?" Ich hab sie net 
all eingelauten ; usht en halb dutzen 
oder so und do kumma tinfzig oder 
sechstig — wass muss uer Washington 
denka?" It was not until he had seen 
Washington shake hands with Red 
Jacket and his followers and had been 
assured by the Rev. SaiViuel Kirkland 
the Presbyterian clergyman and 
missionary who had accompanied 
them that they were all sober, that he 
became reconciled to their presence in 
the midst of the grand company he 
had brought together. Even then he 
was seen to shake his head vigorously 
during the rest of the excnihg and to 
hold confidential talk with F>rother 
All)recht, much to that worthy's dis- 
comfort and evident annoyance. 

The entrance oi Sir William John- 
son still further mollified Landlord 
Morgan when he noticed the efi:ect his 
presence produced upon the Indians. 
Idle moment they caught sight of his 
dignified and pleasing figure they l)e- 
gan to cry out: 'AVariaghejaghe ! War- 
iaghejaghe !" the name given him when 
he was adopted by the Mt^hawk nation. 
After paying his respects to Washing- 
ton and Lady Washington, whom he 
reached with much difficulty, so enthu- 
siastic was the reception given him by 
the Indian chiefs and warriors, he be- 
gan to converse with them in the In- 
dian tongue which he spoke fiuently. 
It is said that no white man that ever 
lived possessed so great an influence 
o\-er the Indian tribes as Sir A\'illiam 
Johnson. 

He cultivated their friendship by ac- 
conii^datintr himself to their manners 



"Tlio vl.iy aft^T th»^ir .irrival iM.irch 9. 1792) 
ths* Hreihr.Mj j^ave them .1 t\»rmal reooi>tion in the 
chapt'l. The pupils of the Seminary, at th«»ir 
sptM'ial rt'qufst wot>' amonc tho sp»>olat<>rs. .-inti pnr- 
ticit'ated in tho ceromonios of th»» occasion. The 
iTulians \v»'r^ soatnl aoross the lon^rth of the hall m 
t\\<i scini.'iroulr.r ri>\v> faoin-' the mit>j>fer's table, 
wiiich ■^tootl acumst tho wjst wall of the buihims. 
After the ].erforn»ance of .in nnthein with full ac- 
eouipaniuient l>y tho choir, Ri>hop Fttweiu mn*ie 
there an a<lilr.-.ss. to whivh Red -Taokel r«'sponvle«l. 
Mitrarunt Sfi$iinnry S^mvuir. p. l»">2. 



518 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



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SIR WILI^IAM JOHNSON 



and sometimes to their dress and by 
his unfaiHn.c;- justice and honesty in his 
dealings with them he won their entire 
confidence and became the most power- 
ful personality on the Indian borders. 
His marriage to Catharine \\'isen- 
burg daughter of one of the German 
Palatines of the Livingston Manor 
who subsccjuently settled in the Mo- 
hawk Valley gave him additional 
standing and influence among the Ger- 
mans of that region. The pro\'erbial 
fidelity of the Indian character when 
once their friendship has been given 
was amply shown on this evening. 
The delight and demonstrative pleas- 
ure ijianifested by these stern im- 
passive warriors was a remarkable 
e>chibition and long remcnd.^cred by 
the guests of the evening. 

Even Bn^ther Albrccht began to 
think that he hatl been perhaps too 
harsh in his judgment of the Indian 
guests when he saw how amiable and 
decently they bcluwed during the even- 
ing after the advent of Sir William 
Johns'.Sn, and how great was the inter- 
est shown l)y Washington in Red Jac- 
^'et and hi^ fellow chieftains. He had 



no knowledge of the in\'itation froin 
Washington to Red Jacket to meet him 
at Philadelphia to discuss a treaty with 
the Six Nations, or he might have un- 
derstood something of the assurance 
with which these sons of the forest 
forced their way into the drawing room. 
Xo place in their estimation was too sa- 
cred in which to meet the great White 
Father and particularly so on Moravian 
soil which to the Indian was always a 
refuge of safety or comfort in case of 
need. The Moravians were not behind 
the Jesuits in their friendly, kindly 
treatment of the Indians. 

Attention was diverted 'from the In- 
dian chiefs b}- the entry of General 
Thomas Gage the Commander of the 
British forces at Bunker Hill. In meet- 
ing Washington he renewed an old ac- 
quaintance formed in the first instance 
in the Braddock Expedition in which 
he was wounded. While Washington 
wa^s covering the retreat of Braddock's 
panic stricken soldiers. Gage, then a 
Lieut. Colonel, rallied a few oi his 
troopers and succeeded in taking the 
mortally wounded Braddock to a place 
of safety. Gage in the course of his 
conversation with Washington recalled 
the e\'ents of that disastrous venture to 
the Forks of the Ohio, as being the oc- 
casion that first gave the English gov- 
ernment some idea of his military ca- 
pacity and energy, the full extent of 
which was to be realized on many a 
hard fought battle field in the Revolu- 
tion. 

Referring to the defeat of the British 
arms in that great struggle Gage frank- 
ly acknowledged that Washington's 
role as a peacemaker between the Col- 
onies and the Mother Country was in- 
finitely more successful than his part 
when he attempted in Boston in the 
year 1774 to adjust the ditYerences tliat 
divided the two countries. In calling 
Washington "a peacemaker." he meant, 
the successful general, who could ex- 
tent a treaty of peace after a successful 
campaign. He realized, he said, that 
mere talk and threats such as ho indul- 
ged in before the battle of P>unker Hill 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



.19 



made no impression on a people who 
felt the justice of their cause and were 
prepared to battle and die for it if need 
be. 

During this conversation John Han- 
cock and Samuel Adams had joined the 
group that surrounded Washington 
and by whom they were introduced to 
Gage who immediately recognized 
them as old Boston acquaintances 
whom alone he exempted from pardon ' 
in his proclamation promising clemen- 
cy to all rebellious New Englanders. He 
intended to hang Hancock and Samuel 
Adams. Laughing he shook hands 
cordially with them expressing his 
great pleasure at meeting them again 
and reminding them tliat "it was one of 
the attributes of humanity to be at 
fault occasionally in its judgment of 
men and things, and that he had be- 
come convinced long since that the 
Colonists had just cause for grievance 
at the ill treatment of the home gov- 
ernment. The narrow nature of 
George IH and his fatuous advisers 
was responsible for the loss of the 
American Colonies to the English 
Crown, an irreparai)le loss, but he be- 
lieved best though for mankind, "a sen- 
timent heartily applauded by Hancock 
and Adams, who had long ago for- 
given him his vindictive manifestly 
Franklin who overheard the ce)n\ersa- 
tion quietly smiled in that sagacious 
manner of his that became famous on 
two continents. It was truly a great 
gathering of old time friends now re- 
joicing in the blessings of peace and in 
the success of whilom rei)els. 

The announcement by r.rother Al- 
b-recht of the arrixal of (icneral Richard 
Montgomerv and (General John Sulli- 
van added greatly to the stir and inter- 
est that was manifested in the tunv 
crowded drawing n.)om. It will be re- 
membered that Montgomery and Sulli- 
van received their commissions as 
"Brigadier Generals in the Continental 
Army on the same day; both young 
men and in the prime oi life. T.oth 
were figures of surpassing interest to 
the company — Montgi^nery for his gal- 



lant ill fated invasion of Canada and 
Sullivan for his successful expedition 
against the Indians of the Six Nations, 
and both were welcomed with every 
evidence of respect and admiration — 
Sullivan receiving quite an ovation 
from Red Jacket and his fellow chiefs 
and followers. The Indian nature is 
generous in its recognition of a brave 
and talented foeman and Sullivan re- 
ceived a proof of it this evening. 

Montgomery was a most attractive 
figure: he was "tall, of fine military 
presence, of graceful address, with a 
bright, magnetic face, winning man- 
ners and had the bearing of a prince." 
So he was described on the eve of his 
departure from Sarat»~)ga on his Cana- 
dian Campaign. 

General Gage had reason to study the 
personality of Montgt^mery with more 
than ordinary interest inasmuch as 
his exploits at Boston were contrasted 
^\'ith that of [Montgomery's in Canada 
and to his disadvantage. Montgom- 
ery's untimely death was mourned by 
friends and enemies alike, both payin.g 
tribute to his valor. In the British par- 
liament, Edmund Burke, contrasted the 
condition oi "the 8.000 men. starved. 
disgraced and shut up within the single 
town of B>oston. with the movements 
of the hero who in one campaign had 
con(|uered two-thirds oi Canada." To 
which Lord Xorth replied:"! cannot 
join in lamenting the death oi Mont- 
gomery as a public loss. Curse on his 
\irtuesl they've imdone his country, 
lie was brave: he was able: he was hu- 
mane: he was generors. but still he was 
only a bra\e. able, humane, and gener- 
ous rel el." "The term (^ rebel." retor- 
ted I'ox." is no certain mark oi dis- 
grace. 'Ib.e great asserters of liberty, 
the saviors of their country, the bene- 
factors (if matikind in all ages, have 
been called rebels." 

( )f a sudtlen in the midst oi the fes- 
ti\ities. abtne the lively luun of ct>n- 
\ersation. and hearty salutations and 
good natured laughter was heanl the 
distant soimd of mutYle^l vlrums and 
fifes. playing a stirring war-like 



520 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



march that made all comrades in arms 
present, stand at attention. Hurried 
steps were. heard coming- through the 
hall and a messeng"er hastily entering 
the drawing room quickly elbowed 
his way to AVashington with whom he 
held a whispered conversation at the 
end of which \\'ashington, strangely 
moved turned to Generals Greene, 
Morgan, Steuben and Kalb and in a 
voice that almost trembled with emo- 
tion addressed them : "Mv old com- 



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DE LAFAYETTE (after Houdon) 

rades : I have but this moment received 
a message that may well disturb the 
poise of the strongest man. Dear as 
is the memory of this beautiful town 
j to me by reason of the many splendid 
services and loyalty shown the cause 
of liberty in many a dark hour of our 
great struggle for Independence by 
the Rrethren here, yet I have been 
*">Uen saddened by the thought of the 
hundreds of my brave soldiers who 
hivouacked these many years on the 
'hospitable Moravian soil, who suc- 



cumbed to disease and to wounds not- 
withstanding the faithful and tender 
nursing of the Sisters and Brethren, to 
the faithfulness of which you will, I 
am sure, bear glad testimony my old 
friend," turning to Lafayette who had 
joined the little group of Generals. 
Continuing \\'ashington said : '"Among 
these were many \'irginians. some of 
whom were members of your corps of 
riflemen. General Morgan; most of 
them gallant young men, choice spirits, 
too young to die. In some strange 
mysterious way they have learned of 
my presence here tonight and have 
begged me to grant them the favor of 
review as at X'alley Forge and at 
Rrandywine, They will be on the 
march presently and I request you and 
those assembled here to share with me 
the honor of their salutes." 

Then was* witnessed another strange 
sight on this memorable night of won- 
derful experiences. The spectral forms 
of nearly a thousand Continental sol- 
diers and Riflemen in the well known 
Continental buff and blue uniforms and 
the Ririemen's buckskin jackets and 
leggins came marching up the street 
toward the old Inn. where stood Wash- 
ington surrounded by the Generals and 
othcers present, marching in solid 
ranks and in perfect alignment with 
arms at a carry. As they neared their 
commander the command of "Platoons 
right, present arms !" was heard and 
platoon after platoon oi the long pro- 
cession wheeled with beautiful preci- 
sion, facing Washington and present- 
ing arms wheeling again at the com- 
mand of "Platoons right I carry arms !"* 

This incident affected Washington 
profoundly as well as General Morgan 
who recognized among the riflemeu 
many of his young Virginia back- 
woods friends. Steuben too. was filled 
with strong emotion when he noticed 
among the Continental soldiers num- 
bers of the recruits he had driileii at 
Vallev Foree. and Lafavettc also when 



*The writer fears th.nt he has been fruilty of an 
r\iiaehronism here, and trusts that his army friends 

will fortrive him. 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



521 



he saw some whom he had met while 
he himself lay wounded at Bethlehem. 
The sight of these old veterans of the 
Revolutionary armies brought back in- 
numerable incidents of the war to the 
memory of the officers assembled. The 
dangers of battle, the pangs of hunger 
and fatigue on the long and lonely 
marches were realized again by them 
all as they looked upon the marching 
columns. The silent salutes impressed 
them more than salvos of artillery or 
loud huzzas. 

During the excitement created by 
the passing of the Continental soldiers 
and Riflemen several announcements 
wer^ made by Brother Albrecht, and 
when Washington with his escort of 
officers returned to the drawing room 
quite an accession to the number of 
guests was apparent. Conspicious 
among them were a number of officers 
who seemed to gravitate to each other 
by some mysterious influence. Their 
presence created much surprise and 
embarrassment by reason of their well 
known antagonism to Washington in 
the early days of the Revolution. The 
two most prominent in the group were 
Generals Gates and Conway the lead- 
ers of the famous "Conway cabal'' 
which for a brief time came near con- 
trolling the deliberations of the Conti- 
nental Congress in their endeavor to 
displace Washington as Commander- 
in-Chief and putting Gates into his 
place. The capture of Burgoyne at 
Saratoga proved too much for the van- 
ity of General Gates. He developed 
very quickly a ''swelled head" in the 
parlance of the present day which only 
attained normal proportions after his 
defeat at Camden in the disastrous 
Southern Campaign where he was su- 
perseded by Greene. 

Landlord ^lorgan in his generous in- 
vitations to the old guests oi the fa- 
mous Inn overlooked the fact that per- 
haps some of the guests might be 
perso)ia non griJtd to Washington 
which was the case so far as Gates and 
Conway were concerned, notwithstand- 
ing that Conway in a letter to Wash- 



ington acknowledged the great wrong 
he had done him. Generals Sullivan 
and Schuyler were seen to scowl fu- 
riously when they saw Gates in close 
conversation with Conway — while the 
Xew Englaiiders pre-ent avoided meet- 
ing them. A number of these worthies 
were in\olved in the beginning of the 
Cabal with Gates in the efifort to de- 
prive Washington of the Chief Com- 
mand. Washington's exposure o f 
Gates however as a liar and the author 
o f certain dishonorable correspon- 
dence made the Xew England mem- 
bers of the Continental Congress 
ashamed of their conduct, the memory 
of which they sought to keep in the 
background this night by avoiding 
anything like cordiality in a meeting 
with Gates or Conway. Sullivan 
and Schuyler had ample reason to 
dislike Gates. His treatment of Schuy- 
ler and of Arnold before and after the 
battle of Saratoga was contemptible 
and was productive of great harm to 
the American cause. Sullivan's gen- 
erous Irish blood asserted itself when 
he exclaimed to Schuyler: "Tliere's the 
coward responsible for Arnold's undo- 
ing.'' Arnold's brilliant work at Sara- 
toga and at Freeman's Farm and the 
cowardly conduct of Gates were so 
well known to the army officers that 
there was always more or less sym- 
pathetic feeling for Arnold among 
them, in spite of his treason. 

]\v a strange coincidence just as Sul- 
livan made his reference to Arnold, 
the announcement was heard : "Major 
John Andre I*' There was possibly no 
incideitt during the eventful evening 
that so fully marked the extraordinary 
character of Landlord Morgan's recep- 
tion as the entry oi Andre, represent- 
ing as he did the most tragic e\ent in 
the Revolutionary struggle. The en- 
gaging personality of the handsome 
young officer at once won fnr him the 
warm frienilly sentiments of the as- 
sembly. Even Washington's kindly 
regard, was sli.nvn \\\ the manner in 
which he welcomed 'aim. During the 
e\ening not the least reference was 



522 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



made by anyone in conversation with 
him to any of the unhappy incidents 
that so trag-ically closed his career. It 
was the refined, polished gentleman 
who was recognized, and graciously 

i received and entertained. 

In a conersation Andre had with 
Landlord Morgan he expressed his 

I pleasure at again being a guest of the 
Sun Inn. "'^lany years before, while 
passing through Xazareth and Bethle- 
hem on his way to Philadelphia he said 
he had enjoyed its hospitality, a fact 
not generally known. Our landlord 
was greatly pleased with Andre's ref- 
erence to his first visit to Bethlehem 
and with the compliments he paid him 
on the brilliant gathering he had so 
successfully brought together. 

That the reception was' a success 
was evident : there was no lack of 
movement or cr)n\-ersation among the 
guests, who very soon formed them- 
selves into groups drawn together by 
the. memory of old ties of friendship or 
of service in Colonial or Revolution- 
ary days or by reason of kindred tastes 
and pursuits. This was shown in a 
little coterie aloof froni tlie crovv'ded 
space about \\'ashington that was en- 
gaged in an animated and evidently en- 
joyable conversation. The character 
of the topics discussed may readil\- be 
guessed when we learn the personality 
of those composing the group. The 
most eminent of these was the astron- 
omer and philosopher David Ritten- 
house. and the otliers were Peter S. 
Du Ponceau for a long time the Presi- 
dent of the American Phih.xsophical 
Society: the Abbe Correa de* Serra, 
Minister to the United States from 
Portugal, a member of the Royal So- 
city of Lisbon and distinguished as a 
naturalist and linguist; Dr. John 
Schopf the celebrated traveler and 
naturalist ; Baron Hermelin the Swed- 
ish mineralogist: the Rev. J.^han .Au- 
gustus Milius. Chaplain to the Bar- mi 
von Riedesel, a scholar with scientific 



•A MS. .Tourna! in the poss.-ssion of the Penn- 
^vly.inia Hist..ri.-;i! S, ,-i!t • makr^s mention of Au- 
'lr«' s journey thrnvich this section. 



tastes ; the Chevalier Conrad Alexandre 
Gerard, the Minister from France to 
the L'nited States, who was honored 
with the degree of LL. D. by Yale 
College; Don Juan de Miralles.a Span- 
ish gentleman, a friend of Chevalier 
Gerard ; the Right Reverend John Ett- 
wein, the Moravian PJishop; Joseph J. 
Mickley, the Antiquarian and First 
President of the American Numismatic 
Society ; several of the professors from 
Lehigh University and Lafayette Col- 
lege, and President Joseph W'illard of 
Harvard University. 

The conversation was learned and 
manifestly of the greatest interest and 
withal interspersed with suggestions 
of trade and commerce. Dr. Schopf 
was particularly anxious for informa- 
tion concerning the "pearl fisheries" of 
the Lehigh river, while Baron Herme- 
lin had a great deal to say about the 
silver ores near Xazareth. Dr. Schopf 
was very persistent in his inquiries af- 
ter a deposit of agates, cornelians and 
other varieties of the mocco stone he- 
had tried to locate many years before, 
which he believed would be found in 
the Blue ^fountains. The only thing 
that the Doctor could locate with defi- 
nite certainty however was a rock on 
the other side oi the Lehigh, cavities 
in which were filled with a fine yellow 
powder, which was used in Bethlehem 
in lieu of "writing sand." When in- 
formed by the professors from Lehicfh 
L'niversity that blotting paper had 
taken the place of writing-sand he was 
quite astonished and. seemingly disap- 
pointed. He examineil with great 
curiosity some of the bb^tters tliat 
Landlord Morgan presented him with 
later in the evening. The P»aron and 
Dr. Schopf were amazed when told 
that the irc»n ore. cement rock, and 
slate found in the Lehigh Willey had 
brought greater wealth to it than all 
the pearl fisheries oi CeyliMi ever pro- 
duced (^r half the silver mines in the 
world. They were convinced of the 
truth (^f this statement the following 
day when Landlord Morgan took tliem 
over the Lehigh X'alley in his airship. 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SPXRET CHAMBER 



522 



Charles 'M. Schwab, President. of the 
Bethlclieni Steel and Iron. Company, 
who had been announced a few min- 
utes before, was introduced to tlie 
scientific group . by ^Ir. Alfred Brod- 
head the proprietor of the Sun Inn, 
and experienced the busiest half hour 
in his busy life, answering -nnumerable 
questions from all sides concerning 
iron, steel, armor plates, vanadium, 
manganese and zinc ores, bessemer 
processes, hot blasts, magnets and rail- 
roads. They were greatly impressed 
with the description given of the pro- 
cess for hardening steel armor plates. 
by George and Charles E. Pettinos, of 
Bethlehem, who discovered and are 
supplying the material used in the 
operation. 

While Mr. Schwab was explaining 
the technical processes of making steel 
armor plates, his audience A\as in- 
creased by the presence of Commodore 
John Barry, the Commander of the 
old Frigate, United States, rankii\g of- 
ficer of the old Xavy, who at once be- 
gan another series of searching ques- 
tions. It will be remembered that the 
Commodore superintended the build- 
ing of his flagship of which he \vas 
very proud. He seemed quite skepti- 
cal for a time when told that battle- 
ships built entirely oi steel plates a 
foot thick and weighing from 20,000 to 
30.000 tons could float in sea water, 
carrying cannon, firing balls weighing 
half a ton and over to a distance of 
three miles and farther. He looked 
very quizzically at the ^lessrs. Schwab 
and Pettinos, when with an amused 
smile he inquired whether the r.larney 
stone had been stolen b_\- some enter- 
prising Pennsyhania German in recent 
times and set up in Bethlehem. A mid- 
night ride in Mr. Schwab's automc^bile, 
(in itself a marvel to the ancient Com- 
modore) to the steel works after the 
reception was over, quickly convinced 
him that na\'al architecture had under- 
gone a decided change since he built 
the "United States" and that he would 
not have much show in a fi<^du with a 
modern battleship. He wa^ very quiet 



on the way back to the Inn ; he realized 
that times had changed and that he be- 
longed to another age — as he confiden- 
tially informed Washington whom he 
met on his return to the Inn. "Horse- 
less carriages and ships without sails 
propelled with hot water" he said "are 
too much for my simple brain. Today 
while getting out of the way of a chap 
riding between two wheels hitched 
tandem fashion I was nearly demol- 
ished by an airship that came sailing 
down the street at the same time. I 
was told too that they talk now 
through solid wires for a hundred miles 
or more, and bottle up music like wine. 
You take out the cork and the music 
flows out in any tune you want. It is 
too much for me Your Excellency." 

An incident of unusual interest was 
the greeting given by Washington tc> 
General Daniel Brodhead, the ances- 
tor of Mr. Albrecht Brodhead. the pro- 
prietor of the Sun Inn. General Brod- 
head was among the most trusted of 
A\'ashington's officers. The confidence 
he reposed in his ability and discre- 
tion was shown*' in a conspicious man- 
ner when he appointed him to succeed 
General Lachlan Mcintosh as Com- 
mandant oi Fort Pitt in ijjSand to un- 
dertake the chastisement oi the In- 
dians in the \\'estern Country wiio 
had become a source of great annoy- 
ance, their hostilitv interfering: c^-reat- 



'■'Sir: HritrailitT General Mi-Iiitosh h.ivin? reque>ltKt 
from C'.)iiirrt's.s leave to retire from the c»mnianvi to 
the Westward, they have, by resolve of the i'-th 
February. >:rnntetl his request, and direT»*d m? l-» 
appoint an otlieer to succeed him. From a\y opinion 
oi your abilities, vour former acqmiintance wiitl; :he 
back country, and the knowledire you must have .ir- 
((uired upon this last tour of dut . I have appoiutej 
you to the command in preference to a stran.rer. * 
■♦*'** .\s .soon as Concress had ve>ie^i me 
with the sujierintendence and direct'.oii of aif.urs to 
the westward. I save General Mcintosh i>rders to 
make prep.-irations. « • * • • Had tit-ner.U 
Mclnt'sh eom«> down, yru would have het»n luily 
con)peteut to carry on the preparations, but if vou 
quit the post. I appri'heud there will be no orti.-er 
b-ft ■ of suibcient weiirht and ability. This is an opin- 
ion which I would wish you to keep to yourself, he- 
cause I micht Jive ofV.>nce to ofti.-ers in all other re- 
spects vorv worthy of the stations they fill,"* 

A;.(7..r.-'.y rr...:, 'l.ttrr to (,./..,.-•/ /;r..,;/.^r,f . from 
(icneral Washin^rton dated: Headquarters. Middle 
Hrook. .>th Marih. I77rt. Tins letter does not »p 
pear in anv of the cidlected writincs of Washir.cT.oi. 
and is in the posM«Nsit»n of a descendant of General 
Brodhead. 



524 



THE PENXSYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



ly with his plans of operation in the 
east and south. 

After a hearty handshake Washing-- 
ton said : ''This is the most wonderful 
social affair of my life. I cannot turn 
in any direction without seeing some 
cherished friend, some officer whose 
ability and loyalty were of such vast 
service to their country in aiding me 
in my most trying position as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the army. Here I 
meet you most unexpected by my dear 
General, also my valiant Sullivan and 
the faithful, meritorious IVIcIntosh, 
three of my best Indian fighters." 
Turning again to General Brodhead 
he continued : "I would have been in 
sore straights had you not so thor- 
oughly chastised the Mingo and Aluncy 
trib.es on the Ohio giving them a lesson 
they did not forget duritig the rest of 
the war. My dear friend vSuUivan here 
gave the same thorough punishment to 
the Six Nations, the memory of which 
their tribes will never forget. I needed 
every soldier in my operations against 
the British forces and could not afford 
to have them doing duty on the Indian 
frontiers. I have never forgotten your 
brilliant and eiTective services — and 
am very happy this night in being per- 
mitted to thank you again for all you 
accomplished and that I meet you here 
in companv with Sullivan and Mcin- 
tosh under the same roof. This is truly 
a wonderful affair — to me at least, 
meeting as I do so many of you gen- 
tlemen of the army. Here comes also 
my old friend Knox, good soldier and 
sound statesman as I always found 
him. Lewis, too and ^Maxwell, and 
Armstrong and Woodford and the 
worthy ]\[ifflin, veterans all. It makes 
my heart glad to see you all here to- 
gether." 
^ Attention was called to a d i s- 
tinguished looking group surround- 
ing Benjamin Franklin engaged in 
spirited conversation. It was a reun- 
ion of the signers of the Declaration 
present this evening," among them 
George Walton. Lyman Hall. \Villiam 
F.llery, William Whipple, lohn Han- 



cock and Charles Thomson "the Sam- 
uel Adams of Philadelphia" w h o 
should have been a signer, so great 
and patriotic were his services. 
The surgeons of th^ .Continental Hos- 
pital also had their little gathering to 
recount their sad experiences at Beth- 
lehem and elsewhere: Dr. William 
Shippen, Dr. John Morgan, Dr. Jack- 
son Dr. John Duffield and Dr. John 
Warren, brother of General Joseph 
A\'arren, the hero of Bunker Hill. 

The chief magistrates of Pennsyl- 
vania were well represented in the per- 
sons of Governors James Hamilton, 
Richard and John Penn, and Thomas 
]\IifFlin and had much to discuss when 
they found themselves in unexpected 
convention. They were joined by Gov- 
ernor Da\'is of North Carolina, and by 
James Allen the founder of Allentown 
and the Huguenot. John Bayard a dis- 
tinguished patriot of the Revolution. 
Colonel William Polk oi North Caro- 
lina, Colonial Eliot. Col. John Bannis- 
ter and Colonel Horsfield and James 
Lovell of Boston, member of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and who was im- 
prisoned by General Gage the British 
Commander at Boston in 1775. were 
among the belated guests of the even- 
ing but were received nevertheless 
right cordially. General Gage later in 
the evening apologized to Congress- 
man Lovell for sending him to Hali- 
fax ; "but you must blame your pas- 
sionate devotion to the idea of "Inde- 
pendence" which you were aware I 
was sent to America to combat" he ex- 
plained. 

Among the guests who seemed ner- 
vous and discontented was the rest- 
less Frenchman, Brigadier General 
Roche de Fermo'- who somehow 
proved unsuccessful as a soldier by rea- 
son of insub«~>rdination, and became 
much disliked by Washington in con- 
sequence. He was really responsible 
for St. Clair's unhappy experience at 
Ticonderoga. 

\\'hen the evening had been far spent 
and the tlow 01 conversation in the 
gallant compan\- was at tlood-tide and 



BROTHER ALBRECHT'S SECRET CHAMBER 



525 



pgi^^'^^?^ ^yt*^ 'f k ! a^p^ 



5^ 



lEjUJw^£i^.!^! 



iMiJii& - J5^;;^wi^3l ^^8!i|i.f!'a" '^ < Ai^^:aA.V-«. 




JOHANX SEBASTIAN BACH 

Reprinted with permission, from the Life of Johann Sebastian Bach, by 
Sir Hubert Parry. Copyright, 1909, by G. P. i'utman's Sons. Xew York. 



all invited g-nests had long since ar- 
rived, Brother All^recht was heard 
above the babble as with a beamini:^ 
countenance he announced in a ringing 
voice: "The worthy and venerable 
Herr Johann Sebastian Bach, Koenig 
von Musikland." There then stepped 
into the room, a blind old man, his 
head covered with a great wig, much 
like that of an English Chief Justice. — 
a face which once beheld never after 
forgotten ; massive, noble features, al- 
most stern, eyes in which shone the 
light of genius and about him the un- 
mistakable air of a master.' Rowiiicr 



gracefully to the company, he ad- 
dressed it with much dignity of speech 
and manner: "My, friends" he said, 
"you will forgive I am sure the intru- 
sion of an uninvited guest — a poor old 
musician whose whole life has been de- 
voted to n\usic. the composing of it as 
much as its interpretation, and who 
wa3 simple enough to believe that he 
had written somethiug that expressed, 
as nothing ever before by man. the 
glorious mission of music, when he 



"Tho portriiit of Baoh in this sk»»tch is % reproduc- 
tion of H root'utly disoovoroil p.iintins »n tbc pos- 
session of l>ootor Fritz VoU>;ioh. 



526 



THE PEXNSYLVANIA-GERMAX 



composed his *D Minor ]^Iass ; who 
had hoped and prayed that he might be 
privileged to hear it sung as he had 
conceived it should be sung, before he 
had passed beyond this mortal life; to 
hear the "Sanctus" sung by a devout 
and worthv chorus. 

That happiness was denied him in 
his old home in Germany, but not 
so in this new and wonderful land 
where music is regarded as a rare gift 
of the Almighty and singers and com- 
posers are not treated as if they were 
^beggars, but as princes. We dwell- 
ers in the realm beyond the grave, 
know and hear things you dream not 
of. A great English master, one of the 
Immortals, whom I have met and who 
calls me "brother" once said, as you 
will remember: "there are more things 
in heaven and earth than are dreamt of 
in your philosophy.'' 'Tis true ! the 
blind see, the deaf hear ; . we live the 
hfe denied to us on earth ;''che soul ex- 
pands and is in harmony wi;;,h the ma- 
jestic order of the universe. Think 
you that you can send a message 
across the seas on the winds of heaven 
as men do now and question our abil- 
ity to hear such messages too ; aye, 
and to send them also? Can you doubt 
our faculty to hear the music of mor- 
tals when our souls are attuned to the 
music of spheres. "There's not the 
smallest orb which thou beholdest, but 
in his motion like an angel sings, still 
quiring to the young-eyed cherubins ; 
such harmony is in immortal souls ; 
but while this muddy vesture of decav 
doth grossly close it in we cannot hear 
it. 

Ah, can you conceive with what emo- 
tion I have heard sung in this beauti- 
ful burg in your May Festivals, the 
mtisic I composed when the Moravian 
Brethren first made this their home in 
the wilderness, a Pennsylvania Ger- 
many, where men are born free and 
equal. The singing was more than 



*"Thp miphtiost Choral work ever written." 
Parri/'s Life of Bach. p. 307. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
New York. 

"iVfrri/'.v Lifei of Bach. pp. oG7-S. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York. 



even I dared hoped for; your singers 
gave it qualities I dreamt not of. Your 
great '"critic expressed all that I felt 
when he said: "an}thing more inspir- 
ing than the delivery of Cnm Saucto 
Spirihi in the B Minor Mass it would 
be imjjossible to concei\e. It was mag- 
nificent in the vital throbbing of its 
beat, in the growth of its tone from be- 
ginning to end and in the breadth of its 
st3-lc. Such choral singing is indeed 
a privilege. It ^^■as a performance in 
which the sublimity of the music was 
perfectly disclosed." 

Belie\-e me it brought tears of joy to 
my poor old blind eyes. I felt repaid 
for all my labors and its lack of ap- 
preciation in my own day. And this 
is wh}' I am here t'"»night. that I might 
greet you all and thank you for the 
great honor you have done my mem- 
ory in \'Our splendid ^lay Festivals 
and to wish you God speed in your de- 
votion to music, for believe me it is 
the speech of happy souls on earth and 
in Heaven." 

The commotion, the presence and 
remarks of Bach created it is impos- 
sible to describe. To have among 
them the King of Music, the master, 
but for whose genius the famous May 
]^[usical Festi\'als of Bethlehem would 
be unheard of was conceived to be al- 
most as great an honor as the presence 
of Washington. To place the stamp 
of the greatest distinction upon the oc- 
casion, a memory to be treasured as a 
precious thing. Professor J. Frederick 
Wolle the genius of the May Festivals 
approached Bach with the greatest 
reverence and begged him to play 
some of his favorite clai'ier composi- 
tions, sonatas, and arias for the com- 
pany. Consenting most graciously 
Bach was escorted, leaning on the arm 
of Professor Wolle. to the grand 
piano, which excited his l^oundless 
wonder and admiration. All his work 
of this nature had been done on the 
ancient chivicr with its primitive key- 
board and other limitatiiMis. but such 
as it was. it did not hinder him from 



^•^W. J. Henderson in t!ve New York Times. 



BROTHER ALBRECHTS SECRET CHAMBER 



becoming the greatest pianist of his 
time. 

This night he played as never be- 
^fore. The flood gates of music seemed 
to have opened and glorious melodies 
deluged player and listeners alike. 
Not only did he play his favorites of 
the long ago, but he improvised as he 
only could do, on theme after theme; 
one in particular holding the company's 
rapt attention. He caught the spirit 
of 1776, a most appropriate theme on 
such an CN-ening and in the midst uf 
such a gathering of the heroes of the 
Revolutionary struggle. He expressed 
in magnificent phrasing the pangs of a 
new born nation and its trium]:)hant 
career to the present time. 

The placing oi Bach created an al- 
most startling eitcct on the compan\'. 
particularly so upon Washington and 
his old officers, who notwithstanding 
their lack of musical cidture recog- 
nized the marvellous genius of the 
great composer. The German and 
French officers present were in rap- 
tures as they had more or less ac- 
quaintance with Bach's compositions, 
having received musical training in 
their younger days. The Baroness 
von Riedesel seemed transformed. 
She had approached the blind old 
master during his playing and hung on 
every note with intense emotion. 
While Bach was resting for a moment 
the Baroness whispered a request 
which brought a succession of smiles 
to his face, as nodding he at once gra- 
ciously complied. 

The atmosphere of the Inn began to 
thrill with music that brought every 
lady and gentleman to their feet : old 
and young, were quickly in the de- 
lightful mazes of the waltz, treading 
measures such as mortals never trod 
before, Washington dancing with the 
Baroness von Riedesel and Lafayette 
with Lady Washington. The poetry 
of motion was never before so beauti- 
fully demonstrated by so distin- 
guished a company and surely never 
before under the spell of music such as 
that which Bach .crave in unstinted 



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MRS. JOHN" .ADA MS 

measure and in the most wonderful 
rhythmic mo\ements. 

Landlord ^lorgan showed himself 
a paragon of the Terpsichorian art 
with Lady Greene as his first partner 
and with many others before the 
music ceased. The dancing ended 
with the stately minuet, a French 
dance very pi^pular during the Coloni- 
al period in Europe and America, and 
frecjuently indulged in at the Court of 
\'ersailles during the reign oi Louis 
XI \\ that nii^narch often taking part 
in it. It is doulnful if the Court of 
Louis ever witnessetl so noble a pre- 
sentatii^n oi this aristocratic dance. 
led as it was h\- Washington in his 
grando-^t manner with Lady Scluiyler 
as a partner. There too in the same 
comj^any were General Morgan and 
Lady \\'ashingt<>n. Lafayette and the 
liaroncss vi>n Riedesel. Richard 



528 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Henry Lee and Lady Greene. In 
other sets were John Hancock and 
Lady Pcnn, Governor John Penn, and 
Mrs. Morgan, the mistress of the Sun 
Inn, Colonel Ethan Allen and Mrs. 
John Adams, Governor Morris and 
, Mrs. Wade Hampton, Baron von 
Steuben and Miss ?^lartha Washington 
Greene, General Brodhead and Lady 
^lifllin. destined to become the Gener- 
- aTs second wife. 

Never before was the minuet danced 
to such music as given by Bach ac- 
: companied by the famous Trombone 

j band, and never before or since was 

' the minuet danced so gracefully or so 

naturally. "Ach Gott I die Ameri- 
kaner ! est ist alles eins, tanzen oder 
soldateni"' exclaimed the Baron von 
j Riedcsel as he witnessed the beautiful 

I evolutions of the dancers. He looked 

in wonder at the splendid figures of 
\\'ashington, ?^Iorgan and their asso- 
ciates moving with the utmost grace 
through all the figures of the dance, 
and when it was finished he was pro- 
fuse in his expressions of delight and 
in his congratulations. 

By skillful manoeuvering the com- 
pany was induced to wander through 
the wide halls, balconies and parlors 
of the Inn, which enabled Landlord 
Morgan to execute a brilliant bit of 
gastronomic strategy. All the prepara- 
tions had been made for a sumptu- 
ous refection with which to end the 
evening's entertainment, and with his 
well drillea corps of servants the 
whilom drawing room resumed its old 
function of a dining hall. Tables ap- 
peared as if by magic, followed quickly 
by the production of the choicest 
Pennsylvania German cookery, and 
the rarest vintages. The doors were 
thrown wide open again and the com- 
pany found their way back to the 
transformed drawing room, much to 
their bewilderment. Landlord Mor- 
gan in a short graceful address bade 
the company be seated and to accept 
his hospitality which he assured his 
guests he should consider the greatest 
honor of his life. A second invitation 
was not needed. A short eracc from 



the lips of the Moravian Bishop Jo- 
hannes de Wattville and the merry 
company at once began to prove the 
quality of Landlord Morgan's enter- 
tair ment. 

A\'hen hunger had been stifled and 
the clinking of wine glasses began to 
be heard on all sides, toasts began to 
pass freely around the tables ; toasts 
couched in the approved fashion of 
the da}-; formal, and fashioned in the 
quaint phrases of the times. The 
toast given by Richard Henry Lee was 
acknowledged by all to have been the 
best of the evening: "Here's to the 
health of General George \\'ashington : 
First in \\'ar : First in Peace and First 
in the hearts of his Countrymen." The 
toast embodied the sentiment of all 
mankind and was received with over- 
whelming applause by the company, 
who drank it in the rare Lachryma 
Christi wine found by Landlord Mor- 
gan in the secret chamber of Brother 
Albrecht. Toasts followed toast in rap- 
id succession and an era of good feel- 
ing was evident very soon in the midst 
of which, speeches of felicitations and 
congratulations were freely given. 
Landlord Morgan had risen to his feet 
to propose a toast when a tremendous 
racket and shouting was heard. 

John Morgan! John Morgan I Hello! 
John Morgan! Where are you? Hello! 
was shouted by lusty lungs and echoed 
through the subterranean galleries un- 
til it reached the sleeping form <d{ our 
adventurous landlord in Brother Al- 
brecht's Secret Chamber who was sud- 
denly awakened by the glare of torch- 
es in the hands of friends. John 
Morgan found himself confronted by a 
numerous compatiy come in search of 
him in the midst o\ which he recog- 
nized his good wife and little son. 

Rubbing his eyes and giving a 
mighty yawn and stretching himself so 
that every joint and muscle cracked 
and creaked he exclaimed, *T had the 
most wonderful dream ever dreamed 
in r>ethlehem. Let's take a smile." Tak- 
John gently by his hand Mrs. Morgan 
replied. •'Come, John, dinner is ready." 



nrtTT? T?\TT^ 



529 



The Diller Family 

Address delivered at Diller Reunion, New Holland, Pa., June 1 7, 1910 
By Rev. Roland Ringwalt, Camden, N. J. 

a hundred vcars ajro. We are nearly 



NOTE. — This and the three articles im- 
mediately following were read at the first 
meeting 'of descendants of Caspar Diller. 
The reader will also find a Diller item in 
the Forum of this issue. We regret that on 
account of want of space no report can be 
given in this connection of the exercises at 
the reunion. Articles on the Diller family 
have also appeared in our April and May 
issues. 

It may not be amiss in this connection to 
state that we hope to pay more attention 
next year to papers read at family reunions. 
We shall be pleased to receive such papers 
for publication. If you have read or heard 
any article that could be used for such 
purpose let us know. 




\M 1 ITHOUT claiming that 

^^ W forty centuries look down 
upon us we knoAv that ^ve 
represent se\'eral genera- 
"n^' ~YJ ti'^^'^s of the German 
I AJt American, and we are all 
JLI^^lJI rather surprised at so 
large a gathering on this 
day of the week. Our ancestors did not 
travel on Friday if they could help it. 
and if they did travel from necessity 
they carried some charm to ward off 
ill luck. If at this moment we should be 
searched as if we were homebound 
travelers from Europe it is more than 
possible that some rabbits' feet or horse 
chestnuts would be found in our coat 
pockets. Perhaps some one here is con- 
gratulating himself that he was born 
with a caul or that he is the seventh 
son of a seventh son so that he can 
dodge the calamities which fate was in 
olden days supposed to hurl at those 
who make Friday journeys. May this 
speech be the worst disaster of the day. 
x\s we . grow older genealogy be- 
comes more interestitig because siune 
of those whom we knew in early life 
have passed intc^ the hereafter and 
thus taken on the dignity of historic 
characters. We ha\ e all kn<n\u \et- 
erans of the war for the I'nion, and we 
know more or less oi what has hap- 
pened since the surrender at Appo- 
mattox. Then we imagine an ancesti>r 



fifty years from Lincoln's first election ; 
our ancestor of 1810 was nearly half a 
century from the quarrels leading up 
to the French and Indian war. If any 
of us have this year incidentally 
mentioned the high price of mutton 
chops and the advance in butter we 
know how our ancestors felt when tlie 
embargo played havoc with business 
and forced them to pay enormous 
prices for smuggled goods that is. if 
any of our ancestors ever dealt with 
smugglers, and it ill becomes one 
whose father and imcle have served 
in the Custom House to hint that any 
of them did. If we have an old 
fashioned relati\-e, slow to admit that 
novelties are practicable, who was in- 
credulous about wireless telegrapliy 
and questioned the first reports of 
the vacuum cleaner so nuist some oi 
our blood have felt in hearing that a 
steamboat had gone up the Hudson. 
Genealogy makes us feel as if we knew 
more about our ancestors, as if we 
sympathized with them in their 
troubles, as if we honored all their 
many virtues, as if we made kindly 
allowance for their failings (if they 
had any) ; above all it shows us th.e 
permanent likeness of the race. Xo 
wonder that Lincoln loved the lines. 

For we are the same that our fathers have been. 
We see the same sights that our fathers have 

seen; 
We drink the same stream, and we view the 

same sun, 
And we run the same course that our fathers 

have run. 
Xo physician or surgeon ever 
studies the human l)ody without a 
sense that we are fearfully and won- 
derfully made : but does our structure 
end with bv^nes and sinews, nerves and 
muscles? The man or woman who 
traces a petligree through halt a dozen 
generations, and converses with a 
score oi relatixes is anna/etl at the \ a- 
riety oi mental and moral elements 
that combine in us. Has anybody 
stated this odd mixture more forciblv 



530 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



than Grant Allen? "Here is one" he 
■says, "whose father was an Irishman 
•and his mathcr a Scotchu'oman ; here 
is another whose paternal line were 
country parsons, while his maternal 
ancestors were city merchants or dis- 
tinguished Soldiers. ''Take almost any 
body's "sixteenquarters," his great 
great grandfathers and great great 
grandmothers, of whom he has sixteen 
all told and what do you often find? 
A peer, a cobbler, a barrister a 
common sailor, a Welsh doctor, a 
Dutch merchant, a Huguenot pastor, 
an Irish heiress, a daughter, a house- 
maid, an actress, a Devonshire beauty, 
a rich young lady of sugar broking ex- 
traction, a Lady Carolina, a London 
lodging-house keeper. This is not by 
any means an exaggerated case : it 
would be easy, indeed, from our own 
knowledge of family histories to 
supply a great many real examples 
far more startling than this partially 
imaginary one." If one man in his 
time plays many parts there are many 
parts in him. Traits of some far away 
forbear may show at twenty, at thirty, 
or at forty; may we find as we draw- 
near the end of our pilgrimage that 
whatever is best in our blood stirs 
more and more within us. 

Thirty-nine years after the battle of 
Lake Erie the partisans of Perry and 
Elliott were still fighting over the 
merits of the commanders. Perhaps 
the Diller reunion of 2010 will still re- 
veal difference of opinion as to 
whether Caspar Diller was of German 
or Huguenot ancestry; but it seems to 
be reasonably well settled that he was 
in this country in 1729. The Diller 
pear was knoAvn to many an honest 
farmer and thriving long before; yes 
before the still more celebrated cherry 
tree fell before the hatchet of the ad- 
olescent Washington. More than a 
century and a quarter after Caspar 
Diller's first pear tree was planted my 
grnadfather, Samuel Ringwalt. won a 
prize for the general excellence of his 
farm, and thirty years later his brother 
George A\'. Ringwalt, vras trimmin:; 



the grape vines that yielded the Lucky 
George. Graft in our family seems to 
have been pomological rather than 
political. A century and three quar- 
ters of Pennsylvania German farming 
blood tells of many a struggle with 
nature. Sometimes "an early harvest 
and a plenteous year" blessed these 
sturdy yeomen ; sometimes bad weath- 
er lowered their spirits. They had their 
share of quarrels with commission 
merchants, hired men got drunk on the 
eve of harvest, and female domestics 
eloped on -Wash-day: at all times they 
had their share of hard work, and one 
likes to think of them as resting after 
the last furrow was ploughed. 

While poetry and philosophy 
remain to man the life of a farmer will 
always be an interesting subject for 
reflection. A farmer is in constant 
touch with nature, now welcoming the 
rain or the sunshine, now fighting with 
the weeds or loading his gun for the 
mink that nears the poultry yard. 
Pennsylvania German traditions are 
full of stories of herculean labors, of 
quaint religious services and of dark 
superstitions. In the Teutonic blood 
there is a melancholy stream, the Ger- 
man broods over the troubles of the 
past and anticipates those of the fu- 
ture. Dreary seasons of bad crops 
have in various instances unhinged 
reason and led to self-destruction. 
Strong men who have toiled from the 
gray dawn until the moonlight have 
trembled because a dog howled or a 
salt cellar was overturned. **Yost 
Yoder", a sad but vivid poem, by a man 
of Pennsylvania German descent tells 
how depression and superstition may 
wear upon the German mind and soul. 
It is juvenile to laugh at superstition, 
it is better to pray that we may be de- 
livered from it. Superstition exists 
among the devout and the irreligious, 
one kind of superstition rules prosaic 
minds, another is potent among the 
imaginative, at times superstition ends 
in the most wretched cowardice, again 
we find it among people of heroic 
bravery, it nearly paralyzes the en- 



THE DILLER FAMILY 



531 



ergy of some, it appears to give a mor- 
bid vigor to others. There was plenty 
of superstition among the Greeks, 
there is much to-day among the most 
thoughtful peoples of the modern 
world: the Germans and the Scotch. 

The Dillers had worn off the feeling 
of newness before the Revolution 
and they have taken their share of war 
and politics. Both war and politics 
seem to be even more exciting in the 
country than in the city, because 
people know each other better. If a 
country section raises a company 
everybody knows the captain, the lieu- 
tenants, the sergeants and the corpor- 
als : after the troops have marched to 
the front old men talk of the farm on 
which the captain's horse was reared, 
and the girls of the village correspond 
with their soldier lovers. From the 
unwritten annals of the Dillers what a 
world of facts about our three great 
wars; about the downfall of the Feder- 
alists, the anti-IMasonic agitation, the 
long strife over slavery and the dis- 
putes of Reconstruction days might be 
gathered ! Cities move like tides, vil- 
•lages resemble lakes, and change 
slowly. Friendships and enmities are 
more lasting in rural districts. During 
the workings of the Alien Law of 
John Adams' day some unwise and 
even cruel treatment of foreign born 
citizens raised a political resentment 
which is perhaps not yet dead. A 
great political upheaval sometimes 
affects family life, school management 
business arrangements and religious 
• undertakings because everybody in the 
village and almost everybod}' in the 
township is related to or connected 
with everybody else. When we think 
of the farmers and mechanics, the iiier- 
chants and millers, the lawyers and 
politicians, the physicians and parsons 
of Diller lineage we can sec that thoro 
is practically nothing in Pennsylvania 
life and not much in American life 
with which we are not connected. ^Fay 
a glance by decades be permitted? 

Somewhere about 1800. Peter Diller 
of Xew Holland was known to every 



politician in Lancaster county; about 
ten years later Adam Diller was rais- 
ing ca\'alry for our second war with 
Great liritain; and by 1820 the same 
Adam Diller was in the line of politi- 
cal promotion. In 1830, Roland Diller 
was a prominent man among the anti- 
Masons." By 1840 the family was well 
known throughout the State. In the 
early fifties, two of our blood at leas: 
were active railroad men, and in the 
mid-fifties Isaiah P. Diller made a suc- 
cess as a gold miner. Under Lincoln. 
Dr. Diller Luther held an internal rev- 
enue collectorship, and the family had 
a number of representatives in the war 
for the Union. By 1870, the news- 
paper men of the Commonwealth rec- 
ognized that John Luther Ringwait 
did much of the best work on 
Forney's Press. In 1880, I met rela- 
tives who were active in the business 
life of Pittsburgh and heard of those 
who had struck their roots into West- 
ern soil. By 1890, some were ex-office 
holders of the first Cleveland Admin- 
istration. By 1900 the family had 
covered a space far larger than tl:e 
proverbial from Maine to Georgia : 
Is-aiah P. Diller had long ago gone to 
British Columbia. Peter Diller had 
been in Texas politics, into what dis- 
tant seas Commander Houston had 
sailed I know not, but Joseph C. Ring- 
wait and others had found occupation 
in Ohio, and there were old men who 
.remembered Jeremiah Diller's steam- 
boats on the ^lississippi. I hope that 
some Diller bank account lias been 
swelled by every financial boom : I 
know that my father lost by the panic 
oi 1873. If we had all been as zealous 
diary kcci^ers as Samuel Pepvs we 
slunild ha\ e given tlie historians price- 
less treasures ,but then our ilomcstic 
troubles might have been aired as 
th(\^e of Pepys have been. There are 
t\\ i^ sides to everything. 

In the old Gorman tale four brothers 
parted at a cross roads, each leaving 
his knife stuck in a tree. At the end oi 
a year and a day, it was agreed, they 
were to meet and if everv knife was 



532 



•THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



bright that sign would prove that all 
were well ; a rusted knife, per contra, 
was a signal that the owner was dead 
or in the dungeon whence he was to 
emerge, cut off a giant's head, and 
marry a princess. Might it not be well 
for us to meet every five or ten years 
and have one or two papers of a bio- 
graphical character? I should like to 
•know more than 1 now know, about 
Jeremiah Dilier, who walked out to 
Kentucky, in which Clay was yet the 
young man ( Daniel Boone was then 
living in ATissouri) and Abraham Lin- 
coln was yet to be. Jeremiah made 
cabinets, and later became a steamboat 
captain, some of his descendants 
drifting to Indian Territory', Texas and 
Nebraska. He may have known Jack- 
son's and Benton's friends: he cer- 
tainly lived among men who gossiped 
over the Jackson and Benton shooting- 
affray as sporting men now talk of the 
doubtful prospective fight between 
Jeffries and Johnson, The middle 
West of our time was to Jeremiah 
Dilier a region newly bought from 
France — half French, half Spanish 
and all Indian. When Jeremiah 
settled in Kentucky, Aaron Burr's pro- 
posed expedition was recent, news 
hardly more distant than the panic of 
1907 is to us. Our kinsman's second 
wife was of Lancaster county, and he 
lived on to 1869 four years after Lin- 
coln's death. \\'hat an idea of Ameri- 
can progress we get by comparing 
dates : Jeremiah Dilier walked out to 
Kentucky before Stephenson ran the 
Rocket, and died in the year that rail- 
roads joined the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans. If he had jotted down one 
fiftieth part of what he saw the book 
would have been far more interestin;^- 
than Mark Twain's "Roughing It." 

We know that one of our kin was a 
friend of James Buchanan and another 
of Stephen A. Douglas : I believe that 
a medical relative attended TlKMuas A. 
Hendricks; one oi our family li\ed 
near .-Vbraham Lincoln in his Spring- 
field days: we have a distant connec- 
tion with George Washington. In boy- 



hood I was proud that my grandfather 
was a friend of General Meade, and 
once or twice met a relative who was 
well acquainted with R. B. Hayes, Odd 
reminiscences of notables of men fa- 
mous in peace and war, might be gath- 
ered by the score if these reminis- 
cences even more quickly than riches 
make themselves wings. The scholar- 
ly soldier Roland A. Luther, might 
have told us much of the Seminoles 
and of Mexico; Peter Diller's Texan 
political friends perhaps knew Sam 
Houston as well as anyone in Penn- 
sylvania knew ^latthew S. Quay, 
Isaac R. Dilier, the Mexican war \-eter- 
an the journalist of Philadelphia and 
Blarrisburg, consul in foreign lands, 
trusted by Buchanan and by Lincoln 
in important posts, a hale old gentle- 
man in the mid-eighties was a person 
and a presence to be remembered. My 
father married the daughter of an anti- 
slavery candidate for governor of Penn- 
sylvania and the balance was kept even 
by Thomas Green Clemson who mar- 
ried a daughter of John C. Calhoun : 
Calhoun,by the way. started as an anti- 
slavery man but did not permanently 
advocate such principles. The Anti- 
Masonic zeal of one relative was oft"- 
set by another's defiant refusal to an- 
swer questions put by .enemies of the 
order. Possibly there is not a political 
issue or ism for which some one oi us 
has not cheered. There were some to 
say "^lillic^ns for defence but not one 
cent for tribute." plenty of our stock 
responded to "Fifty- four forty or 
fight;" can any one tell me if our Xe- 
braskan kin joined in Bryan's cry for 
"Sixteen to one?'" 

All our family combined cann»-)t 
ei[ual to the literary power of Thack- 
erav, but the Dillers oi real life are to 
us more interesting than the Xew- 
comes of fiction. I believe that CohMiel 
Samuel Ringwalt was as brave and 
luMu^rable as Colonel Xewct^me — none 
of our line lot us hope were as iletes- 
table as Sir I'arnes; sexeral of the 
Dillers have had tempers as volcanic 
as that of Clive Xewcome. In Lan- 



THE DILLER FAMILY 



533 



caster county's fertile fields, on \W"st- 
ern rivers and prairies, in mines and on 
mountain tops, in business and in bat- 
tle, in courthouse and counting room, 
in prescription and in sermon our an- 
nals may be traced. Fragments of bread 
and fish were gathered that nothing be 
lost, but of what is far more precious — 
mind, emotion, the building up and 
sinking down of lives so much seems 
to be lost that every antiquary and. 
every historian feels that he has only 
made a scrap book. Yet the very baff- 
lings and disappointments of our quest 
give us a deeper sense of the value of 
facts that bear on histor3^ or illustrate 
heredity. A\'e do not wonder that 
Newton compared himself to a child 
picking up pebbles on the seashore, the 
facts gathered by Scott in his studies 
of old Highland clans, by Galton in 
his insatiate thirst for British geneal- 
ogies, are sand heaps to Chimborazo 
compared to the facts which are lost, 
forgotten, distorted : known only .to 
Him who knows all the fowls upon the 
mountains. Take that superb paper of 
James M. Swank's on the Muhlenberg 
family, and its sthong marshalings of 
data, only make us wish that we could 
begin to understand what the Muhlen- 
bergs were. 

On 2^Iay 12, 1827, Samuel Pickwick, 
Tracy Tupman, Augustus Snodgrass 
and Nathaniel Winkle formed the Cor- 
responding Society of the Pickwick 
Club. It will, I think, be admitted 
that their journeys are better known 
than those of Mungo Park, and un- 
gallant as it may be to say so. even 
than those of Ida Pfeiffer. but it is not 
of their travels- 1 would sj)eak at pres- 
ent. The Club unanimously passed 
the following resolution : 

That this Association cordially recoixnizes 
the principle of every member ol the Corres- 



ponding Secretary defraying his own traveling 
expenses; and that it sees no objection what- 
ever to the said society pursuing their inqui- 
ries for any length time they please upon the 
same terms. 

A resolution of similar purport 
might receive our unanimous support. 
If some one of our family could devote 
the leisure of several years to rambling 
among country church yards and old 
inns, among our \\'estern and South- 
ern kin, (always paying his own ex- 
penses) what interesting letters he 
might send us! He would be a broad- 
er American, for his journeys, and his 
grasp on history would tighten. The. 
visit of ^lark Twain to the tomb of 
Adam is a spur to all true genealogists, 
and in our traveling age we know n..">t 
who may come to make the researches 
that are always of indirect value al- 
though they frequentl}- fail oi their di- 
rect aim. 

Well was it decided that our meet- 
ing place should be New Holland, a 
place endeared to us by tender family 
traditions. The kindly acts that some 
of our blood have done here have gone 
up as a memorial before the Giver oi 
ever}' good and perfect gift. Hard 
study and careful thinking have gone 
on within the old New Holland libra- 
ries. A true antiquary oi the Diller line 
will love the little NewHolland church- 
yard as Gray loved the one at Stoke 
Pogis. The best that is in us — the in- 
tellectual and devotional — turns to 
New Holland as to a place oi pilgrim- 
age. For the courtesies we so grate- 
fully acknowledge we are indebted in 
no trifling part to good men and wo- 
men who ha\e done credit to the Dil- 
ler name. May it be ours to so live 
that the beautiful inscription dear to 
our forefathers may fittingly be placed 
on our tombs. 

Ilier ruht in GotL 



I: 



534 



Maryland Dillers 

By Dr. C. H. Diller, Detour, Md. 



NOTE. — The following is an abstract of a 
paper read at the First Diller Reunion, 
New Holland, Pa., June. 1910. 




N this brief sketch of the 
Maryland Dillers, I feel 
confident that there is 
not the least doubt but 
that they descended from 
the original Casper Diller 
of Pennsylvania and so 
far as known the first 



Diller in America. 

Martin Diller, my grandfather re- 
moved from Musselman's farm, ad- 
joining William Bachman's farm near 
New Holland, Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, in the year 1828, to 
Johnsville, Frederick Courrty, [Mary- 
land. 

^ He, Martin Diller, had four sons, 
all of whom are now dead, and two 
daughters, - ]Mary, now dead, and 
Louiza living and in her 86th. year. 

My father's name was John, a son 
of the above named ^lartin Diller. 
who was a son of John Diller, who 
was a son of Jean or Han ^^lartin Dil- 
ler, who was a son of Casper Diller. 

I have often heard mv father and 



also my aunt ^lary S 
Diller say tliat their father, ^Martin 
Diller, was named for his grandfather, 
Jean or Han Martin Diller, and that 
he was a son of Casper Diller. 

My father John Diller, has spoken 
of the fact that he was named for his 
grandfather, and also that his brother 
Adam died a few months before he 
was born, 182 1. All of which point to 
the fact that the ''Maryland Dillers" 
are the direct descendants of the here- 
tofore mentioned Caspar Diller. 

Levi Diller removed to near Dayton, 
Ohio, early in life from which place he 
removed to Xoble county, Indiana, in 
later years. He had soiis and daugh- 
ters, but of their lives and occupations 
I am not acquainted- 



Jacob Diller lived at ]^lount Pleas- 
ant, Frederick county, Maryland and 
died without issue. William H. Dil- 
ler died in early manhood. Xo living 
issue. 

Louiza Diller married George W. 
Weiglit and removed to near Eureka, 
Kansas. They had several sons and 
daughters the history of whom I am 
not acquainted with, excepting that 
Sarah, who married Edwood Crebo, an 
Englishman, who is a very successful 
contractor and builder on the Missouri 
Pacific Railway, also a prominent 
banker in Eureka, Kansas -and Kansas 
City, Missouri. 

^lary Diller, married Samuel Spur- 
rier, and they have five sons and two 
daughters, living. Of the sons. William 
Martin Luther, Charles Franklin, John 
and' Hanson are engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. Taylor, a contractor and 
builder, lives in Woodsboro, Frederick 
county, Maryland, no issue. Theresa 
and Sadie Spurrier, are unmarried, 
and live in Woodsboro, Maryland. 

Miss Sadie, for a number of years 
has been quite a prominent and much 
sought after teacher in the public 
schools, and in conipliance with a state 



purne^r, nee \^^y requiring a continuous period of 
teaching for 25 years, will soon be re- 
tired and placed upon the pension list. 

The descendants oi John Diller. of 
Mount Pleasant. Frederick County. 
Maryland, are Charles H. Diller. 
practicing physician, of Detour, 
Carroll county, Maryland, married. 
has three sons and one daughter liv- 
ing. The eKlcst, L'rsa Milner, mar- 
ried, graduated from West Point 1004. 
lieutenant in 12th I'. S. Infantry now 
stationed at Vt. Wm. McKinloy. Phil- 
ippine Islands ; no issue. 

Verona Saylor Diller. married to 
Webster Harnish now living in 
P)r(Hiklyn, X. Y. : no issue. 

Rc^land Ringwald Diller. graduated 
in Medicine, from the Universitv of 



MARYLAND DILLERS 



535 



Maryland, 1910, living in Baltimore, 
Md. ; unmarried. 

Charles \\'iIloughby Diller, married, 
farming, living near Detour, Maryland 
two sons, John Willie and Charles 
Donald. 

Francis A. Diller, engineer, married, 
now living in Kansas, Ohio; one son 
Charles Murray married and two 
daughters, Edith married to Otto 
Moses no issue. Helen married to 
Calvin Shawl, no issue, Charles IMur- 
ray, married one son Paul. 

John Hanson Diller, farmer, married 
living near ^It. Airy, ^Maryland, two 
sons, Caspar and Robert, one daughter 
Regina, all at home. 

. George Emory Diller, married 
living near Ellicott City, Mar3dand, 
two sons and three daughters. Helen, 
Cora, Howard, Charles and Jesse, all 
single. 



Edwin Dorsey Diller, Detour, 
Maryland, farmer, one daughter, Coral 
Ellis, single. Clara Virginia widow 
of Dr. Joseph H. Leib, lormerly of Mt. 
lUeasant, Maryland now living in 
Frederick, Md. one daughter, Lilly 
Alma, married Milton Shook and have 
one son, Joseph Leib Shook. 

Walter Cramer Diller, Washington, 
D. C, druggist, married; two sons 
and one daughter, Bernard Kengla, 
Charles Cardel, and Hilda Henrietta 
Marie, all at home. 

For many years after the inimigra- 
tion of ]\Iartin Diller the characteris- 
tic pursuit of the family was agricul- 
ture, and while many of them still cul- 
tivate the soil very successfully in dif- 
ferent parts of the state some of its 
members have gone forth in the pro- 
fessions and pursuits other than 



Some Diller Baptismal Records 

By Rev. S. M. Mountz, New Holland. Pa. 




NOTE.— The following is an abstract of 
a paper read at the First Diller Reunion, 
New Holland, Pa., June 1910. 

:\IOXG the first names to 
be found upon the pages 
of the old church records 
of Trinity Lutheran of 
New Holland is that of 
the Dillers. I give here- 
with a list of baptisms as 
found in this book and 
others giving the names of the spon- 
sors wlfere the parents did not fulfill 
such duty. 

Diller, Christina dr. Philip Adam 
(p. 46) and w. Madgalena 
b. Jan 27, 1750. 

Sp. Martin Diller and Christina Dil- 
ler. 
Diller, Philip Adam s. Martin and w Chris- 
tina 
(p. 48) b. Jan 31, 1751. bap. Mar. 3. 1751 

Sp. Adam Diller and Maria Magdaleiia. 
Diller, Maria. Magdelena, dr. Philip Adam 

and w. Magdalena 
(p. 56) b. 1752, bap. 1752 



Diller, Christina, dr. Martin Diller and w. 
Christina 

(p. 5S) b. .May 16. 1754. bap. July 12. 1754 
Sp. Diffenderfer and Anna Maria Diller. 

Diller. Plias, s. Philip Adam and w Mag- 
delena 

(p. 59) b. May 1755. bap. May 1755. 

Diller, John Peter, s. Philip Adam and w. 
Maria Magdelena 

(p. 65) b. March 20. 1760. bap. April 2.1760. 

Diller. Elizabeth, dr. Leonard and w. Eliza- 
beth 

(p. 6S) b. Aug. 3, 1762. bap. Oct. 3. 1762. 

Diller. Isaac, s. Adam and w. Magdelena 

(p. 69) b. Sept. 2S. 1763. bap. Nov. 6. 1763. 

Diller. Elias, s. Adam and w 

(p. 711 b. Jan. 17. 1766, bap. Feb. 23. 1766 
Sp. Michael Rein and wife. 

Diller. Maria, d. Adam Dllier and w. Mag- 
delena 

(p. 74) b. Mar. 5, 176S, bap. May 23. 176S. 
Sp. Isaac Levan and wife. 

Diller. A, Maria, dr. Adam Diller Sr. and 
w. Magdelena 

(p. 7S) b. Aug. 2. 1770. bap. Sept. 3. 177«K 

Diller. A. .Maria, dr. Adam Diller Jr.. and 
w. Salomo 

(p. 7S) b. Nov. I. 1770. bap. Dec. 2. 1770. 

Diller. Peter, s. Adam and w. Salome 

(p. SO) b. 1773, bap. May 21. 1773. 



536 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Diller, 



child, Adam Diller and w 



Salome 
(p. 83) b. Oct. 30, 1777, bap. Nov. 23, 1777. 
Diller, Salome, dr. Adam Diller and w. 

Salome 
(p. 86) b. Dec. 2, 1780, bap. May 24, 1781. 
Diller, Anna Margaret, dr. Job. Diller and 

Magdelena 
(p. 86) b. Oct. 3, 17S1, bap. Nov. 12. 1781. 
Dilier, Adam, s. John Adam Diller and w. 

Salome 
(p. 89) b. Dec. 23, 1783, bap. Dec. 26, 1783. 
Diller, Jonathan, s. Isaac Diller and \v Su- 
sanna. 
Diller, Samuel, s. Peter and w. Elizabeth 

b. Nov. 21, 1791. bap. Feb. 12, 1792. 
Diller, Martin, s. Johannes and w Magda- 
lena 
b. July 1793, bap. April 9, 1794. 
Diller, Willhelm, s. Isaac and w. Susanna 

b. Feb. 2, 1793, bap. May 19, 1793. 
Diller, Maria, dr. Peter and w. Elizabeth 

b. July 20. 1793, bap. Oct. 10, 1793. 
Diller, Julianna, dr. Isaac and w. Susanna 

b. Jan. 22, 1795, bap. June 24, 1795. 
Diller, Elizabeth, dr. Johannes and w. Ma-'- 
dalena 

b. Dec. 1774, bap. 

Diller, Daniel, s. Peter and w. Margaretta 
b. May 23, 1795, bap. June 10. 1795. 

Diller, , child, Peter and w. Elizabeth 

b. June 7, 1795. bap. Dec. 2, 1795. 
Diller, Rachel dr. Isaac Diller and w. Su- 
sanna 
b. May 4, 1797. 
Diller, Lidia, dr. Peter and w. Elizabeth 
b. March 21, 1797, bap. May 4, 1797. 



Diller, 

b. 

Dliler, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller. 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller. 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 
Diller, 

b. 



Isaac, s. Isaac and w. Susanna 
Sept. 20, 1798. bap. Nov. 18. 179S. 
Roland, s. Peter Diller and w. Eliza- 
beth 
Dec. 5, 1799, bap. Feb. 23, ISOO. 

, child, George, and w. Maria 

March 25, 1800, bap. April 29, ISOO. 
Solomon, s. Peter and w Elasabeth 
Feb. 10, 1802, bap. April 19, 1S02. 
Samuel, s. Peter Diller and w. Mar- 
garet 
Dec. 10, 1801. bap. Aug. 31, 1802. 
Jacob, s. George and w. Maria 
July 3, 1802, baj). Sept. 7. 1S02. 
Peter, s. Peter and w Margaret 
May 28, 1802, bap. Sept. 20, 1S02. 
Amos, s. Peter and w. Elisabeth 
Feb. 27, 1804. bap. Apr. 6, 1804. 
Levi, s. Peter and w. Elisabeth 
Feb. 1, 1805, bap. Apr. 15, 1S05. 
Adam, s. Johann and w. Elisabeth 
Feb. 1805, bap. May 29, 1805. 

saac. s. Michael and w. 

Feb. 6, 1805, bap. June 24. 1805. 
Levi, s. Peter and w. Elisabeth 
Feb. 1, bap. April 15, 1805. 

Isaac, s. Michael and w. 

Fe\). 6, 1805, bap. June 24, lSu5. 
Margaret, dr. Peter and w. Margaret 
21. 1806, bap. Sept. 21. 1806. 



Elisabeth, dr. Johann and w. — 
Feb. 5, 1809, bap. Nov. 12. 1S09 



NOTE. — Book from which records were 
copied closes with year 1813 where our 
present effort must end. 



Causes of Migration to America 



Wanderlust. 

Wanderhist has been the distin- 
guishing trait of German character 
from the dawn of their history down 
to the present. It was this trait which 
has ever led them to leave their native 
country when scarcity of land, social 
and religious conditions, famine and 
war have furnished the immediate oc- 
casion. It was this which led to the 
vast movement of the '*\'61kerwan- 
derung" in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies, and to the colonization of Prus- 
sia and Silesia in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries as it was this that 
in our century has sent successive 
waves of German inunigrants t(^ popu- 
late the Western States: it was this 
that in the cightconth century, sent the 



Palatines and Swi: 
(Kuhns 28). 



s to Pennsvlvania. 



\oyage of Columbus 



Discovery of America 

The fateful 
changeil the fate and fortune of two 
continents. It cleared the way for the 
era of martime adventure which fol- 
lowed it at once. Western Eun.^pe 
arose and from the Iberian to the 
Scandinavian peninsulas the nations 
cnibarked upon a career oi colonial en- 
terprise. The marvelous tales told by 
the Genoese sailor of the new lands be- 
yond the great ocean spread through- 
out the nations even more rapidly than 
the Fiery Cross among the ancient 
Highlanders of Scotland and each one 
entered upon the game of seizing 



CAUSES OF MIGRATION TO AMERICA 



537 



whatever it could of the spoils that 
seemed to await the earliest comer, 
England, Spain, the Netherlands, 
Sweden and France at once entered 
upon the work of seizure and division. 
. What a boundless field for enter- 
prize, adventure and wealth was thus 
opened up to the cupidity of nations 
and individuals, and how quickly they 
availed themselves of the opportunity. 
Colonists are needed to found colonies 
and at once every available agency 
was employed to make these new 
lands profitable to their new owners. 
Government companies were char- 
tered, expeditions were authorized, 
princely land grants were made to in- 
dividuals and each and all of these of- 
fered inducements to the lower ranks 
in life, the husbandmen, the mechan- 
ics and men of all work to enlist them- 
selves in these new enterprises. Of 
course the most attractive induce- 
ments were held out to set this spirit 
of emigration in motion. (Diffenderf- 
fer, 1 8.') 

Swiss Feudal System 

While Switzerland has ever been re- 
garded as the ideal land of freedom, it 
was after all, up to the present century, 
but little more than an aristocracy. 
The emoluments of office in such cities 
as Berne and Ziirich were in the hands 
of a few particular families, which. 
generation after generation, held all 
offices. The lower classes, those who 
tilled the soil and who labored with 
their hands, had no share in the gov- 
ernment and but little freedom. The 
feudal system which had existed in 
Switzerland for a thousand years, was 
not abolished till the Frencli Revolu- 
tion swept it away with many other 
relics of the past. During the periotl 
which we are studying, tithes, land- 
tax, body-service and all other accom- 
plishments of the feudal relations be- 
tween peasant and lord flourished ap- 
parently as vigorously as ever. Ad<l 
to this the traffic in soldiers which 
forms so deep a blot on the fair name 
of Switzerland among the people and 
we mav have s(^me idea ot the secular 



causes of Swiss emi^^ration during the 
last century. ( Kuhns, 23.; 

Religious Motive 

This movement has a twofold 
cause: first in point of time as of im- 
portance, a religious mruive; and sec- 
ondly, a social or material one. That 
the religious was predominant may 
be seen by the character of the emi- 
gration, which at first and for two gen- 
erations consisted entirely of the sec- 
taries who were persecuted in Ger- 
many by state and church. And it 
may also be prrned by the rise and 
course of the emigration which was 
begun and fostered by such men as 
Penn the Quaker and his Mennunite 
and Pietist frientls and religious ac- 
quaintances. ( Bittinger, 12). 

Intolerance in Switzerland 

The chief cause oi the earliest Swiss 
eniigration to Pennsylvania was of a 
religious nature During the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries the an- 
nals of Berne and Zurich contain fre- 
quent references to the measures 
taken to root out this sect, many oi. 
whose doctrines were distasteful to the 
state churches founded by Zwingli, es- 
pecially their refusal to bear arms. 
From their first appearance in Switz- 
erland, the Mennonites were the vic- 
tims of svstematic persecution on the 
part of their Reformed brethren; even 
the death-penalty being inflicted on a 
number, wliile others were thrown in- 
to prison, exiled or sold as galley 
slaves Many fled to the Palati- 
nate. These Palatinate Swiss had to 
endure the same trials as their neigh- 
bors, but were treated with even more 
intolerance. Poverty, floods, failure oi 
croi)s. the billeting oi foreign soldiers, 
all contributed t<> make their lot intol- 
era])le. and finally induced large num- 
bers of them ti> join their l)rethren in 
Switzerland in tlie movement wliicli 
resuUetl in the settlement on the 
Peiiuea. ( Kuhns. 25.") 

Mysticism and Pietism 

The Rhine country, from which such 
an. overwhelming proportion oi the 



538 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



colonial German emigrants came it 
may be almost cxrlusively considered^ 
was the home of Mysticism and Pie- 
tism, two most elastic designations, 
which include phenomena as various 
as. the wild and immoral fanaticism of 
the prophets of Minister and the 
peaceful purity of Tersteegen and his 
little circle of pious friends, .. .The 
final result of this movement was the 
Reformation. 

But the Reformation did not go far 
enough to satisfy many of the pious 
souls looking for more or different 
light than Luther and Zwingli found 
to break forth from God's word. So 
among the many scattered circles who 
fed their spirits upon the mystical 
writings of Boehme, Tauler, and 
Swedenborg. or the hidden people who 
proudly retained in secret the pure, 
early Christianity of the Waldenses, 
lived, amid continued suspicions and 
persecutions the beliefs which crystal- 
lized here and there into "the Sects." 
These flourished mainly among the 
lower classes, those who had wished 
during the Reformation to abolish 
nobles and kings along with priest- 
hood, and these social and socialistic 
views naturally made them obnoxious 
to the .authorities. ''The persecuted 
Sects" they were designated, and per- 
secuted thev were indeed, unto death. 
by fire and sword and drowning in 
earlier times : then, as civilization ad- 
vanced, through imprisonment, harass- 
ments, by the authorities and forcible 
conversions ; and nnally by all sorts of 
worrying attacks, such as spared life 
and iimb but left little else. Xo won- 
der that as soon as asylum was pro- 
vided them, they flocked to it, one lit- 
tle company after another of the sec- 
tarians braving the dangers oi the 
long, trving voyage and the hardships 
of th.e unknown wilderness to find the 
precious jewel oi religious freedom. 
(Bittenger 14). 

Desire to Better Worldly Condition 
There are many causes that lead men 
to seek new homes, in distant lands, 
*Hit there is one that overtops all the 



rest. Iti s the desire to better their 
condition, the hope of material ad- 
vancement, in short, it is better bread 
and more of it that lies at the source 
of nearly all the migrations of the hu- 
man family. The love of gain, the de- 
sire of propertv and the accumulation 
of wealth was the great underlying 
principle of all colonization on the 
American continent. It was this all- 
powerful motive that crowded out all 
dangers, known and unknown, to 
reach this western Eden. (Diffen- 
derft'er, 300.) 

Political Situation 

Charles V, who reigned from 15 19 
to 1556, ruled over the rich Xether- 
lands, the united Spanish empire in- 
cluding Naples and Sicily and terri- 
tory in America, Hapsburg, the Aus- 
trian States and Germanv. His g'reat 
enemy was Francis I of France, and 
war was carried on between them all 
their lives. At the same time an in- 
ternal religious war was carried on by 
the ruling princes themselves in Ger- 
many — a war for religious liberty on 
the one hand and restoration oi the 
unitv of the church on the. other hand, 
concluded by the peace oi Augsburg, 
(1556). A peace of twentv years fol- 
lowed, after which for 50 years the 
empire was a prey of internal discjuiet, 
a rupture of friendly relations took 
place and the princes and cities of 
Germany were divided into two op- 
posing factions or compacts — the Pro- 
testant Union supported by Henry of 
France and the Dutch and the Catho- 
lic League united with Spain. This 
paved the way for the Thirty Years' 
War concluded by the "Peace of 
\\'estphalia" which among other 
things increased the power of the 
princes, occasioning expensive courts, 
standing armies, a multitude oi of- 
ficials and high taxation. The effect 
was to depo|nilate the rural districts of 
Germany, destroy its commerce, bur- 
den its pci^ple with taxes, cripple the 
already debilitated power of the em- 
peror, and cut up the empire into a 
multitude of petty states, the rulers of 



CAUSES OF MIGRATION TO AMERICA 



539 



which exercised ahiiost absolute power 
within their own territories. (Weber 
and Brittanica.) 

Demoralized Condition of Germany 

One highly important cause of this 
emie'ration "without a head", as it has 
been called, was undoubtedlv the de- 
moralized condition of Germany in 
consequence of the terrible civil and 
religious wars that again and again 
swept over the country. As a final 
result of these wars the Holy Roman 
Empire was broken into fragments ; 
one half of the German-speaking 
people were separated from their fel- 
lows and merged with Hungary and 
Bohemia to form Austria; while the 
other half was split into little king- 
doms and principalities, whose chief 
efforts for nearly two hundred years 
was directed to recovering^ from the 
blighting effects of the Thirty Years' 
War. (Kuhns 2.) 

Rulers of the Palatinate. 

A cause of the emigration to Amer- 
ica was the corruption, the tyranny, 
the extravagance and heartlessness of 
the rulers of the Palatinate; all 
through the eighteenth century their 
chief efforts seemed to be directed to 
a base and slavish imitation of the life 
of the French court. A\'hile the coun- 
try was exhausted and on the verge of 
ruin, costly palaces were built, rival- 
ling and even surpassing in luxury 
those of France ; enormous retinues 
were maintained : while pastors and 
teachers were starving, hundreds of 
court officers lived in luxury and idle- 
ness Down to the French Revo- 
lution the peasant and his children 
were forced to render body-service, to 
pay taxes in case of sale or heritage, 
to suffer the inconveniences of hunt- 
ing, and above all. to see thcnu^-elves 
deprived of all' justice. (Kuhns, 20.) 

Ravages Induced by Louis XIV 

Louis XI\' of France, who said. "I 
am the state" in whom kingly absolu- 
tism attained its highest point, desired 
to enlarge his empire and render his 
name illustrious by military compicst. 



In his warfare, Turenne his general 
crossed the Rhine, after having bar- 
barously ravaged the lands of the 
Palatinate, and pressed forwards burn- 
ing and ravaging into Franconia. The 
armv was finally compelled to recross 
the Rhine after which ravaging and 
plunder was continued three years 
longer to be concluded by a treaty of 
peace in 1679, the terms of which vrere 
decidedly disadvantageous to Ger- 
, many. 

The result was that Louis in the face 
of the treaty took possession of a num- 
ber of cities, towns, boroughs, villages, 
mills, even whole provinces, even 
Strasburg, and the citizens were com- 
pelled to take the oath of subjection to 
Louis, the whole transaction being 
ratified by a treaty in 1684, between 
Louis, Austria, Spain and the German 
empire. 

During the War of Orleans, i6<S9- 
1697, command was given for reducing 
the region along the Rhine to a desert 
as a means of rendering the invasion 
of France impossible." "TheAvild troops 
fell like incendiaries upon the flourish- 
ing villages of the Bergstrasse. the 
rich cities of the Rhine, and the bloom- 
ing districts of the southern Palatinate 
and reduced them to heaps of ashes. 
The shattered tower' of the castle of 
Heidelberg is yet a silent witness of 
the barbarity. Towns and villages, 
vineyards and orchards were in tlames 
from Flaardtgebirge to Xahe : in Man- 
heim, the inhabitants themselves were 
t.'bliged to assist in destroying their 
own buildings and fortifications, a 
great part of Heidelberg was con- 
sumed by fire, after the bridge of the 
Xeckar had been blown up ; in Worms 
the cathedral with many of the dwell- 
ing houses became the prey of the 
Hanies : in Spire, the French drove out 
the citizens, set fire to the plundered 
city and the venerable cathedral and 
desecrated the bones oi the ancient 
emperors. 

Unrest and Dissatisfaction in 
Germany 

There was a spirit of unrest and dis- 
satisfaction tiiroughout Europe and 



540 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



especially in Germany. That continent 
had been almost continuously torn by 
devastating wars for a hundred years 
previously. In almost every kingdom 
and principality the tramp of the in- 
vader had been heard, and wherever 
he appeared ruin followed in his tracks 
by day and his incendiary torch 
marked his course by night. The 
peasant was no more considered in this 
clash of arms than the cattle in the 
fields. Like them he was valued only 
for what he was worth to his lord and 
master, whoever that might be. He 
was pressed into the ranks whenever 
his services were needed, while his 
substance was seized and converted 
into public use. To eke out a scanty 
existence where the fates had located 
him without hope or betterment or 
material progression seemed the aim 
and end of his being. To rise from 
the plane of life to which he was born 
was a« blessing vouchsafed to few. 
Generations of oppression and penury 
had in too many cases dwarfed the 
humanity within his soul, and he could 
onlv in exceptional cases look forward 
to anything better or higher. (Diffen- 
derfifer, 17). 

Change of Faith of Rulers 

At Heidelberg the Elector Palatine, 
Frederick H, became a Lutheran: 
Frederick HI a Calvinist; Ludovic V 
restored the Lutheran church ; his son, 
and successor re-established Calvin- 
ism ; and next came a Catholic prince 
to insist upon the spiritual allegiance 
of his subjects to the creed. (W'avland, 
25). 

Numberless Causes 

The German emigration to America 
has been compared to a mighty river; 
the simile is a good. one. And as a 
river is made up of the waters of many 
streams and these in turn tlow from 
numberless tiny springs rising in (ob- 
scure places, so many things and 
people little accounted of by the groat 
world went to feed the tide. The" cen- 
tury long suffering of Mennonite-- in 
Switzerland and Protestant in the 



Palatinate; Penn's apostolic journey- 
ings along the Rhine from one little 
group of "friends" or Mystics or Pie- 
tists to another; Furly's industrious 
pamphlet-writing; the mystical dream- 
ings of "the fair von Merlau" and her 
Pietist friends of the Saalhof concern- 
ing, the possibility of* better serving 
God in the virgin wilderness of Penn- 
sylvania, which fired the noble, simple, 
courageous heart of Pastorius ; ' all 
went to prepare the wa}- — may we not 
reverently say? — for Him who led His 
humble people by a way they know 
not, through the sea to a promised 
land of peace and freedom and bro- 
therly love. (Bittenger, 25.) 

Publication of Books 

Of course there were many direct 
and indirect causes, such as Penn's 
travels to Germany, and the pamphlets 
descriptive of his "Holy Experiment", 
which he afterwards caused to be pub- 
lished in English, Dutch and German, 
and which were scattered broadcast 
over South Germany. So, too, the ef- 
forts of Queen Anne and her Golden 
Book, which brought that flood of Pal- 
atines to London, in i/Oq, out of 
which were to come the settlements 
on the Schoharie and the Mohawk, 
and later those on the Tulpehocken. in 
Berks county. Pa. George II. also 
published proposals aimed directly at 
the Mennonites in the Palatinate. 

(Kuhns, 27.) 

• 

Personal Work 

Christopher Sauer wrote to Gover- 
nor Penn in 1755; — "And when I came 
to this province, and found everything 
to the contrary from where I came 
from, I wrote largely to all my friends 
and acquaintances oi the civil and re- 
ligious jtrivileges. etc.. and of the 
goc^dness I have heard and seen, and 
my letters were printed and reprinted, 
and provoked many tlunisand people 
to come to this province, and many 
thankevl the Lord for it atid desired 
their friemls also to come here." 
(Kuhns, 27.) 



CAUSES OF MIGRATION TO AMERICA 



541 



Speculation 

Speculation, too, entered as a pow- 
erful stimulant to emigration. As soon 
as the ship-owners saw the large 
sources of profit in thus transporting 
emigrants, they employed every means 
of attracting them. Thence arose the 
vicious class of "Xewlandcrs." (Kuhns, 

The Newlanders 

The Xewlanders received free pass- 
age and a certain fee for every family 
or free person whom they could per- 
suade to go to Holland, there to make 
arrangements with the ship-owners 
for their transportation. Muhlenberg 
tells us how they paraded in fine cloth- 
ing, pulling out ostentatiously their 
watches, and in general acting as rich 
people do. They spoke of America as 
if it were the Elysian Fields, in which 
the crops grew without labor, as if the 
mountains were of gold and silver, and 
as if the rivers ran with milk and 
honey. (Kuhns, j'j.) 

Artificial Aids 

The principal causes of the great 
German immigration in the eighteenth 
century were found to have been re- 
ligious persecutions, the tyranny of 
autocrats, destructive wars, failures of 
crops and famine, economic bank- 
ruptcy. The flames of immigration 
once having a good start, a gale arose 
which fanned them into a conflagration 
beyond control. There were then as 
there are now, in our own day, various 
artificial aids operating toward the in- 
crease or steady continuance of immi- 
gration. Such were tirstjy. more fre- 
quent opportunities of transportation, 
prepared by profit-seeking ship-owners 
or ship-companies, and secondly, more 
abundant information or communica- 
tion supplied gratutiously by the self- 
ish interests of advertising agents. 
(Faust I, 6i.) 

Exile 

Georgia, the farthest south of the 
American colonies, became the Ikmuc 
of the Salzburgers, immediatclv after 



the earliest settlement at Savannah. 
Thev were German Protestants exiled 
in 1 73 1 by a decree of Archbishop Leo- 
pold, Count of Firmian. who with fa- 
natical zeal drove out from his domains 
all who were not Catholics. More than 
thirty thousand Protestants were 
forced to leave the Austrian arch- 
bishopric of Salsburg, but after many 
hardships they were welcomed in Pro- 
testant countries, notably in Prussia, 
' where seven thousand of them found 
homes. (Faust II, 235.) 

Sale of Redemptioners 

Besides their legitimate profit in 
passage money, the shipping people 
enjoyed the proceeds of selling many 
of the immigrants as redemptioners, 
and the poor creatures were also regu- 
larly plundered oi their clothes and 
goods. Their money was taken from 
them, their sea-chests rifled, and those 
possessed of means compelled to pay 
the passage of the poorer ones. 
(Fisher, 106.) 

Voluntary Abandonment of Homes 

The Schwenkfelders were a handful 
of Silesians who after enduring for 
centuries the trials and tribulations of 
persecutions for the sake of religion 
left their homes and ' all to others. 
Christopher Schultz. the brainiest oi 
three orphan boys who came to Penn- 
svlvania in 1734 related owt oi his 
child experiences under the parental 
roof in these words — the parents 
speaking. "Unless you turn Catholic 
you can not remain here, where we 
shall go we kn(^w not. If you turn 
Catholic you may keep your house and 
home and the fa\or and respect of 
men. For your sake we would much 
rather enter on a r^xnl o\ misery. If 
you could resolve to do this, it would 
give us great pleasure in trust in God 
and to the glory of his name. He will 
find a name and place where we may 
found a homo again." i Kriebcl.") 

Tired of Each Other 

The (^Id wi>rld and its people, two 
hundred years ago were well tired of 



542 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



each other. So some one tells us and 
the student of early emigration soon 
discovers abundant evidence verifying- 
this statement. He finds that in the 
latter part of the seventeenth and early 
in the eighteenth centuries a countless 
host of dissatisfied and oppressed 
Europeans, turning their faces from 
the east, embarked on the frail vessels 
of that period, for tlie shores of that 
vast continent which would be to them 
an asylum from political oppression, 
and a retreat full of that repose which 
they knew from bitter experience 
would be denied them in their own 
countries. (Penna. ^lagazine Vol. X 
No. 3, page 241 .) 



The foregoing extracts have been col- 
lected as an index to some of the causes 
that led Germans to migrate to America. 
The following named books have been made 
use of: 

Knhns — GfTnicin and Swiss Settlements of 
Pennsylvania. 

Diffenderfer — The Redemptioners. 

Bittinger — The Germans in Colonial 
Times. 

Webei • —Universal History. 

Americanized Encyclopaedia Brit- 

tanica. 

Wayland — The German P^Ilement of the 
Shenandoah Valley. 

Faust — The German Element in the 
United States. 

Fisher — The Making of Pennsylvania. 

Kriebel — History of Schwenkfelders. 

Penna. Magazine. 



BESIDE A TARX 

(The Monuta in-top Pool of Caldena Creek, 

Delaware AVater Gap, Pa.) 

Where the mountain-ridge looms high, 
Where the large boughs brush the sky, 
Where the wanderer must grope 
His trail up the wooded slope, 
Where untainted winds distill 
Vigor on the we^ry will, — 
Here hemmed in by tree and brake 
Is a placid sapphire lake. 

Like a gem of brightest sheen. 
Lies this tarn encased in green: 
In its clearness all the day 
Dextrous fish flash round in play, 
Or are poised in perfect grace 
in their lonely watery place. 
And to loiterers impart 
Knowledge of their swimming art. 

Here beside the lakelet's calm 
Where glad breezes drop their balm. 
Here beneath the splendid star 
Where the cunning fishes are. 
Here hid in this mountain-spot. 
Where the busy world is not. 
Weary man forgets his care. 
And his soul ascends in prayer. 

CHARLES K. MESCHTER. 
Bethlehem. Pa. 



54' 



I 



Pennsylvania German Plant Names 

By C. D. Mell, Assistant Dendrologist, U. S. Forest Service 



I 



ft 



The following is a short list of Penn- 
sylvania German popular names of 
some of the common wild and cultiva- 
ted plants collected in Lebanon and 
Lancaster counties. This has been 
prepared because of the intrinsic inter- 
est it may have to botanists, and also 
for the purpose of recording and com- 
municating names that may have im- 
portant suggestions for folklorists. 
This list of well-authenticated Penn- 
sylvania German names has been com- 
piled from the notes of the late Freder- 
ick Knopf of Lebanon. Pennsylvania, 
which he collected during his study of 
the local flora, extending over a period 
of twenty years. He collected more 
than 1,200 species of herbs, grasses. 
and woody plants which are now de- 
posited in the Herbaria of Franklin 
and Marshall College, Lancaster. Pa., 
and of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, !Mo. 

This collection of Pennsylvania Ger- 
man names of plants has been made 
with a great deal of care for this par- 
ticular locality. It is far from being 
complete, however, and those who are 
interested enough to continue this work 
will have before them a most fascina- 
ting, but also a very intricate study. 
It is one that should receive attention 
of the readers, who should be urged to 
cooperate with some one willing to 
give it the attention it deserves. This 
has been done with the popular Eng- 
lish names of most of the flowering 
plants and ferns in England, and is 
now being successfully carried on in 
this country, particularly with the use- 
ful plants. 

Every plant is supposed to have a 
correct botanical name, but when it 
comes to the popular or trade names, 
there are only a few plants that have 
not been rechristened again and again 
until, for our common plants at least, 
there is an endless confusion of popu- 
lar names. Each localitv has names 



for some plants that are entirely differ- 
ent from those used elsewhere. In this 
list but one Pennsylvania German 
name is given for a particular s[)ecies. 
which is, in all cases, the one na^ne 
most commonly used. In general, a 
popular name should be considered to 
l)elong properly to a particular species 
and should be entirely restricted to 
one species. This is , however, sel- 
dom the case with the Pennsylvania 
German names, the ditterent species of 
certain genera being seldom distin- 
guished, unless there are present cer- 
tain very obvious characters that call 
for a distinction. Such characters are 
usually those of color, odor, taste, or. 
frequently, size. For instance, all 
species of violets are simply called 
"Veilchen." The fact that Viola 
pedata L. has a deeply-parted leaf and 
Viola palmala L. has merely a crcnate- 
dentate leaf does not call for a distinct 
name in the Pennsyl\-ania German 
botanical vocabulary. The yellow- 
colored flower oi Viola pubescens L.. 
however, immediately suggests a dis- 
tinction, and it is. theref«'>re. called 
''Gclbe \'eilchen.** Similar cases could 
be cited in which ditterent names have 
been suggested by a characteristic 
odor, taste, or size, rather than by 
characters that are more apt to be re- 
garded as trustworthy by trained 
botanists in distinguishing between 
species of a genus. For instance. Ver- 
bascum blattaria, L., which commonly 
has white flowers, sometimes develops 
bright yellow flowers, and on the 
stren^^ih oi this character alone the 
plants are separated and are called 
"weise" and "gelbe Puttern" respec- 
ti\elv. as if there were two distinct 
species. 

It is interesting to notice that T^.e 
names of parts im" plants enter into t:'e 
com-position oi Pennsylvania German 
plant names. Kraut, wurzel. and 
blume are amonq: the most comnv^n. 



544 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



In general, kraut (Eng. weed or herb) 
indicates a common, useless plant 
growing- luxuriantly in places where 
it is a source of great annoyance, 
as Schellkraut (Celandine), Katzen- 
kraut (Catnip), Milchkrant (Milk- 
weed), and Eisenkraut (Ironweed). 
On the other hand wurzel (Eng. root) 
generally seems to carry with it the 
idea of usefulness as a medicine or 
source of food, as in the case of 
Olantswurzel (Elecampane), Gold wur- 
zel (Gold thread), Christwurzel 
(Black hellebore), Haaselwurzel(Wild 
ginger), and Schwartswurzel (Com- 
mon Comfrey) all of which are men- 
tioned in the pharmacopoeia' as plants 



that are now or formerly were con- 
sidered to possess medicinal virtues. 
Blume (Eng. flower) has been gen- 
erally used to designate plants of 
large size or having unusually large 
or attractive flowers. This is shown 
in the case of Sonnenblume (sun- 
flower) and Glockenblume (Wild col- 
umbine). 

The word hund (Eng. dog) is found 
in* constant use to qualify the name of 
a plant that is very common, and is 
thus distinguished from another kind 
less familiar, or which it somewhat 
resembles, as is shown in the case of 
Hundsblume (Butter-and-eggs). 



LIST OF PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN NAMES OF PLANTS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING 

ENGLISH AND BOTANICAL NAMES 



Pemia. German 

Kitzal-grass 
Gauls-zwievel 



Schnitt-Iauch 
Wilder knoblauch 
Weinbottles 



Hopfen 
Bren-nessel 



Haaselwiirzel 
Schlangenwurzel 

Wegtreter 

Silber-grass 

Floekraut 

Buchweizen 

Halber-gaiil 

Sauerampel 

Wurmkraiit 
Melde 



Hahnenkamm 
Poke 

Ratten 



English . 

Grammeae 
Witch-grass 

Araceae 

Jack-iii-the-Pulpit 

Liliaceae 

Chives 

Field garlic 
Grape-hyacinth 

Urticaceae 
Hop 

Nettle 

Aristolochiaceae 

Wild ginger 
Virginia snake-root 

Polygonaceae 
Doorweed 
Knot-grass 
Goose-grass 
Buckwheat 
Curled dock 
Sheep-sorrel 

Chenopodaceae 

Worm seed 

Orache 

Amaranthaceae 

Red amaranth 

Phytolaccaceae 
Pokeweed 

Caryophyllaceae 

Corn-cockle 



Botanical 

Panicum capillare L. 

Arisaema triphyllum Mart. 

Allium schocuoprasum. not L. 

Allium vineale L. 

Muscari botryoides Mill. 



Humulus supulus L. 
Urtica dioica L. 



Asarum canadense L. 
Aristolochia serpentaria L. 



Polygonum aviculare l^ 

Polygonum erectum L. 

Polygonum pennsylvanicum L. 

Fagopyrum esculentum Gaertn 

Rumex crispus L. 

Rumex acetoselia L. 



Chenopodium anthelminticum L. 
Atriplex hortense L. 



Amaranthus paniculatus L. 

Phytolacca decandra L. 

Lychnis githago L. 



PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN PLANT NAMES 



145 



I' 



Penna. Geriiiau 



Christwurzel 

Goldwiirzel 

Wind roeschen 

Anemone 

Hahnenfuss 

Raute 

Glockenblume 



Maiapfel 

Blutwiirz 
Schellkraut 

Kresse 

Mustard 

Dotter 

Wilde Rose 



Wilde Erpeln 
5-Fingerkraiit 
Schampllanze 
Haasenklee 



Haasenklee 



Buttermoddel 
Kaespapple 



Veilchen 
Gelbe veilchen 



Fennel 
Pimpernelle 
Pastinake 
Gelbe Riieben 

Rumatiskraut 

Bux 

Briistthee 

Wuthkraut 

Wintergruen 

Milchkraut 
Milchkraut 

Winde 



Schwartzwurz 
Schafllause 



Gamander 
Katzenkraut 



£iig:Iisli 

Ranunculaceae 

Christmas rose 

Three-leaved goldthread 

Virginian anemone 

Rue-anemone 

Small flowering crowfoot 

Early meadow rue 

Wild-columbine 

Berberidaceae 
Mandrake 

Papaveraceae 

Bloodroot 
Celandine 

Cruciferae 

True' water-cress 

Hedge-mustard 

Ealse-flax 



Botunical 



Helleborus iiiger L. 

Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. 

Anemone virginana L. 

Auenionella thalictroides L. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. 

Thalictruni dioicum L. 

Aquilegia canadensis L. 



Podophyllum peltatum L. 



Sanguinaria canadensis L. 
Chelidonium majus L. 



Rosaceae 

Wild rose 

Leguminosae 

Strawberry 

Cinquefoil 

Wild sensitive-plant 

Rabbit-foot 

Geraniaceae 
Violet wood-sorrel 

Malvaceae 

Velvet U:'af 
Common malloAV 

Violaceae 

Bird's-foot violet 

Yellow violet 

Umbelliferae 

Fennel 

Y'ellow pimpernel 

Parsnip 

Carrots (wild) 

Ericaceae 

Spotted wintergreen 

Mountain-laurel 

Creeping wintergreen 

Conmion pimpernel 

Prince's-pine 

Asclepiadaceae 

Pleurisy-root 
Milkweed 

Convolvulaceae 
Bindweed 

Borraginaccae 

Com. Comfrey 

Com. Hound"s-tonguo 

Labiatae 
Amer. Gorniandor 
Catnip 



'asturtium officinale (L.) Rusby. 

Sisymbrium officinale L. 

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. 

Rosa licida L. 



Fragaria virgiuiana L. 

Potentilla norvegica L. 

Cassia nictitar.s L. 

Triiolium arvense L. 



Oxalis violacea L. 



Abutilon abuiilon (L) Rusby 
Malva rotundifolia L. 



Viola pedata L. 
Viola pubescens L. 

Foeniculum officinale Adans. 

Pimpinella integerrima L. 

Pastinaca sativa L. 

Daucus carota L. 



Chimaphila maculata Pursh. 

Kalmia latifolia L. 

Gaultheria procumbens L. 

Anagallis arvonsis L. 

Chimaphila umboUata Pursh. 



Asclepias tuberosa L. 
Asclepias obtusifolia L. 



Convolvulus repens L. 



Symphytum officinale T^ 
Cynoglossum officinale L. 



Teucrium cauadense L. 
Nepeia cataria L. 



546 

Peima. Geriii.iii 

•» 
Salvei 

Mutterkraut 
Balsam 
Eisop 

Wohlgemuth 
Quandel 

Judenkirsche 

Nachtschatteii 

Stechkraut 

Sowohren blaetter 

Fasanten-beeren 



Glockenblume 
Lobelia 

Wollkraut 
• Puttern 
Hundsblume 
Ehrenprels 

Blaiiberg-thee 

Rheinblume 

Olantswiirzel 

Bitterstengel 

Erdapfel 

Bubelause 

Maedlaiise 

Wilde Kamille 

Schaffrippen 

Kuhbitters 

Alter Mann 

Alte Frail 

Wermiith 

Pissbett 

Klapperschlangen Wurzel 



THE PEXXS YLVAN I A-GERMAN 

Euglisb 

Sage 

Oswego-tea 

Horsemint 

Hyssop 

Wild marjoram 

Creeping thyme 

Solanaceae 

Ground-cherry 
Black nightshade 
Jamestown-weed 

Plantaginaceae 

Com. Plantain 

Rubiaceae 

Parti idge-berry 

Campanulaceae 

Bellflower 
Cardinal-flower 

Scrophulariaceae 



Botauical 

Salvia oflRcinale L. 

Monarda didyma L. 

Monarda fisiuiosa L. 
Hyssopus officinalis L. 

Origanum vulgare L. 
Thymus serpyllura L. 



Physalis philadelphica L. 

Solanum nigrum L. 

Datura stramonium L. 



Plantago major L. 
Mitch ella repens L. 



Campanula rapunculoides L. 
Lobelia cardina'is L. 



Great ^Mullein 

Moth Waillein 
Butter-and-eggs 
Culver's-physic 

Compositae 
Sweet golden-rod Salidago odora 

Pearly everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea iL.) B. cV- 



Verbascum thapsus L. 

Verbascum blattaria L. 

Linaria vulgaris L. 

Veronica virsrinica L. 



Elecampane 

Roman-wormwood 

Jerusalem artichoke 

Com. Beggar-licks 

Spanish needles 

May-weed 

Com. Yarrow 

Com. Tansy 

Southernwood 

Com. Mugwort 

Wormwood 

Dandelion 

Liou's-foot 



L. 
H. 
L. 
L. 
L. 



Inula helenium 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia 

Helianthus tuberosus 

Bidens frondosa L. 

Bidens Bipinnata L. 

Anthemis couila L. 

Achillea millefolium L. 

Tanacetum vulgare L. 

Artemisia abratanum L. 

Artemisia vulgaris L. 

Artemisia absinrhium L. 

Taraxacum » taraxacum (L) (Karst.) 

Xabalus serpentaria (Pursh.) Hook 



The Old Days 



Good old times are an illusion and a 
snare, and the man who sighs for them 
has little conception of what they 
were. Return to them, would you ? 
Then rise on a cold morning and wash 
at the pump, put on a pair of rawhide 
boots that rival a tin can in stillness, 
pull on a woollen shirt over your back, 
and sit down to a bare meal with your 
three-legg-ed stool dancing around on a 



split-slab floor, eat corn pone and 
bacon for a steady diet and labor 14 
hours out of 24. Go without a daily 
paper, a fly screen, a mosquitor bar. a 
spring mattress, a kerosene lamp, gee- 
haw your oxen to market and sit on 
the floor oi an ox cart as you wend 
your way to church or a frolic. Parch 
corn and peas fo coffee and sassafas 
for tea. and see how you like it. — San 
Antonio Liirht. 



547 



The Lehigh County Fair 

By Ella J. Mohr, Allentown, Pa. 



O, praechtige, oh. Maechtige, 
Du Lecba County Fair! 
AVir lieben dich, vrir loben dich 
Du bischt uns grosse Ehr. 







EHIGH county is singular- 
ly blessed in this, that 
upon its yearly calendar, 
about the third week in 
September, it carries a 
holiday peculiar to itself, 
yet known and favored 
throughout many counties 
and states in the Union. This holiday 
is a combination of four days into one, 
and is called the Lehigh County Fair. 

To the dwellers in Lehigh county 
the Fair is as much of an epoch from 
which to reckon time and events, as is 
Washington's Birthday and the 
Fourth of July to people in general. 

It is a common thing to hear citi- 
zens in Allentown as well as our coun- 
try neighbors use expressions like 
these : — "Der Hiram is gebora in der 
Fairwoch ;" "die Sallie hut gkeiert in 
der Fairwoch :'* *'die kinner hen die 
raedla g'hat in der Fairwoch. so hen 
tiiir net in die fair geh kenna ;" 'Teh 
imd der John sin ^^lidnanner in die 



, 16 

die 



Fair gonga. und fun sella zeit awn 
cr regular mit mir gonga. und 
naechst fair hen mir gkeiert." 

The writer knows whereof she 
speaks, for she was born in fair week 
herself, and lias always taken pride in 
the fact. It has been like a double hol- 
iday each year, and ^vhen it happens 
that the anniversary falls on "Big 
Thursday" she can scarcely refrain 
from doing the Pharisee act and say 
to her fellow-man, 'T am l^etter and 
mightier than thou, because this day 
is in mine hon(»r, more than in y»^urs.*' 

There is a fair week fresh in our 
mind, about a year or two ago. when 
the Judge of our County deemed it 
his conscientious and dignified iluty 
to continue the session of court, being 
so nuich loftier a thing than the Fair. 



So black became the clouds sur- 
rounding the court house, emanating, 
not from the heavens, but from the 
faces of the Jury, the Prosecutor ver- 
sus the Defendant, the witnesses, 
down to the Janitor himself, that there 
threatened to be a F«"'urth of July dem- 
onstration in the middle of September. 

Then the Court laid off his judicial 
robe on ^I on day evening. — 
"Depart now in peace, go ye to the 
the Fair instead ; But spare your his- 
torical old Court house," he said. 

Incidentally it may be mentioned 
that tliis same Judge was seen each 
day thereafter at the fair, judging 
chickens in the morning: and drinkim^ 
pink lemonade on the grand stand in 
the afternoon. 

Fifty-eight years ago, when the 
Lehigh Agricultural Society was or- 
ganized by a body of men represent- 
ing each township in Lehigh, their 
most sanguine expectations did not 
look for results so remarkably success- 
ful, as the Lehigh County Fair has 
been. The first fair was held in Octo- 
ber 1S52. upon a five acre plot of 
ground located at Fourth and Wal- 
nut Streets in Allentown. the plot 
being enclosed by a "white muslin 
screen, seven foot high." The receipts 
of the first fair were $1200: the pre- 
miums paid to exhibitors S163, 
Larger grounds were secured the fol- 
lowing year in the X'orthern section of 
the city, which were occupied during 
thirty five years, when in iSSi') the pre- 
sent location in the extreme West end 
oi the city was selected and purchased. 
The present fair grriunds consists of 51 
acres, and is i»ne of the finest and 
m«^st \aliiable properties in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Touring the fifty ei^ht years of its 
existence, the year iS'O i< the only 
peri(^tl in which no fair was held, ow- 
ing to the civil war overshadowing 
our countrv. 



AS 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



The present receipts of the fair aver- 
. age about $50,000 each year. The offi- 
cers of the society at the present time 
are : President, John \\'. Eckert ; 
Vice President, Robt. M. Ritter; Sec- 
retary, Harrv B. Schall ; Treasurer, 
Alfred A\'. Dt'Long. 

We could wish no greater treat for 
our fellow-Pennsylvania Germans, 
from an educational as well as a rec- 
reational point of view.- than a visit 
of a full day to our Fair this year. 
The horse, cattle and poultry exhibits 



tors within its gates are made to feel 
free and equal, as one family, whether 
his station in the outer world be high 
or lowly. Together they can be seen 
munching Allentown peanuts, eating 
"doggies" snugly fitted within butter- 
ed rolls, and de\'ouring sour kraut and 
mashed potatoes as the "piece de re- 
sistance" of the whole fair. 

O, the odor of that S(jur kraut! 
while the remembrance oi it nause- 
ates us even now, yet it makes us long 
to hasten the day when ^\'e may expe- 




1809 RECORD RACE. PRIXCE .ALIU-KT. HEMOCKACV. AND CHORAL. TlNfE. -.00^2 



are worth the trip alone; the exhil)it 
of farming implements and machinery 
the floral display, and farm products 
to their minutest details ; the handi- 
work of our thrifty Lehigh County 
women, whether in needle work, pas- 
try or preser\-es. all are splendid exhib- 
its well worth seeing. 

The half mile race track and its 
wonderful records are almost world 
famed. Besides all this you w(^uld 
hear again your "mudder tongue" 
wliich you. perchance, may have al- 
most forgotten. 

One special feature the Lehigh 
County Fair !)oasts o\, — that all visi- 



rience that splenilid misery to our nos- 
trils again I 

Then there is the hotiey coated pop- 
corn, the pink lemtMiade. the pretzels. 
the ice cream cones, antl last, but not 
least all 'I'ho 1 lorlacher — Oaeufer Lie- 
bermann hop retreats where angels 
fear to treadtbut would like tiO. With 
this C(MigUMncration of edibles forced 
into ouv stomachs, in one day. noth- 
ing short of the h^iir's benignant guar- 
dian angel hovering mer us and 
Apothaker K lump's cholera vlrops 
could save us from an untimely end. 

In the gro\ e connected with the 
grt)unds. the be>i ban^ls in this section 



THE LEHIGH COUNTY FAIR 



49 



of the state give splendid cr^ncerts 
each day tu thousands of dehg"hted au- 
ditors. 

As for amusements at the fair there 
is no limit to their number and \ariety. 
The old fashioned fl^'ing- coach, has 
been replaced by the ferris wheel, the 
toboi^gan and the merry go rounrl. In 
the midwav are a hundred side shows. 



containing the mar\el«»us wonders of 
the world, not one of which is a fake, 
for fair visitors belicxe all they sec. 

The Lehigh County Fair we firmly 
believe is a fixture for all time, and its 
future successes can be measured only 
by its triumphs in the past 58 years fA 
its existence. 



Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 

By Cyrus Hamilton Williston, B. S., Shamokin, Pa. 



TADEUSKUND 




HE last great chief of the 
Delawares v/as Tadeus- 
kund. ^hich has been 
written about him and 
many ha\'e questioned 
his motives, but y'm a 
careful inspection of the 
facts , we are forced to 
the conclusion that in Tadeuskund the 
Delawares had a great and fearless 
champion, whose chief thought was 
the welfare of his people, and who 
sought by every means in his pt'jwer, 
to restore the Independence of his na- 
tion. In making these efforts he dis- 
played ability of the highest order, as 
a xliplomat and orator. 

Before he was raised to the statioii 
of a chief he had distinguished himself 
as a counselor in his nation. In 1750. 
he was baptized at the Gp.adenhiitten 
]\Iissi(:)n, now Lehighton. Carb(Mi 
County, by Bishop Cammerhott of 
Bethlehem, a ^Foravian. 

He ^^■as known pre\-ious to 1750. 
among the English, by the name of 
Honest J'jhn, his bai^tismal name be- 
ing Gide'"^n. At thi.-< time he was re- 
ceived into the Mi>ra\-ian Church, after 
some delay ''(n\-ing to his \\a\ering 
disposition." Shortl}- after this he was 
dnM)ped from the rtdls of the Moravi- 
an Missi(Mi. 

It was n(^t until 1754 that his r.a- 
tion called on him to assiune a nr.li- 
tarv command. The French were then 



stirring up the Delawares to aid tliem 
in fighting the English, telling iliem 
that if the English were permitted to 
go on as they had been doing, there 
woukl soon not be a f-jot of land f« r 
the Indians to live on. Whatever may 
be said of the attitude of Tadeuskund 
toward the English at that time, we 
must not forget that his position was 
a hard one for any man to assun-:e. 
He was the head oi an exasperated 
people. A people who had been 
robbed and cheated out of that which 
all men hold dear their native land.. 
Small wonder then that the hearts «-•: 
the Delawares warmed toward tlie 
French, and that he failed ^'U some oc- 
casions to gratify our government. 

Tadeuskund had many cnemic- 
The Munscys were especially jeal«:'us 
oi his friendship for the whites and 
accused him of double dealing. It has 
been said by Indians and wliites who 
knew him best, that the true secret oi 
his smuetimes wavering c«Muluct wa< 
the welfare oi his own nation. Thie 
great c»biect of his life was to rect^ver 
fn^n the Iroquois that dignity wliich 
had been wrested foni the Lenni-Lcn- 
ajH\ by the Six Xations. 

When Tadeuskund perceived tlia: 
the fortunes oi war were going against 
the French, he intimated to th.e Mo-a- 
\ians that he was willing to be re- 
cei\ed again into the Mission. T)v< 
the\' refused to allow him to do, and h.-. 



550 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAX 



'*no\v endeavored to destroy the peace 
and comfort of the Indian congrega- 
tions." 

The Christian Indians at Gnadcn- 
hiitten Avished to move to Wajomick, 
becanse that place offered what 
seemed to them, snperior advantages. 
In this idea they were encouraged by 
the hostile tribes, alHes of the French, 
who wished them out of the way so 
that they might attack the EngHsh 
frontier witli less fear of detection. 
Tadeuskund had been a leading pro- 
moter of this renioval. The ^^loravian 
Missionaries seeing what the result 
would be, wisely refused to go. Fail- 
ing to get the Christian Indians 
removed to AX'ajomick, Tadeuskund 
went to Philadelphia to attend a coun- 
cil of Indians, and English. On his 
return he again asked for the removal 
to A\^ajomick. The ^Missionaries agaiii 
refused to move unless the Governor 
of the State and all the Chiefs so 
determined. With this answer he 
was forced to be satisfied. 

By the influence of Governor Denny 
and Mr. Croghan, the hostile and dis- 
gruntled Indians were prevailed on to 
meet the English in a grreat Council 
at Easton, Pa. in 1756. A string of 
wampun Avas sent to Tadeuskund, 
and he was told to meet the council on 
^londay, as the whites never trans- 
acted business on Sunday. Tadeuskund 
was present at this council as the re- 
presentative of four nations the Chilo- 
hockies, \A'ananiies, ^lunseys and 
W'apingers. This celebrated chief 
gave on this occasion the following 
very pointed account of the wav the 
whites fraudulently ol:)tained the lands 
of the Delaware. On being asked by 
Governor Denny for the reason oi the 
late hostile movements of his natit^n 
against the whites. Tadeuskund re- 
plied. 

j "The reason is not far away, this very 

ground (striking it with his foot) was my 
land. It has been taken from me l.y fraud. 
I say this land (this was where the cicy of 
Eastou now stands, at the junction of the 
Delaware and Lehigh Rivers). I mean all 
the land lying between Tohicon Creek, and 
^Vyoming on the Susquehannah." 



"I have not only been served so in this 
state but the same thing has been done in 
New Jersey, over the river." 

On being asked what he meant by 
fraud?, he said — 

"When a man purchases lands from the 
Indians, and that man dies, his children 
forge the names of Indians to the deed, for 
land the Indians sold, this is fraud." 

Go\'ernor Denny asked him if he 
had been served in this manner? Tad- 
euskund replied : 

'"Yes. in this very province. All the land 
extending from Tohicon Creek, over the 
great mountains, has been taken from me 
in this manner, for when I agreed to sell 
land to the old proprietary, by the course of 
the river; the young proprietary had it run 
with a compass, and took double the quan- 
tity intended to be sold." 

The Indians were defrauded also in 
other ways, the famous '"walking 
Purchase," being an example. \\"hen 
land Avas sold by the Indians extend- 
ing in a certain direction, ''as far as a 
man can walk in a day.'* the point to 
be arrived at. must be left blank until 
some future day. This manner of giv- 
ing and receiving deeds, threw into the 
hands of greedy people, an advantage 
which they never failed to use. After 
the death of William Penn his dis- 
honest successors cheated the Indians 
on every hand. 

In one instance (the Walking Pur- 
chase) the Indians complained that 
the "Walker" ran. in another that he 
"Walked" after night fall. All of 
which was true. 

At a subsequent Council at Easton 
in July 1758 between the same prii^.ci- 
pal parties, the same charges we're 
mai.le arid pressed home. 

Again in October, at Easton. 175S. 
Tadeuskund demanded the deeds of 
purchases made, and that true copies 
be given to him for reference. He 
furtin-'r requested that a tract of land, 
be set apart for the Indians, with the 
distinct understanding, that nt> pur- 
chase or sale of same., be allowed in the 
fu: lire. In connection with this he 
asked that a first class trading post be 
established at Vorx Augusta ( Sun- 
burv). He also asked that a road be 



INDIAN CHIEFS OF PENNSYLVANIA 



551 



opened from Philadelphia to Shamo- 
kin (Sunbnry) so that goods might be 
carried by a more certain route than 
the Susquelianna River. 

Had the policy outlined by Tadeus- 
kund at this time been adopted, peace 
would have spread her white pinions 
over our frontier, instead of the dark 
and bloody ravages of a despised and 
injured people. 

At this time, however, a deed was 
executed releasing to the Indians a 
large amount of territory embraced in 
a previous deed of July, 1757 at Eas- 
ton. The whole difficulty ^^"as not 
settled by this grant, but was brought 
up again in 1761. 

At the Council of Easton 1757, 
Tadeuskund said, among some other 
things, in discussing the question of 
unsold lands — 

"As we intend to settle at Wyoming; we 
v/ant fixed boundaries, between you and us, 
and a certain tract of land fixed, which it 
shall not be lawful for us to sell, or you 
and your children ever to buy. We want 
boundaries put all around us, so thai we 
may not be pressed on any side, but have 
a certain fixed country for us and our chil- 
dren." 

To this Governor Denny responded. 

"As to the lands between Shamokin (Sun- 
bury) and Wyoming, the proprietaries had 
never bought them of the Indians, and 
therefore had never claimed them under 
any Indian Purchase; that he was pleased 
with the choice they had made and would 
use all means in his power to have those 
lands settled on him and his nation forever." 

The territory demaiuled by Tade- 
uskund and his people, comprised 
about 2.000.000 acres, and included 
in whole or part, the Counties of 
Union, Eycoming, F)radft>rd, Sullivan. 
Wyoming. Wayne, Luzerne, Colum- 
bia, ^^fontour and Xorthumberland. 

Hcnises were built for the Indians at 
A\'yoming and missionaries sent io 
them. The great chieftain, howexer, 
did not h^nc;" enjov his rest. His ene- 



mies were ever on his trail, and in 
1763. he was burned to death in his 
house, while drunk on liquor said to 
been sent there, to accomplish his de- 
struction. 

Within fi\e years after his death a 
treaty was signed at Fort Stanwick, 
whereby not only the Wyoming Re- 
servation was purchased from the In- 
dians, but a large tract of other lands. 
At the beginning of the Revolution 
there were no Delawares east of the 
Alleghanies. By treaty in 1789. lands 
were reserved to them between the 
Miami and Cuyahoga, and on the 
r^Iuskingum in Ohio. 

In 1818 the Delawares ceded all 
their lands to the government and re- 
moved to White river. ^Tissouri. to the 
number of 1800, leaving a small num- 
ber in Ohio. Another change followed 
in 1820, when 1,000 settled by treaty 
on the Kansas and Missouri rivers, the 
rest going south to the Red river. 
During the late rebellion they furnish- 
ed 170 soldiers out of a male popula- 
tion oi 201, to the Union cause: in 
1866 they sold their land and settled 
among the Cherokees where the main 
body now resided, merging with the 
Cherokees, small bands being scatter- 
ed about among the Wichitas and Kio- 
was. In 1866. by a special treaty, they 
recei\ed and divided the funds held for 
their benefit, and ceased to be regarded 
as a tribe. To a large extent they have 
given up their Indian ways and be- 
come farmers and herders. 



Bibliograithy : 

Archives of Pennsylvania. 

Drake's Inilians 01 North America. 

Proceedings Schuylkill Co. Hist. Soc. 

Vol. T. 
History ot Columbia Co. ( Freeze^ 
H»'ck welder's Narrative. 
Il)id. 
S'.niihsonian Keport 1SS.''>. Vol. 2. 



552 



The Bethlehems 

By Albert G. Rau, Ph. D., Dean of the Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pa. 



XOTE. — Tliis is tlie third ui our 
series of articles on the Scenic and 
Historic Lehigh A'alley. two havinj^ 
appeared in the ]\lay and June issncs. 
Other sketches are to follo\v. ^Ir. 
Charles R. Roberts in the following- 
lines dwells brietly on points of inter- 
est along- tr()lley line from Allentown 
to Bethlehem. ( Editor) 



ALLEXTOWX TO BETHLEHEM 

The line from Allentown to Bethle- 
hem is patronized more than any of 
the various lines of the company, as it 
passes that popnar pleasure resort 
''Manhattan Park." Before taking a 
glance at tliis ^lecca of the young peo- 
ple during the summer m»:)nths. men- 
.tion must he made of the State Hos- 
pital for the Bisane under construc- 
.tion a short distance to the right of 
the road, of wdtich much has l^een 
written recently in the newspaper 
columns. Along the turnpike there is 
almost a continuous line of dwellings 
between the two cities. 



^Manhattan I 'ark is a small Coney Is- 
land, and presents a beautiful scene 
when lit up by thousands of electric 
lights. It has a fine theatre which ha? 
attracted thousands this summer by 
performances of light opera by a stock 
company. Other amusements are a 
dancing pavilion, "shoot the chutes." 
temple of fun. nierry-go-round and 
many others including a sand pile for 
the amusement of the younger chil- 
dren. 

Erom the porch of the pa\ ilion can 
be seen one of the most beautiful bits 
of scenery in this \icinity. which in it- 
self attracts man}- i)erson.s to the busy 
[)ark. The Lehigh river flows sm->otli- 
ly along, paralleled by the Lehigh 
canal: in the background are the Le- 
high mountains, called by the tlrst set- 
tlers, the "Lehigh Hills." while be- 
tween them lies the fertile Geisinger 
farm as it is still called, one of the first 
first settled farms north o\ the moun- 
tains, where Solomon Jennings, who 
jKirticipated in the Indian walk of 
1737, settled as early as 1736. 



^•;^-^,^^^ 


• 




■• 


> 
1 


t 

} 

■3 

) 






A' 


J ^ 



r.KOAD stki:i:t nRinoK 



TPIE BETHLEHEMS 



O.'jG 



HE tra\-eler who ap- 
])r()ac]ies IJethleliem i)}' 
trolley tloes so over the 
heiLiln^. lie sees before 
him. spread out. the mit- 
line of what seems a larj^e 
cit}' centerini^. about tlie 
Cfjiiilnence '»f the Leliii^h 
Ri\-er and the ?vloiKicacy Creek, com- 
plete!}' filling- the valleys and sj^read- 
ing- in dignified solidity upward to- 
ward the hilltops, yes even touching 
toward the summit of the South 








]l 



^"^^ 









r 










'V r 



■';^'^ 



IL 



Jrt«i«;t ca.-*!>»^J«eik' 



MCiRAVIAX CHLKCH 

Mountain. What seems to be one 
eity, ho\ve\-er, i)ro\es to be four con- 
tinuous boroughs, which fate and in- 
ternal jealousy have do.^med, for ihe 
present at least, to separate corporate 
existence, and the misfortunes of in- 
ternal disagreements. huleed. until 
quite recently there were five of these 
municipalities, iov West r.ethlehem. 
into which the Liberty I'.ell tourisi en- 
ters first, was l)ut lately co^mlnr-cd 
with the old tc)\vn. So the tra\eller 



when he stands on the heiglits of the 
West side has bef'^re him the new re>i- 
dential portion of the town, connected 
to the old borough by means of tin- 
handsome IJroad St. reinforced con- 
crete bridge and to lii> right, on the 
other >ide of the Lehigh river, the b-^r- 
oughs of South IJcthlehem, clustered 
alxjut the smoking stacks <,»f the Steel 
Company, of Xorthampton Heights, 
be}'ond these industries, and of I-'(»un- 
tain Hill lying along the line of the 
mountain, and for the moment hid- 
den by the Reservoir Hill. 

Some t(3wns ha\'e grown by reas'>:i 
of geographical environment. s<'me 
through political necessity, but Bethle- 
hem \\as founded to carry t'Ut an altru- 
istic ideal. In the midst of winter a 
part}' of ])ioneers felled the logs and 
1)uilt a house that was to mark the cen- 
ter of an acti\e missionary propagan- 
da. On Christmas eve oi 1741. in the 
pe^wer of the emoti<_»ns awakened by 
the story of the Christ child this 
group of hard}- enthusiasts sang — 

Xicht .Jerusalem 
Sonderii Bethleliem. 
Vou dir kommei, 
Was niir fro 111 met. 

And hence the name. Two grand 
ideals had these first settlers: The 
one the e\angelization of the Indians: 
the other the unification of the war- 
ring German sectaries and settlers. 

l'\:>olish ideals I ^'es perhaps I Vet. in 
a wa}- they little dreamed of. the sec- 
ond of these lu^pes was accomplished, 
and toward the first they contributed 
the first spark of that growing human- 
ity that has entercil into the se^lr.tion of 
the Indian question. The mere an- 
nouncement i>i their plan quite natur- 
ally aroused the active c>np«»siiion of 
the entire I'ennsylvania German ele- 
ment ar»>imd them, devehn'jed spirit- 
ual fire and spread it. and. quite by the 
law oi opp<^sition. awakened the liigii- 
er life in the (ierman settlers in the 
State. As to ihe Indians, the fortnnes 
and misfortunes o\ the times soon 
drove them westward. P.ut where thev 



»54 



T H P: P E X X S Y [.V AX I A- G E R M A X 




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FIRST HOUSi: AT BETHLEHEM 
GEMETN HOUSE 

went, be it to Ohio, to Canada, to Kan- 
sas, went the ^Moravian worker from 
Bethlehem, and today the general gov- 
ernment, in treating them as wards, 
granted not always too wiseh'. is Lui 
following the lead of the little band of 
enthnsiasts who built their log hut on 
the slope of the hill above the famous 
spring that to this day supplies drink- 
ing water, now, unfortunately of ques- 
tionable quality, to the town. 

This first house stood just bac]<: of 
what is now the Eagle Hotel, on the so 
called ]\[auch Chunk road. It was re- 
moved early in the iQth century, but 
the forethought of several artists has 
preserved for us its appearance. Alum', 
this house were erected the buildings 
that the community found neces-^nrv 
for the prosecutit^n of its work. All 
of these buildings that reuTain to us 
today arc collected within tlie narrow 
area of a block close to the great wlite 
Church edifice .( 1806) on the c<^r!ier ;^t 
Main and Church streets. Just ])elun«.l 
the church building stands the Gemein 
Haus. built early in 1742. as a home 
and place of worship. 



FIRST SEMIXARV 

YOUNG LADIES SEMINARY 

The visitor wdio examines the exte- 
rior may be deceived by the weather 
boarding; but a moment's glance with- 
in will reveal the log walls and hand 
worked frames that betray its primi- 
tive origin. By reason of need this 
building was gradually added to in 
log and stone until it formed a long 
and rambling series of buildings, part 
of which at least form the shape of the 
usual German quadrangle so familiar 
in Saxony and Ba\aria. 
■ The left wing of the quadrangle is 
formed of the first church edifice ; the 
right wing is a part of the Sisters' 
I louse ; and the center, with tlie bell 
tower, formed the first home of the fa- 
mous girls school, now known as the 
Moravian Seminary n^r Voun"Li- Ladies. 
Xcarer to the church anil stnith oi it 
stauils. tiHlay, as part of the present 
buildings of the Young Ladies Semin- 
ary, the Brethren's House. This 
building has c-^me int.^ a national bis 
torical intere>t through its occupati<'n 
as a C(^ntinental hospital during The 
Revoluti'^nary War. Auvl to mark this 
important fact there has been placed 



THE BETHLEHEMS 



Upon it an elaborate tal)let reciting its ^ 
humane uses and its part in the allevi- 
ation of the sutYerinJ^^s of those troub- 
lous tinii. s, l\>day it is flanked by tlie 
more recent structures that form with 
it, the house of the Girls' Schrxd, an 
institution wdiose continuous history 
dates back to I7-|8. 

In its early history, for a period of 
hardly twenty years, the settlement 
was operated as an economy. For 
convenience in carrying out their plans 
one half the workers stayed at home io 
derive support from the land, whili the 
other half devoted themselves to the 
Avorks of grace. Hence the need of 
special buildings, when family hou'-cs 
were impossible. There were houses 
for married people, a house for un- 
married men, a house for sisters a nur- 
sery for young children, and schoi)Is 
for boys and girls. But there was no 
monastic system, no nunnery, and 
Longfellow's little poem hits very 
wide of the facts. And this system was 
a workiiie force for a short time onlv. 



The removal of the Indians after Tlic 
French War. and the awakening of 
spiritual energy among the Germans 
left Bethlehem, even before the Revo- 
lution, as a town with ideals but with 
no material upon which to work th.em 
out. Self contained it was to the d:;*- 
gree that, within it. e\'ery trade thai 
the times demanded was representee-. 
And thus for years it remained isc lated 
socially and politically, a community 
tuito itself, and as time passed on, it 
could not help but- find itself ov.t of 
sympathy with the sjjirit of the new- 
world around it. Just as naturally, 
and from within, came the reaction. 
The young men rebelled at artificial 
restraint when the outside world and 
its needs beckoned them. Whi^.e the 
actual economy dissapeared in ij' i- its 
effect on the lives of its people went 
out only in the early part of the last 
century. In 1830 it was that finally 
the gates were let down to outsiders ; 
then the jealously guarded land ren^s 
were abolished and property could '^e 













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M i; R AV t .\ N PA ROC H r A I. S C H 0<^ I. 
I'KliPARATORV SCHOOF. 



M r>K A \- 1 A N T H KOHH". I C A I. 
WATER WORKS 



THK PEXNSYLVAX lA-GER.MAN 



The waters <.)f the spring were 
driven through pipes made of the 
bored logs of young yellow pines i > 
stand pipes and reser\'fjirs on the hiU 
and thenee supplied to \'ari(ms h}'- 
drants on the streets of the town. I'iie 
power needed for this |)urprise was d.c- 
rived ironi a water wheel in the valle} 
of the Afonocaey Creek, aiid the Iniild- 
ing in. wdiich the pump was plaee<l stili 
stands as neighbor to that ^\hose pic- 
ture is here shown. 

This building, the present water 
works. \\'as for years an oil and then a 
grist mill. 

The presence of a water supply 
made possible more adequate protec- 
tion against fire and earl}^ in the 1750's 
a hand engine was purchased in Lon- 
don, through Philadelphia. This an- 
tique machine, dated 169S, is without 
held by individuals. It is from tiiat 
date then, and the later incoruoration 
of Bethlehem Borough in 1848, that 
the modern history of the town begins. 
\Mien the visitor strolls through the 
region of the old buildings he is in the 
18th Century; let him but step across 




OLDEST HAXD EXGtXE IX AMERICA 

the block and he imd> himself in a 
modern town. 

Xot the least interesting oi the his- 
torical matter connected with the old 
town is the fact th.at it contained what 
is possibly the firsc pumping water 
su[)ply in America. 



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LinUARV, LEHIGH LXIVERSITV 
DROWX HALL. LEHIGH I-XIVEKSIIV 



BISHOPlHOKrE MAXim 
ST. LUKES HOSPITAL 



THE BETHLEHEMS 



question the oldest fire engine in 
America. 

It is a pit}^ that tlie real interest that 
is attached to this rehc is not felt \)y 
the people of Bethlelieni at large; for 
it is kept in so inaccessiljle a place that 
the casual visitor can see it, only after 
much trouble and searching, as a 
much neglected relic in an out of the 
way place. 

Beside the ^loravian Seminary men- 
tioned earlier in this article Beth- 
lehem is the home of many other insti- 
tutions of education. The oldest 
school in the town, the ^loravian Pa- 
rochial School for Boys and Girls was 
founded in 1742. Its buildings, now 
entirely modern, are situated just back 
of the church and near the old ceme- 
tery. 

Xot far from the trolley, as you enter 
the town on the West side, arc tlie 
handsome new buildings of the P'')ethle- 
hem Preparati^ry School for Boys, and 
on the "slope of the mountain, in Foun- 
tain BJill borough, are the home and 
beautiful grounds of Bishopthorpe 
]\Ianor, a school for girls. 

There are also two institutions for 
higher training of men in the profes- 
sional walks of life. The older of these 
founded in 1806, is the Moravian Col- 
lege and Theological Seminary, a t}'pi- 
cal ''small college" \\h()se purpo^e is 
wholly humanistic. In the century or 
more of its existence it has sent out 
many men ^vhose careers have been of 
value to humanity, not only as cler;'-\-- 
men but also as la\v}-ers, doctors and 
business men. 

On the slopes of the South ^Fcnm- 
tain, alxn-e South Bethlehem, lies the 
large group of buildings that form the 
Lehigh University, originally endowed 
by Asa Packer, as an institution fc^r 
the training oi the young men of the 
Lehigh \'alley and ttxlay one oi the 
most noted technical and engineering 
schools in the country. Its interesting 
laboratories, libraries and sho]is are al- 
ways open f^)'r the inspection of the 
public, but the attention i^i the casual 
visitor must be called, particularly, to 



the handsome Library, built after the 

model of the famous Medici Library 

at Florence, and the Drown Memorial 

Hall, or students club, a building about 

which encircle all the events of the 

student world. 

The St. Luke's Hospital, the great 

public charity of the Bethlehems. lies 

in a beautiful park, just under the 

mountain, in Fountain Hill Borouijh. 

. . . 

Since the late jo's this magnificent in- 









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PACKKK H.M.L 

stitution has devoted itself to the ufe 
of the entire Lehigh \'alle}-. The li"^:: 
of those who ha\ e de\cued oi their 
means to its endowment is a long one, 
but Contains se\eral names that have 
become famous in the history in this 
region : Asa Packer. Ri^bert H. Sayre. 
Flisha 1\ Wilbur. R^-bert Lockhart. 

As to business enterprises that 
might interest the visitt^r tliere are 
many c»>nnectcd with silk and iron. 
whose establishments are scattered 
throughout the fi\e towns. Hut the 
life oi the ctMumunity is bound up 



558 



THE PEXNSYLVANIA-GEriMAX 



witb the fortunes of the Bethlehem 
Steel Co., This concern was chartered 
under a different name in 1858, and 
was begun as the Bethlehem Iron Co. 
in July i860. In the early 70's it began 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel 
rails, and in the 8o's it ^-entured int'.) 
armor plate and later into guns. To- 
day its plant lines the Lehigh River 
for a distance of over two miles, and its 
products are found all over the world. 



As the Bethlehem Steel Corporation it 
has gone into ship building, and is an 
active competitor for construction c i 
vessels for merchant or war purposes 
in all the markets of the world. 

Such is the fortune of life: The 
little village of idealists whose lives 
were devoted to the preaching of tlie 
gospel of peace, is now manufacturing 
machinery of Avar for the use oi th-j 
\A orld. 



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STEEIv WORK: 



Remscheid, the "German Sheffield," 
has only 60,000 inhabitants, but its 
area is as large as that of London. It 
is a great cluster of hundreds of ham- 
lets of pleasant aspect, as the hilly 
country is beautiful, and the houses 
are neat, and are surrounded by gar- 
dens. Every house is a wi^rkshop. 
wherein hardware of everv kind is 



wrought by skillful men. who we 



re 



born to the trade, as their fathers 
wielded the hammers and chisels ' for 
centuries before them. Steam, water 
and electric power are used every- 
where. The warehouses are in the 
center oi the town, surrounding the 
town hall, which is i^ne of the finest oi 
the many in German}-. There are 
twenty churches — Lutheran, Ref»^rmed 
and R(Miian — in Remscheid. — The 
Lutheran. 



Go9 



Heimbach Family 

Prepared by C. R. Roberts for J. A. Heimbach, Allentown, Pa. 




HE name of this family is 
found spelled in various 
ways, as Heimbach. Hime- 
bach, Himebaugh, Him- 
baugh, Himeback and 
Heinibach. The name is 
of German origin and the. 
founder of the family of 
which we write was Matthias Heim- 
bach, who arrived at Philadelphia on 
September 5, 1743, on the ship Char- 
lotte, sailing from Rotterdam, Holland. 
That he was a man of some education 
we know from the fact that in signing 
the oath 01 allegiance to King Geurge 
of England, he wrote his name, spell- 
ing it "^Nlattheis Heimbach." 

He settled in that part of old Phila- 
delphia county called Xew Goshen- 
hoppen, where he secured a warrant 
for fifty acres of land on ]^Iay 8, 1750. 
This land was situated partly in what 
is now Hereford township, Berks 
county and partly in Upper ^Milford 
township, Lehigh county. The Luth- 
eran, church of Lower Milford town- 
ship being one of the nearest places 
of worship we find his name men- 
tioned in the records of that church as 
a communicant on November 9, 175^. 
and again in 1754. Peter Heimbach 
also communed here April 22, ^l^'^^ 
November 9, 1751 and ]\Iay 10, 1752. 
This Peter Pleimbach probably was 
the same man who arrived in Ameri- 
ca on September 26. 1749. iu the ship 
Dragon, with 563 passengers from the 
Palatinate and Zweibruecken. 

Matthias Pleimbach died about 1756 
as appears from the following release 
recorded in Book D i. Page 116, of 
the Northampton County Court Re- 
cords: "David Heimbach. of l^ppcr 
^Milford township, wheelwright. Henry 
Heiml)ach, of Salisbury township, 
Peter Heimbach, of the district of 
Esopus, county of Ulster, state of 
New York, and John Gregory, of 
Smithfield township, county of North- 



ampton, and Elizabeth, his wife. 
(They being children, descendants ^A 
^latthias Heimbach (or else Ham- 
baugh) formerly oi said Upper Mil- 
ford township deceased,) Whereas, 
by a Proprietary \\'arrant, dated the 8 
of ^lay, 1750, there was granted t^) 
Alatthias lleimbach a tract of land sit- 
uated in Xew Cowiscopen, Philadel- 
phia county, but now partly in Here 
ford to\vnship, Berks county and part- 
ly in Upper Mil ford township, North- 
ampton county, bounded by lands of 
Sebastian Druckenmiller, Peter Eeder- 
olf. George Sailor, John Heistand. 
Adam Karcher and Jacob Christman. 
containing 74 acres. 67 perches, and 
after the death of said Matthias Heim- 
bach, Susannah, the widow and ad- 
ministrator by her own authority and 
not regular to the Law, a custom of 
Pennsyha., did by her Deed Poll da- 
ted 4 Januar}-. 1757. sell and CL>nvey to 
^Martin Shatter the said tract, and Mar- 
tin Shaffer conveyed to Conrad Shoub 
(as the present possessor) and Cath- 
arine Eck, and Catharine Eck on 
April 22, 1771, conveyed to Conrad 
Shoul) }^'j acres and 127 perches. Now 
the four children of Matthias Heim- 
bach. in consideration of forty 
pounds paid by Conrad Shoub, do re- 
lease unto him all right and title in 
said tract, ."v.. Signed. April 21. 17S3. 
(In German). l)a\id lleiml)ac]i. Hein- 
rich Heimbach. Peter Hciml^ach. (In 
English). John Gregory. Elizabeth — 
her X mark — Gregory. 

Of the children of Matthias Heim- 
bach, Da\ id Heimbach. a wheel- 
wright, lived and died in I'pper Mil- 
ford township. He made his will Sep- 
tember jS. 1805. bequeathing to his 
wife Gertrude, a lunise and six acres 
of meadow land behind the house at 
the mill dam," and eight acres of w«mhI- 
land, and to his son Weiulel his w hcel- 
wri^ht tools. He had six children, 



560 



THE PEXXSYLVAXIA-GERMAX 



Henry, David, Wendel, Elizabeth, 
Catharine and Christina. His will was 
probated ^lay 25, 1816, proving that 
his death occurred shortly before that 
date. Of his children, David Heimbach 
died of "Xervenfieber," November 6, 
1834, aged 56 years, 10 months and 10 
days. His sons, John and David died 
November 27th and 29th, 1834, aged 
respectively 31 years. 7 months and 9 
days, and 38 years, 2 months and 17 
days. 

Henry Heimbach, born Atig. 23, 
1749, died February 12, 1837, is buried 
at St. Peter's church. Upper ]\lilford 
township. His wife, Catharine, was 
born November 4, 1754, and died 
April 18, 1843. 

Peter Heimbach, who arrived in 
America September 26, 1749, was no 
doubt a brother of Matthias Heim- 
bach. A Peter Heimbacli appears in 
the tax list of Lynn township of 1762, 
taxed six pounds, in 1764. as a single 
man, and in 1773, nine pounds. This 
was perhaps the Peter of 1749 who 
commtmed in Lower ]\Iilford in 1751 
and 1752. It is possible that he re- 
moved from Lvnn to Northumberland 
county, where a Peter appears in 1791. 
This, however, is merely conjecture. 

George Henry Heimbach, born 
June 10, 1760, died June 10, 1S22. UKir- 
ried Catharine Nett. daughter of Ll- 
rich Nell", April 3, 1760, died April 3, 
1829, Plis name appears in the tax 



list for Lehigh township, Northamp- 
ton county in 1786, where he resided. 
He was a weaver, and is buried at the 
Indianland church of that township. 
Whose. son he was we cannot say as 
yet. By court records we have estab- 
lished that his children were as fol- 
lows : 

1. Peter Heimbach, living in Lehigh 
township in 1829. 

2. Daniel Heimbach, who was 
executor of his father's estate. 

3. Henry Heimbach. Jr., of Lehigh 
township, who died prior to 1829, leav- 
ing children, Peter, Catharine married 
to \\'illiam Hunsicker, Rerlinsville, 
^Nlaria married to Levy Knauss in 
Beersville. and Elizabeth married to 
Urbanus Hellick, of Nazareth town- 
ship. 

4. George Heimbach, who, on April 
22, 1823, petitioned the court for a 

guardiaii. as a minor over 14, and the 
court appointed Isaac Berlin as his 

guardian. 

5. Elizabeth Heimbach, married 
Isaac Berlin. 

6. }^Iar}' Heimbach, married Philip 
Anthony. 

7. ]\Iaria Catharine Heimbach. mar- 
ried Abraham Berlin, had 6 sons and 4 
daughters. 

8. Barbara Heimbach. married Jo- 
seph Keefer, of Bloom, Northumber- 
land Co. 



Margaret Weiser, Daughter of Conrad Weiser 

By William G. Murdock, Milton, Pa. (Great, great, grandsonof Margaret Weiser) 




bury, 
date 



Pa., i 
Aucr. 



VRGARET AVEISER, one 
of the daughters of Con- 
rad Weiser. was married 
twice. First to Rev. J. D. 
M. Heintzleman of Phila- 
delphia, anil after h i s 
death to Anthony Pricker, 
of Reading. In Deed 
Book A, page 307, at Sun- 

s recorded a deed i)earing 
II, 1775, from "Anthony 



I-Vickor, of the Town of Reading, in the 
County of Berks, in the Province of 
Pensylvania, InnlK>lder. and Margaret 
his wife (the saiil Margaret being one 
of the daughters of Conrad \\ eiser. 
late oi the tinvn of Reading aforesaid, 
deceased)." 

Antlu^ny Fricker was originally a 
Catholic, lie apj>ears as a taxable in 
Reading as early as 1750. when he was 



I 



MARGARET WEISER 



561 






taxed nine pounds. In 1762 he is named 
as one of the innkeepers of Read- 
ing (^lontgoniery's History of Berks 
County.) In 1766 his name appears 
among the eighty six citizens of Read- 
ing who addressed a memorial to the 
King protesting against a proposed 
change of Goyernment which had been 
recommended by the Assembly of the 
Proyince, which indicated a decided 
Tory feeling. (Montgomery's History 
of Berks County, page 659). His name- 
again appears among the list of sub- 
scribers to Trinity Lutheran Church 
of Reading in 1790-1794 (Fry's Hist, of 
Trin. Luth. Church of Reading, page 
286). ^Margaret Weiser Fricker lived 
to be 104 years old and neycr wore 
glasses. ]\Iary Fricker, a daughter of 
Margaret AVeiser Fricker and Anthony 
Fricker, was married on April 7,1805. 
to John Frantz, a hotel proprietor in 
Reading. She died in 1S24. After her 
death John Frantz married a widow 
Phillipi. John Frantz was born in 1781 
and died from the effects of a stroke 
in 1834 while preparing to go to Leba- 
non to purchase a hotel. The Frantz's 
were Swiss and belonged to the Bun- 
ker Church. John Frantz's father was 
Daniel Frantz who was probably one 
of the three children of John Frantz 
who were captured by the Indians in 
Tulpehocken Township in 1758, when 



the Indians murdered Mrs. P>antz 
during the absence of John Frantz and 
carried three boys into captivity. After 
several years two of the boys were re- 
covered. Their names were John and 
Daniel, names which ran through the 
Frantz family for many generaiions. 
Daniel Frantz had two sons and one 
daughter John, who married !Mary 
Fricker; Daniel, who married a I^Iiss 
Greenawalt, and was the father of 
Uriah, Theodore, Daniel, Lydia and 
Charles; and Elizabeth, who married a 
I\Ir. ^ledious, and who were the par- 
ents of ^Irs. Hannah Seville Fisher, of 
Middletown, Pa. Daniel Frantz's 
brother John (one of the two boys who 
were recovered from the Indians) 
settled in Lancaster county. Ex Gov- 
ernor Frank' Frantz of Oklahoma is 
descended from one of two brothers 
named Frantz who came to Pennsyl- 
vania about 1730. One of them 'after- 
wards removed to \'irginia, and it is 
from him that the ex-governor is de- 
scended. 

John and 'Md.ry Fricker Frantz were 
the parents of two sons and four 
daughters. One of the daugliters. 
Margaret, after the death of her moth- 
er was raised by Mrs. Snyder, widow 
of the ex-governor, a friend of her 
mother's. She afterwards married the 
late P. AV. Gray, of Sunburv.-Pa. 



The Making of Smith 



More than twenty years ago Prof. T. 
Guilford Smith, LL.D. of Buffalo, 
N. Y. began "to recover somewhat 
from the deluge of Time" in the way 
of information about his ancestors. 
Ever since he has directed the gather- 
ing of evidence etc., from all the essen- 
tial and available records of the old 
colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Po- 
land, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania following 
•this with similar investigations in 
England, Wales. Holland and Ger- 
many. The collection thus made be- 
came so large as to make its publica- 
tion complete quite impracticable, 
making in manuscript four volumes of 
imperial quarto size five to ten inches 



thick containing 1 182 pages and 700 
illustrations and exhibits. 

It contains records of the Smith fam- 
ily of Massachusetts of 1630 and forty 
six families allied thereto before and 
since that date among whom may be 
named the Clarke. Sylvester, Llo3*d, 
Brinlov. \\'ise, Eastquick. Bullock, 
I lowland, Xewland. Allen, Swift. Xew- 
berry, Ogden, Houlson. Lownes, 
Lowe, Hartley, Temes, Klincken, 
Williams. Levering, Baumann, Meng, 
CoUaday. Zell. and Tones families. The 
whole collection under the general ti- 
tle quoted above, has been placed in 
the custody of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 



56: 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 

O, Muttersproch, du bist uiis lieb " — A. S. 



On Der j.uiupa Party 
(A. C. W.) 

Kertzlich draiis beim Yockel Dohlet, 
Moryets frieh bis an der ovet 
Macht die Alt'ii liimpa partie, 
Sawg der ovver s'war'n sclimartie, 
Sin sie Kumma mit d'lumpa, 
Aermfolhveis, mit rechta Kliimpa, 
Flexa, willa, bow-woll, seida, 
Gut fur nix wie uff tz' schneida — 
Alta, frischa, langa. kortza, 
Weisa, bloha, robda, schwartza, 
Dippel-duhnich, grie eckschtehnich, 
Scbtraifa grawd un ivverbehliich, 
Kiprich-gehl un walniss lachticb, 
Kaes-un-latwerk dorrichschlocbtich — 
Wer kan all die farwa nenna? 
Duhn em scbier die awga blenna 
Won sie kumma mit d" lumpa, 
Aermfollweis. uff rechta klumpa; — 
Hussa, hemmer, reck un kitt'l, 
Dehl yusclit holwer, dehl bei'm dritt'l, 
Schertz un dicher, koppatziecha. 
Nix meh doh wie paar so wiecha, 
Unner-reck un alta frocka 
All in ^vink'l, all in blocka. 
Dehl mit fronsla, dehl mit folta — 
Kan die nahma net recht holta, 
Muss aerscht. denk ich noch der college 
For a biss'l lumpa knowledge. 

Sin sie kumma mit d" schehra, 
Kan sie schur fun weitem hehra; 
Kumma b.i -us alia ecka. 
Unna rufi" tun's Davy Fl':cki, 
Dehl fum Schtehberg ivver'm hivvel, 
Kiinima lu'.i in schuh un scht'.vvel, 
S"v.ar vo a^:eE; eig'lawda, 
Ginrt m" net so waer's yoVj. schawda, 
Won's aw ; 'ss*I schnait un regert 
Hut schun oft im dreck g'negert, 
KniPt u t fcit in si^ >a, wo. ha, 
Hut nix neies meh g'rocha 
Tzidder'm letschta welshkorn boschta 
Wert yoh doll un dawb im Koschta; 
Kumt m'r net boll aryets onua 
Huckt m'r ewich in d' loi.iia 
Sin sie kumma mit d" schehra, 
Yehdrie will sich evva wehra 
Wehra bis uff haut un lehwa 
V'ie der wehwer ivver'm wehwa, 
Wert net lang doh rum g'lohdelt: 
Dehl am trenna, dehl am rippa. 
Gehu die schehra glitchie-wippa, 



Schneida alles fei in riehma 
Neha's tzomma in so schtriehma, 
Wickla's scheh uff runda bolla, 
Wos sie bounsa won sie folia I 
Sin so froh, sie rolla, jumpa. 
Sir! mohl rechta cari)et-lumi.a. 

Gehn die schehra glitchie-wippa, 
Dehl am ti-enna, dehl am rippa, 
Hut aw noch dehl onra schehra, 
Duhn sich noch fiel aryer wehre, 
Schneida all die township lumpa, 
Fei in fetza, bleibt ken schtumpa. 
Kennt m'r's all uff schticker wehwa, 
Kennt m'r's on d' enner hehwa. 
Kennt m'r's township gons b'decka, 
Breicht's net bordich aw tz' schtrecka. 
"Wisst'r wie der Linny Modd'l 
Kertzlich heem is uhna sodd'l. 
War im schtedt'l, war g'ritta, 
Hut so schrecklich dorscht g'litta, 
Schtoppt an's Luscha, un so weiter, 
Waermt sich uff mit beer un cider, 
Wert'm dunk'l, fallt fum schimmel, 
Leit deit unner'm freia himmel, 
Uhna sodd'l. gaul un schpohra. 
War schier gar tzu mush fertrohra?" 
'Yah, der Linny,' mehnt die Billah, 
'Besseh macht eb lang sei willa. 
War mohl gut fer'n. branch net saufa. 
Kennt sei frah aw besser schnaufa. 
Debt mich net drockdiera lussa. 
Graicht'n bei d' lohsa hussa, 
Schitt'la bis die ribba Kracha. 
Deht's'm gevva mit der flacha, 
Deht'n in de rechta sodd'l 
Waer'r mohl'n woch mei Modd'l!' ' 

"Kan die Jenny, aw mohl schpotta, 
Hut als g'sawt: 'So robb'ltzotta. 
Hut 'n maed'l druvvel ghotta. 
Hut sich g'schemmt fer"m aigna schotta 
Hut sie als die nahs g'ring'lt. 
Hut uff alles rung' kling'lt. 
Hut g'mehut sie waer fun seida, 
Waer ehns fun d" hocha. gscheida. — 
Besser net tzu frieh g'piffa. 
Grickt so gaern die nahs ohg'schliffa."' 

"Gel. in's Ricka welschkornheisl 
Gnovvert aw so*n schtruvlich nieisl? 
Anyhow m'r hehrt so biss'l 
Yehders het sri aignie scliiss'l. 
Dehta net mit nonner essa, 
Hochtzich lieb waer longscht fergessa. 
Uvva druff waers: "Liohwer Augiisoht.' 
Hinnarum waor's: 'Altie Saimrusoht :' 
Aryeta huckta'n haas im peffer. 
Scherrt die leis un yawgt die Koffer: 
Waescht du was? Ich gaebt ken lev^y 
Fer der Joe un for die Bevvy. 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 



oc: 



Im lloekedahl 

Der Schnee is fort, es Freejohr kuinmt, 
Un 'sis jo warm schiim im Abbrill; 
Die froh Fessant so fleisig driinimt, 
Un oweds greischt der Wipperwill. 

Der Eechhaas un des Fensemeisli. 
Sie hoopse rum un mache 'n Laerm; 
Hornaesel baue schnn ihr Heisli; 
Die Eeme fliege rum bei Schwerm. 

Mer haert im Feld de Doddeldaub, 
Im Busch "m Thrush sei t'rehlich Lied; 
Der Weide dreibt schun greene Laub, 
Die Kerschbeem sin weiss mit Bleed. 

Der Bauerbuh is draus im Felt 
^lit Geil un Plug bal Dag un Xacht, 
Er schaft sehr hat for wenig Geh, 
Doch is er froh, un singt un lacht. 

Die Meed, so heebsch wie Flettermeis. , 
In greene Wisse rum spaziere, 
Un 'swaer jo werklich austerweis, 
Wann net ah Buwe bei "n waere. 

Die Maud un ich, 'sis unser "Wahl, 
Zu geh noch unser egne Bletz. 
De scheene Bletz im Heckedahl. 
Bedeckt mit Moos un Violets. 

Mir suche selle grumme Pehd 
\Vu Xachts de Ficks de Haase jage; 
Ach, 'swaer uns jo zu arg verlehd, 
Wann mer ken G'spass ebmols kennt 
hawwe. 

Mir schluppe dorch de Hecke, weit. 
Trailing Arbutus drin zu finne: 
Un veil zu schnell geht rum de Zoit 
Deweil mer Blumme zumme binne. 

■Mer dehte gleiche wieder lehnich 
Geh suche die Erbeere Bletz; 
Mer gingte ob so froh un ehnich, 
Un dehte awer gar nix letz. 

]Mir picke glei de rohte Beere 
Un achte net wie sie beflecke; 
Un duhne wieder karessiere 
Im Schatte vun de dicke Hecke! 

Als wann mer nescht bei nanner sin, 
Guck ich in ihre blooe Aage. 
Un seh ah Sache dief darr drin 
As sie zu blehd is mer zu sage. 

Ach. "sis mer doch en fremme G'schicht 
Dass wann als juscht en Humel brummt. 
De Maud verschreckelt ihre G'sicht 
In mei zwee Aeim, so oft as "r kummt. 

Ich haeb sie gern. weil 'sis mei G'flicht, 
Biss dann der Humel wieder geht: 
Ihr Hohr. deweil. schwebt n^.er ins G'sicht. 
So dick as wie wann's schneehe deht. 



Ach, ihre Lftse sin so wohr, 
Gedufte wilde Rose gleich; — 
Un nergeis woo sin sie in G' fohr 
So oft as wie in sellem Deich! 

Die Maud hut Backe roht wie Blut, 
Vn hut en Schtimm wie "n Xachtigall, 
Un ihre Kisses, wees ich gut. 
Sin Honig sees im Heckedahl. 



HENRY MEYER. 



Rebersburg, Pa. 



De Gute Olt Summer Tseit 

We seez is duch de summer tseit, 

Es Paradeis fu'm yorl 
En himmel's bild far ola leit 

Wu awga hen dafor. 

Wos pikters salt mer uf da bamel 

Mer kent net wun mer wut, 
Sel'r Rambo farba nakshi so sha; 

Sel wor de bond fun Gut. 

De londshoft. ei! gook yushd 'mol rum. — 

Dort wu der waetza rull'd! 
Sel shdik hut g'wis de summer sun 

Gons reichlich ol farguld. 

Wos lewa, seeza -bluna dob! 

We shna, dal rode we blood: 
We freindlich gookt's! Es mocbt em fro, 

Un gebt em frish'r mood. 

Un harsht de musik in da wis, 

Dort nava un da grick! 
Sel is der larch, fralich is 

Sei hallelujah shdik. 

Un doh um hous im oi)'l-baum 

Sin sing'r fun da besht: 
Uft weka se mich ous ma drawn, 

P'un sel'm guldomshel nesht. 

We leb. we sha. — denk yushdamol. 

We himlish far de leit. 
We harlich un mit lusha ful — 

De gute olt summer tseit! 

Duch sin mer harly donkbawr. yaw. 

Un glawga fun da hitz: 
De sun de kuchd u^is din un dar, 

Mer shwima sheer im shwiiz. 

Ov'r wun der winder kunit un bringt 

Sei bid'r reif un keld. 
Un net en anzich fugl singt. 

Gookt's we en shbookich weld. 

Noh winshd nu r far de summer tseit. 

Noh wor se ol l.^u kortz. 
Duch. besht fun ol. sin sela leit 

Mit summer grawd im hartz. 

From 'Solly Hulsbuck." 



5G4 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 

By Prof. E. S. Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 



D 



Announcement 

Annoimccnieiit is made of the forth- 
coming- pubHcation of Dr. Johann 
David Schoepf's Reise durch einige der 
mittlern und slidhchen vereinigten 
nordamericanischen Staaten 1783-84, 
Erlangen, 178S, 2 vols. Dr. Schoepf 
was a sur,i;eon in the German (U\'i$iun 
of the British army, who inmiechately 
after the estabhshment of peace set out 
t"rom Xew York and spent ten months 
in the examination of the coast states 
as far as St. Augnstine. He had al- 
ready done much good work in the 
study of Xorth American geology, ma- 
teria medica, fishes, meteorology, etc. 
His Travels is perhaps the best state- 
ment of the kind for the period imme- 
diately following the Revolution. The 
fir*t volume is gi\en up to Pennsyl- 
vania. Schoepf was as far A\est as 
Pittsburg — passing through the A\'y- 
oming country. Lancaster, Carlisle, 
Lebanon, etc. He was greatly inter- 
ested in mines, and is the best author- 
ity. I suppose, for the mining opera- 
tions of that time. The translation is 
the work of Alfred J. Morrison, editor 
of John Davis's Travels of Four Years 
and a Half in the United States 1798- 
1802. 

Subscriptions to be recei^•ed by Sam- 
uel X. Rhoads, 920 Walnut St.. Phila- 
delphia. 



The Select Bibliographv in the Au- 
gust issue of THE 'PEXXSYL- 
VAXL\-GERMAX, by Harriet C. 
Long, of Madist^n, X'eb.. is well worth 
looking over and studying. P.ut what 
is said about the taste may well l>e said 
about "selections"' — Xon disputandum 
gustibus rrhere is no disputing about 
taste.) Taste differs and so diK^s the 
choice of selecti(^ns. The comjnler of 
the bibliographv savs onlv the more 



truly representative books on the Penn- 
syl\-ania-Germans were selected. The 
question, then, arises whether Mrs. 
^lartin's "Sabina"' is more representa- 
tive of these people than either "His 
Courtship" or '"the Re\'olt of Anne 
Royle." It is believed that "Sabina"' is 
the weakest, the least art'stic and the 
least representaive of all her books — 
and the}- arc all misleading. At any 
rate, the reflective reader would like to 
know whence this seeming discrepancy 
in the selection. 

It is probably just as well that the 
dialect poems by "Uncle Jeff"' (Dr. 
Rhoads j have been omitted. P.ut a life 
of P)aron Stiegel. of stove foundry fame 
would have been entirely in place : 
there is one by Rev. Stein ; it is far from 
being an exceptional one. but it is the 
only one we know oi. 

The Bibliography is highly informa- 
ti\'e and enlightening, and is a contri- 
bution to things l^ennsylvania- Ger- 
man. 



THE GOSSAMER THREAD: Being 
the Chronicles of \'elleda. who un- 
derstood about 'the Different 
World." — By A'enita Seibert. Cloth, 
224 pp. illustrated by W. J. Benda. 
Price $1 net. Small. Maynard »^ 
Company. Boston. 10 10. 
The title of this book is somewliat 
peculiar and ingenious, but none the 
less appropriate. It was evidently pro- 
voked by a ]\issage from Walt Witman 
at his best "Till the gossamer thread 
you ding, catch s-Muewhcre. .O ! my 
Si'ul." A line, or two. from the same 
stanza is cpioted at the beginning of 
each chapter, and very fittingly. 

It w as the st*n-y o\ a sensitive, imagi- 
nati\e. German-.Vmcrican girl. She is 
an irrepressible question mark. She 
wants to know. When the oKl Christ- 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 



5bo 



mas tree was burned up 
usefulness had ceased she wanted to 
know 'where things go when they go 
away.' It is really a sort of study in 
child philosophy; it depicts the evolu- 
tion of a child's soul, though probabl}' 
an extraordinary child, when things are 
no longer true because father or mother 
says so. 

Chapters like "The Passing of St. 
Nicholas ;" "A Peep-Through Easter 
Egg," "At the Edge of the Fair-}' 
Ring," may give one some idea of the 
nature of the book. Sonic of the chap- 
ters were separately printed in tlic 
American ^^lagazine. The book is 
good, wholesome reading especial!}' for 
parents of unusual and precocious chil- 
dren. 



The Book News Monthly for August, 
1910, contains an article entitled "A 
Defiant Dialect: Pennsylvania-German 
in Fiction"' ; by Edward W. Hocker. 
The article is a timely one. It is inter- 
esting, but it is also full of misleading 
statements; only a few can be noted 
here. 

It seems the writer shows a decided 
lack of information, and writes from a 
superficial knowledge of his subject. 
His generalities are sweeping, and — 
like most generalities — will not hold 
true in a great many cases. Here is one 
of them: "They (the Germans) had lit- 
tle intercourse with the English set- 
tlers, and hence did not find it neces- 
sary to learn their language. They es- 
tablished German schools in connec- 
tion with their churches, and resisted 
efforts to open English schools. l)eliev- 
ing - that the inno\'ation threatened 
their religion." There is one religious 
sect, to say nothing of others, that has 
a history as noble and as important as 
that of any sect that has yet come to 
America, and the}' had more than a lit- 
tle intercourse wih the English set- 
tlers. The prolotiged correspondence 
between the Quakers and the 
Schwenkfelders proves this. 

And these sa.me people (Schwenk- 
felders) established academies soon af- 



ter their arrixal in America (1734). 
Put to say that any hostility was shown 
to English in any form or manner is 
not true. lnstructi(jn was given in 
English, Latin and German, etc. And 
the correspondence, still extant, in 
these languages among its members 
will put to shame the English, Latin 
and German of many an American col- 
lege graduate of today. These things 
are matters of record, of history, and it 
behooves the writer on such a subject 
to look them up. 

Here is another statement that hr>lds 
true in yet fewer cases than the f.:»re- 
going: "Besides the Lutheran and Re- 
formed adherents, there are among the 
Pennsylvania-Germans many members 
of the "plain sects.'' Dunkers. Menno- 
nites, Schwenkfelders and the like, and 
also the members of the two branches 
of the Evangelical Church, which is 
similar to the Methodist Episcopal. In 
the services of all these denominati«»ns. 
Pennsylvania-German is the prevailing 
speech."' Xor is this statement true. 
The Schwenkfelders have never used 
the dialect in any way in their church 
services. The writer of the article 
might have informed himself thus had 
he attended some of their church ser- 
vices : if he had he would in^t have writ- 
ten what he did. One makes bold to 
say that when he wrote this paragraph 
he did not know what he was writing 
about. 

Just why a Pennsylvania- German 
should l)c made ti"* say "Keiuisht du 
mir en Check casha fir twenty-three 
dollars imd seventy-five cents" instead 
of "Kennsht du mir en Check casha 
fer drei und zwonsich dawler und fini 
und sivezich cent?" is hard to under- 
stand. r>ut does not the characteristic 
Pennsylvania-German say "dawler'" in- 
stead v4" "dollars" every time? 

That the Pennsylvania-German dia- 
lect is defiant, is true. Rut is it an}- 
more defiant than other dialects? Tiie 
ad\erse criticism shiwvereil so unspar- 
im^ly upon the writers of the Southern 
dialect, like Cable and Page, would in- 
dicate that those writers fared no bet- 



566 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



ter than those who employed the Penn- 
sylvania-German dialect. All dialects 
are more or less defiant; it makes no 
difference how you attack them. People 
are loathe to give them up because of 
their brevity and emphasis. We are in- 
clined to believe that the Pennsylvania- 
German has held on to his dialect not 
so much to show defiance to any lan- 



guage but rather because his dialect^ 
like all dialects is free, Hexi-ble, and em- 
phatic. You can say exactly what you 
mean, and do it in a very few words. 
Irle has held on to it with his Anglo- 
Saxon tenacity because of its brevity, 
ease, adaptability, and emphasis, rather 
than because of his hostility to things 
non-German. 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



IJ 



Historic Flag on Exhibition 

Washington's Headquarters Flag. 
one of the few remaining from the War 
of the Revolution and one of the most 
interesting, has been put on exhibition 
in the \"alley Forge ^vluseum of Amer- 
ican History. This museum, founded 
only a little over a year ago, already 
owns A\'ashington's Marquee, the tent 
which he used throughout the war of 
the Revolution, and now with it is ex- 
hibited the flag of the Commander-in- 
Chief. This is owned by Miss Frances 
B. Lovell, and is placed on exhibition 
by her. Miss Lovell is a descendant of 
Betty Lewis, Washington's sister. 

For years the flag has been a treas- 
ured heirloom in ]^Iiss Lovell's family, 
and few have known of its existence. 
Upo^i her father's death she became its 
owner. It was known to the family as 
"Washington's Headquarters Flag.'* 
That it is the unidentified flag of 
Peale's portraits there can be no doubt. 
The flag of one picture is a blue jack 
of thirteen stars. The flag in the \'al- 
ley Forge ^Museum is a light blue silk 
jack with thirteen stars, the blue faded 
and the stars }-cllow with age. The 
flag is thirty - six inches long and 
twenty-eight inches wide. The heail- 
ing is of liome-spun with three eyelets 
-worked with thread. The stars are 
six-pointed d<">ul)le stitched, and the 
silk back oi them has been cut out to 
show the stars on both sides. The 

in a circle, but 



lines following the crosses of the Brit- 
ish flag. This seems to have been 
the earlier mode of arrangement. 

The large headquarters tent was 
purchased for the \'alley Forge Muse- 
um at a cost of $500. \\'ith it have 
been presented the jointed poles, tent 
pins and even the leather carrying" 
case. The tent was exhibited for years 
in the national museum. 



stars are not arramred 



Snyder County Historical Society 

The people of Snyder county in gen- 
eral and the members of the Snyder 
County Historical Society in particular 
are highly indebted to Register & Re- 
corder Edwin Charles and County 
Commissioners' Clerk. Irwin I. Freed. 

A\'hen the Society was chartered in 
1899, t^"'^ County Commissioners gave 
the Society a room in the Court House 
to store old newspapers, books, relics, 
etc. 

Many books and newspapers were 
donated to the Society by friends and 
publishers and no mone>' has as \-et 
been prtM'ided to biutl the tiewspapers 
and arrange them. The consequence 
was that the papers, books, etc. were 
in a jungled mass. 

The two popular official above 
named waded thnnigh tlie mass of ma- 
terial and stacke*! un the newspapers 
in one siile *'t the nv^m and built 
shehes on the other sid.e upon whicli 
the books were put. 



HISTORICAL xNOTES AND NEWS 



567 



The newspapers of Snyder county 
for the past forty or fifty years are 
stored in this room. They are folded 
and tied in bundles and represent Sny- 
der county's history in complete detail 
just as it was written when the e\'ents 
were fresh in mind. From a historical 
standpoint these newspapers are of 
great value, but without being bound 
in stiff binding- and arranged chrono- 
logically the data is not available and 
is absolutely worthless. 

By an act of the Legislature the 
County Commissioners may appro- 
priate $200 per annum to the historical 
society for the purpose of purchasing- 
books, binding newspapers and for the 
general purposes of the historical so- 
ciety. 

The preservation of this data is of 
importance to every tax payer of the 
county and the full appropriation of 
$200 per year for several years would 
put the data in shape that later a smal- 
ler amount would be sufficient to take 
care of the work. 

The membership of the Snyder Coun- 
ty Historical Society is small and it is 
not right that a few should pay for this 
expense. The County Commissioners 
would be fully justified in appropriat- 
ing $200 per year in order to get the 
neixspapers systematized and bound. 

We trust the County Commissioners 
will take cognizance of this public need 
and appropriate the money needed be- 
fore the- papers are so baiUy used up as 
to render them valueless. 

— ^liddleburij Post. 



The Minnesota Historical Society 
organized in iSk), the same year with 
the bes^inning of ^^linnesota as a terri- 
tory, has accumulated a Library ot 
98.387 titles, which stands in the fn^it 
rank, as to its extent and value, among 
the hist(^rical libraries of the I'nited 
States. It is in the new capital, and is 
a free reference library, (^pen dail\- t<) 
the public fn^m 8:30 a. m. t<-t 5 ]\ m. 

The Society has taken special care 
to obtain all published tcnvnshi]-* his- 
tories and familv "enealoijies oi the 



United States and Canada. Of town- 
ship and strictly local histories (but 
not including county and state histor* 
ies, nor biographies), the number of 
bound volumes in the Librar\- for 
Maine is 146; Xew Hampshire, 1S8; 
V^ermont, 52; Massachusetts, 1.012; 
Rhode Island, 88; and Connecticut, 
190; with considerable numbers for 
Xew York, Xew Jersey, F'ennsylvania. 
and all the states, so far as these spec- 
ial histories have l)een published. 

Of American genealogies, this Li- 
brary has 2.020 bound volumes and 
1,017 pamphlets, besides many books 
in this class published by societies, 
others giving genealogies of many 
families collectively, and the genea- 
logical parts of township histories. 
These collections, free for the use of 
readers and students, are much con- 
sulted for tracing lines of ancestry. 

The Minnesota department oi the 
Library, relating particularly to this 
State, includes 1.895 hound books, and 
about 1,600 pamphlets. 

Another department which is much 
consulted is the complete series oi re- 
ports of the United States Patent Oi- 
fice. All the publicatio'.is of our na- 
tional government are received gratui- 
tously, this being a designated deposi- 
tory library. 

Files oi nearly all t!ie newspapers 
published in Minnesota as a territory 
and state, since 1840, have been gath- 
ered and jireserved by this Society. Its 
number of bound newspaper volumes 
at this date is 8.r)03 ; and its number of 
Minnesota newspapers, daily, weekly. 
and niL^nthly regularly received, is 426. 
these being ch^natetl i^y the editors and 
publishers, who appreciate tlie impor- 
tance of ha\ing them placed on file 
where they will be pre>erved i^*r all 
coming time. This department of the 
library is a j>riceless treasury of ma- 
terials for future historians. slu">wing 
the devel'ipmeni vi Minnesota, of its 
counties, and k^i its separate town- 
ships, from their beginning to the pre- 
sent date. The ne\vspai>er ct'»IlecTi«"'n 
is accessible to all who wisli to c*.>nsult 



»68 



THE PEXNSYLVAX lA-GERM AN 



it,, and is so arranged that any paper 
of any date can be readily found. 

The Societ}- desires and is grateful 
for gifts of books, pamphlets, news- 
paper files, maps, manuscript narra- 
tives, diaries, letters of historical inter- 
est, and original documents of ever^ 
sort which may throw light on the 
history of any portion of the United 
States, and particularly of Minnesota 
and the Xorthwest. Especially it is 
desired to obtain all new publications 
of township or other local histories and 
of family genealogies. 



Kittochtinny Historical Society 

Residents of the Cumberland val- 
ley are proud of the history of "the 
garden spot." Xot saying that this end 
of the world is not in a measure up to 
date, but it is true that more happened 
hereabouts during the nineteenth cen- 
tury than has so far happened in the 
twentieth. The tribe of Indians which, 
tradition says, inhabited this section 
was known as the Kittochtinu}-, and 
the mountains running on the Avestern 
side of the great valley are still offi- 
cially known as Kittatinny, and there- 
fore the historical society which is do- 
ing so much to preserve the history 
and tradition of the valley is known as 
the Kittochtinny Historical Society. 
The society is now in its thirteenth 
year and has'^'grown until at present it 
numbers in its membership dozens of 
men who are prominent in the pri^fes- 
sional and business life of their com- 
munities. The founder of the Society 
was Dr. S. A. Martin, principal (^f the 
Cumberland valley state normal school 
at Shippensburg. The present (Officers 
are J. S. ^NFcIlvaine, president: Colonel 
James R. Gilmore, secretary, and T. 
M. Wood, treasurer. Monthly meet- 
ings, excepting during the summer 
months of members are held, and at 
each meeting some paper on valley 



history is read and made a part of the 
archives of the society, which are pre- 
served in Ijook form, the fifth bo<ik 
being now in the hands of the binrler. 

The society's historians have been 
George O. Seilhamer and 'M. A. Foltz, 
the latter the nestor of valle}' journal- 
ists, and even at an age in advance of 
the three-score-and-ten mark, a daily 
worker with the pen. ^Ir. Foltz. who 
for years conducted the weeklv Public 
Opiiiion. has been out of acti\-e jour- 
nalistic work for a decade, but has 
never ceased his activities in writing 
and securing facts on valley history. 
He has also prepared a nujnber of pa- 
pers for the society. The Kittoch- 
tinny Society proposes during the next 
few years to place markers of appro- 
priate design at places of historical in- 
terest in the county. The first work 
of this sort was when there was un- 
veiled, not long ago. a marker at the 
point at the foot of the South moun- 
tain, near 3kIont Alto, where Captain 
Cook, the John Brown aide was cap- 
tured. ^Markers will be placed at the 
sites of the several forts which were 
important strategic points in the west- 
ward advance of civilizatii^n in the 
eighteenth centur}-. Harriet Lane 
Johnson, niece of President P)uchanan, 
anticipated the society in marking the 
birthplace of Pennsylvania's only pres- 
ident by providing in her will for a 
marker. at Stony Batter. 

Probably no section of Pennsyl- 
vania, prior to the Avar oi the rebellion, 
turned out more men oi prominence in 
state and national atYairs than did the 
Cumberland \alle\'. which numbered 
in its list a president, one of the first 
senators from Pennsyhania and sev- 
eral later senators, a g«nernor of the 
state, numerous cabinet members, sev- 
eral ambassadors to fiM-eign countries. 
judges of the supreme court, ar.d so 
on down the line. 

— The Xorth American. 



569 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 

Conducted by Mrs. M. N. Robinson. Contributions Solicited, Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 



n 



A List of Marriages and Deaths 
William Summers, Librarian of the 
Historical Society of Montgomery 
County, Pa:, has made a list of mar- 
riages and deaths published in the 
"Norristown Herald", from 1816. to 

1834. 

Marriages nearly 1000, Deaths 
over 500. The names and date of the 
decease of quite a number of Revolu- 
tionary Soldiers are given. • 



A Noted Scion of the Germans in 
Ireland 

Dr. Robert Ellis Thompson, Presi- 
dent of the Central High School of 
Philadelphia, Pa. is of English Quaker 
descent with the exception of his ma- 
ternal grandmother, who was a Ger- 
man, one of the Palatines who found 
a home in Ireland after the desolation 
of their countrv bv the armies of Louis 
XIV. 



HefFelman Family. 
Paul PTeffelman, Ocean Beach, San 
Diego, Calif, writes as folows : 

"I am trying to trace the descendants 
of my great-great- grandfather, Ar- 
nold Hoevelmann (1749-1814) who 
came to America in 1777 with Gen'l 
Lafayette under whom he served in the 
Revolution, afterwards settling in 
Pottsgrove, Pa. now Pottstown, I am 
told." 

If any subscribers can supply data 
about the family they will confer a 
great favor bv comnuniicatim^ with 
Mr. Heffelman.^ 



Who Was David Weiser? 

Who was David ^^'eiser oi Oley, 
Berks Co.? His name is found in the 
Oley tax lists as early as 1752. Tradi- 



tion says he belonged to the Conrad 
AVeiser Family. I should be very 
thankful if some one could furnish the 
necessary data to establish this claini. 
To David Weiser and his wife Chat- 
rina were born the following children. 
Christian, Rosina, John. Anna, Su- 
sanah married to Abraham Hoch, 
Daniel 1748-1773. Names are spelled 
as found on documents. 

(Rev.) JXO. BAER STOUDT. 

Emaus. Pa. 



Binkley Data 

In reply to John Binkley. 

Register's Office, Lancaster A. p. 173. 

Will of John Binkley. (in German.) 

Wife, Barbara. Eldest son. John, 
other children mentioned, names not 
given. 

Will signed. April 23. 1749. 

Proved, ^Nlay, 6, 1749. 

Register's Office. C. p.413 
Will of Henry Binkley. oi Lampeter 
township. 

Wife, Fronica Herr. Son David. 

Signed. Xov. 15, 177'"^. 
Proved. Xov. 25. 1776. 

Register's Office. 
Will of Henry Binkley. of Cocalico 
township. A\'ife, Elizabeth. 

Eldest son. Plenry. John. Samuel. 
William, Benjamin. 

Signed. Feb. 10. 1816. 
Proved, July q. i8i<'\ 
'm. X. R. 



A Yoder Inquiry 
Prof. Fred R. Yoder oi Hickory. 
X'orth Carolina in subscribir.i:: f<'r 
THE PEXXSVL\'.\XL\-GERMAX. 
says: *T ha\ e recently come across 
some copies of THE PEXXSYL- 
\'AXIA-GERM.VX and think it i> a 



70 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



great publication. My ancestors were 
of the Old Pennsylvania Dutch. I 
am now engaged in writing a history 
of the Yoder family in this part of 
North Carolina. I find that Conrad 
Yoder our original ancestor stopped 
for about three 3-ears somewhere in 
Penna. after landing at Philadelphia. I 
have been thinking that maybe I could 
find out through you from just where 
he- came. The greater evidence is that 
he came from Switzerland about 1750 
or 1751.'' 

If any of our readers are able to put 
Professor Yoder on the right clue we 
shall be very glad to hear from them. 



Mrs. Harriette Krider Schroeter. 

Mrs. Harriette Krider Schroeter, 
Philadelphia I^a. on Sunday, }^Iay 15, 
1910, passed to the "Peace, perfect 
Peace," of a better world, at the ad- 
vanced age of ninety-three years. 
Mrs. Schroeter descended maternally 
from a German family of excellent 
standing. Her father was Philip Kri- 
der, of Swiss ancestry, \\ho was born 
August 25, 1755.- He entered the Rev- 
olutionary Army as a private soldier 
when in his twentieth year, and served 
a number of terms of enlistment. He 
was at the Battle of Long Island. Au- 
gust 27, 1776; was taken prisoner at 
Fort Washington, Xovember 15, 1776; 
was released on parole, February, 1777, 
and afterwards exchanged. He was 
enrolled May 21. 1777, in Captain John 
Santee's company. Fifth Battalion, 
Nortliampton County Volunteers, 
commanded at that time by Colonel 
Peter Keichlmer. He re-enlisted June 
15, 1780.^ in Captain Jt^hannes \'an 
Ftten's company, Fifth Battalion, 
Northampton County \\>lunteers; and 
he was marked present for duty 1781. 
He was in the Battle of Germantown, 
and was with Washington at \'alley 
Forge, where he was at one time 
ol)lige(l to pass three days without 

foCKl. 

He was twice married. \]y his first 
wife, Elizabeth Gramlich. ' he had 
eight children. 15 v his second wife, 



Harriette Weaver, whom he married 
in 1806, and whose senior he was by 
twent}'-six years, he had eight 
daughters, of whom Harriette. the sub- 
ject of this notice, was born December 
13, 1817, and married ■ to Philip K. 
Schroeter, December 9, 1841. 

Note by Editor. — Keichlmer should 
probably be Kichlein. , 

— American ]\[onthly ^lagazinc, July, 
191Q. 



Caspar Elias Diller 

Reading Aug. 13. 1910. 
Prof. H. W Kriebel: 

Dear Sir: You may judge of my 
surprise, when after reading in the 
sketch of the Diller family that nothing 
could be found in Rupp, I determined 
to examine for myself and found it all 
there. I now send it to you. in the 
hope that you will publish. There is 
another matter about which I say 
nothing in this. Unless Dr. Egle has 
been deceived and imposed upon, Cas- 
par Elias Diller snr. is not buried at N. 
Holland, but at the Hill Church near 
Annville. In the History of Dauphin 
and Lebanon. Dr. Egle publishes 
names of those Imried there and has 
this Caspar Elias Diller buried June 
-5' 1796. aged 91. evidently meant to 
be born 1696. for according to the age 
given when he came in 1733 he was 
born i6t)6. This wouhl place his death 
about 1787. 

If those interested in the history of 
Casper Diller. (his full name is, Cas])ar 
Elias), will carefully examine Rupp's 
30.000 names, p. 85, and compare it 
with \'ol. X\'H. oi Penna. Archives. 
pp. yj, 79. 8j. they will find the fi^lhnv- 
ing facts, ior which they ha\-e been 
l(H^king for a long time. 

Caspar Elias Diller, aged ^^~. with 
his wife .\nua lUirbara. ageil 30. came 
to Philadelnhia. on the Ship Samuel of 
London. Hugh Povoy. Masier. and 
(lualifiod. Aug. 17. 1733. They brought 
with them four children, viz.. Philip 
Adam, aged to. Hans Martin. 8. Rosi- 
na, 4 and Christina. 2. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 



571 



As John Adam (Han Adam) Dein- 
ing-er subsequently (1747) married Ro- 
sina Diller, it may be of sufficient im- 
portance to -add, that the same vessel 
broug-ht Leonard Deininj^er, aged 39, 
Maria Crete (Margaret) Deininger, 40, 
Hans Adam Deininger, 11. Barbara 
Deininger, 9, Catharine Deininger, 2. 
Rupp states, \vhat every one who reads 
the 291 names can see, that they were 
Pfaeltzer, i. e. Palatines. 

Perhaps a word in regard to the rea- 
sons why these things have not been 
noticed l)efore, may not be out of place. 
It is not the first time in our experi- 
ence, that the miserable spelling of a 
clerk, or the vanity of a compositor, 
has concealed a man's real name. The 
fact that the name of Barbara Brobst, 
or Probst, mother of John ^lichacl 
Brobst, is spelled Brofpts, and that 
Deininger is turned into Tyminger and 



Tinninger and who knows what not, 
ouglit to explain the whole matter. 
We will then understand why Diller 
was not suspected to lurk under Thic- 
ler. Thaler, Tayler and even Gayler. 

It might be of sufficient historical 
interest, to give the marriages in this 
family as given by John Caspar Stoe- 
ver. 

May 7, 1745, Philip Adam Diller, m. 
Susanna Hantz. Modence: 1747. Rosi- 
na Diller m. John Adam Deininger. 
This is not in Stoever's but in Bind- 
nagel Church Record, Xov. 14. 1748. 
Eleanora Diller m. John Schweickhard 
Imboden, Xov. 24, 1757. Juliana Dilier 
m. John X'iklas Brechbiel. Xov. 24, 
1757, Mary Magdalena Diller. m. Se- 
bastian Xagcl. Apr. 14, 1756 Caspar 
Elias Diller, m. Eva Magdclena 
]\Iever. 

T. W. E. 



' 



1 1 


The 


P-G Open Parliament, 


THE FORUM 

Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications 


ln\-ited 















MEANING OF NAMES 



By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M.,Ph.D. 
[EDITORIAL XOTE. Dr. Fuld 
has kindly consented to give a brief 
account of the derivation and meaning 
of the surname of any reader who 
sends twenty-five cents to the editor 
for this purpose.] 

50. BROXG 
The surname BROXG is deri\ed 
from an old English word meaning a 
sh^rp point or a sharp pointed instru- 
ment, especially one consisting of sev- 
eral points wliich make up a single 
larger object. Later the word was ap- 
plied specifically to a hay fork and the 
surname came to denote a farmer or 
user of a hay fork. 

51. BOUCHER 
BOLXHER is a corruption of the 
French word BOLCHOXXIER which 



means a cutter of cork trees. The sur- 
name was applied not only to the cutter 
but also to the dealer 'in cork. 
BAUCHART, BAUCHERT and 
BOUGARD are variants of the same 
surname. 

52. WEISER 

W'EISER is a German surname 
meaning "a wise man" and "a good 
counselU^r." It is a surname of com- 
paratively modern origin. (See Xathan 
der W'oiso.) 

53. KRET.S. 

KREr)S may be either a surname of 
occupation or a nickname in its origin. 
The word KREliS means a crab and 
the surname accordingly siMuetimes 
means a crab fisherman or a dealer in 
crabs. This derivation however is very 
unfre(|uent. More often KRl-'P^S is a 
nickname and as a nickname il has 
three distinct meanings. KREliS 
means a cancer and the surname is ac- 



572 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



cordingly sometimes applied to one 
who is afflicted with this disease. A 
derivative meaning is seen in the fact 
that KREl)S was often appHed to a 
profligate or any one who by reason of 
profligate living became infected with 
disease. In modern times KREBS has 
been . sometimes applied to a person 
who by reason of too frequent indul- 
gence in alcoholic liquors has a red or 
florid complexion, similar in color to 
that of a crab after it has been boiled. 
LEONHARD FELIX FULD, Ph. D. 



The ''Dutch" at Harvard 

Among the evidences that the 
"Dumb Dutch" are receiving more at- 
tention than formerly, may be noted 
that Willis Hackman, a Lancaster 
county, Pa., son graduated at Harvard 
last year with high honors in English 
and received his ]\Iaster of Arts de- 
gree this year. He took fpr the subject 
of his required thesis. ''The Denomina- 
tional Schools . of Colonial Pennsyl- 
vania." 



Is the Dialect Dying Out? 

The following clipping from the Key- 
stone Gazette, Bellefonte. Pa., of ^uiy 
29, 1910, compels one to raise tie ques- 
tion heading this note. 

" With this issue the Gazette re- 
sumes the publication of Pennsylvania- 
German literature in the writings of 
"Gottleib Boonastel." which will con- 
tinue from week to week for several 
years. -AFost of the articles will be 
taken from the Book "Boonastel" 
which is approaching its third edition 
and proves its appreciation b}- the con- 
tinually increasing demand for it." 

In this connection w'e mav also note 
that The Gospel Messenger.' oi E\<y\n, 
111. in it^ issue of August h. published 
complete Harbaugh's Heemweh with 
translation. 



charge of the movement to erect a 
monument in \'ernon Park, German- 
town, to cornmenKjrate the first Ger- 
man settlement in America, said 
recently that the fund for this purpose 
no\\' in the hands of the monument 
connnittee amounts to $20,000. 

At the last session of Congress the 
House committee on library reported 
favorably on a bill appropriating $25,- 
000 for the monument, provided a 
similar sum be raised by subscripii(3n. 
It is expected that the bill will be 
passed next winter and the monument 
erected next year. 

The corner-stone of the monument 
was laid in connection with the Found- 
ers' Week exercises in 1908. 



$20,000 For German Shaft 

^ C. J. Hexamer, president oi the Xa- 

tional German Alliance, which has 



Educational Efforts of Berks County 
Recognized 
The folowing lines appeared in Col- 
lier's Outdoor America: "'A little over 
thr.ee years ago. Professor E. M. Rapp. 
Superintendent of the public schools of 
Berks county. Penna.. had a happy 
thought. Tf the boys and girls who 
live on the farm." he said to himself, 
'can be made to think that the farm is 
the best place for them, it follows as a 
natural consequence that the}' will 
stay there.' Then he began to experi- 
ment by organizing boys* agricultural 
clubs and girls' domestic science clubs. 
Soon there were 600 charter members. 
Bulletins were received from the ex- 
periment stations, and the boys were 
encouraged to plant vegetables and 
field crops, while the girls were in- 
structed in bakhig and sewing. Then a 
newspaper nrv^prietor became inter- 
ested, and offered Sioo in prizes for the 
best corn, potatoes, bread. a!ul other 
prc^ducts of garden and kitchen. The 
children's interest grew into excite- 
ment. When they had an exhibit at the 
end of the season, the hall had the ap- 
]>earance of a miniature CiHuiiy fair. 
IMiere are now a thousand members of 
the boys' club and almost as many girls 
are enrolled in their organization." 

— Reading Eagle. 



THE FORUM 



573 



Lutheran Church First 
The Lutheran Church was the first 
to prepare Protestant preachers, who 
spread the iii^ospcl in Scotland, England, 
Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Hungary 
Bohemia, Spain, France, Italy, Holland, 
etc. First to send out foreign mis- 
sionaries to Finland. Iceland. Greenland 
and East India. First to publish the 
Confession of Faith, the Augsburg 
Confession, 1530. From this the Epis- 
copalians got their thirty-nine articles. 
From this the ^lethoclists got their 
creed. First to found a Protestant 
university ]\Iarburg. First in orphan- 
ages Halle, August Herman Franke. 
First in Bible societies the Yon Can- 
stein Bible Institute a hundred years 
before the British Bible Society, First 
in numbers the largest Protestant 
Church in the world, seventy-five mil- 
lion members. First in languages, 
preaches the gospel in more tongues 
than 'any other Church. This is surely 
a very fine showing. But let us not 
simply glory in the past. Let each one 
of us faithfully serve right now, accor- 
ding to the ability which God has given 
him, so that the future may be even 
more glorious ! Trinity Tidings. 



Frederick. Md., August 3, iQio. 
To Editor Kriebel, 
Lititz, Penna., 
Dear Sir : In the Au2:ust number of 
THE PEXXA.-GERMAX. Shaal)er of 
Reading Pa. has an article on the Hes- 
sians in Penna. I write this to call 
your attention to the fact that our State 
(1778) ordered the erection of "Five 
Barracks f(^r the housing and safe keep- 
ing- of sanie" and twt-) of them were 
erected in our City and they stt^od un- 
Jil 1869 when one was torn down to 
make room for our State Institute for 
the Deaf, the other remaineth until 
now as a model of the good and honest 
work as done by our ix^^o^^ old German 
ancestors. These Barracks were occu- 
pied by Hessians and in 1781 some 
were sent "over road" to York, Pa. 
where they were put with the others." 



History states "Smallpox broke out 
among them and many died." 

X'ow are you aware that our City 
was settled by John Thomas Schley 
and others, that he came from Lancas- 
ter Co. Pa. hence you can see why we 
do like the streitzel so? 

He came from what was known as 
Pecjua \'alley and have you anything 
in your records of him or Kunkel fam- 
ily, if so, please advise. 

Yours trulv, 
STEIXER SCHLEY. 
whose parentages (besides) are of 
good German blood. 



First Picture Book 

Some 300 years ago a German ser- 
vant had a wonderful vision. At that 
time children were taught to read by 
force of arms, so to speak, througli 
hardships and with bitter toil on the 
part of teacher and of child. It seems 
curious that the iirst real step toward 
lightening the labor of children as 
they climb the ladder of learning v/as 
the product of the imagination not of 
some fond mother or gentlewoman 
teacher, but of a bewigged and be- 
titled imi\ersity doctor. 

It was Johann Comenius. however, 
who first conceived the daring idea 
that children could be taught by the 
aid of the memory and the imagina- 
tion working together, "by means," as 
he quaintly expressed it. "of sensuous 
impressions conveyed to the eye. so 
that the vital objects may be made the 
medium oi expressing mortal lessons 
to the yoimg mind and oi impressing 
those lessons upon the memory.,' In 
other words, the good herr doctor had 
the bright idea that picture books 
could be useful to children. Comenius 
made bis first picture book and called 
it the "Orbis Pictus." It contains rude 
woodcuts representing objects in the 
natural world, as trees and animals, 
wuh little lessons about the pictures. 
It is a quaint volume and one that 
would cau>e the average modem child 
not a little astonishment were it placed 
before him. 



674 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



As truly, however, as that term may 
be applied to any other book that has 
since been written, the *'Orbis Pictus" 
was an epoch making- book. It is the 
precursor of all children's picture 
books, and modern childhood has 
great cause to bless the name of 
Comenius. 



"Puritanism of Pennsylvania- 
Germans" 
What do our readers think of the 
charge in the following extract that 
the "Pennsylvania Dutch" emigrants 
were ''fixed in a Puritanism severer 
€ven than that of the first comers at 
Plymouth or Massachusetts Bay." Is 
it true? 

The Pennsylvania Dutch, who after 
well two hundred years have kept 
themselves alien amidst the other 
Americans ''' '•' "^ are the descen- 
dants of Protestant emigrants from 
the Palatinate and exiles from the 
Catholic parts of Germany in the sad 
days when men oppressed one another 
for God's sake ; and they came to the 
Pennsylvania woods fixed in a Puri- 
tanism severer even than that of the 
first-comers at Plymouth or Massa- 
chusetts Bay. Their Puritanism was 
not darkened by so awful a demonol- 
ogy as that of their northern breth- 
ren ; their forests were not haunted by 
such devils, their homes were not the 
prey of witches so formalized and 
malignant, their skies not troubled by 
portents so dire, their dimmer minds 
were not stirred in such a continual 
torment of self-question ; ])ut their lives 
were ordered with as rigid an ideal of 
conduct, and their ways were involved 
in a minuter and more constant sense 
of the mystery of the world. Signs 
and prophecies from on high atten(led 
them through their days of toil, and 
their dreams at nights were full of 
warnings and leadings. Their church 
membership was as infallible and exi- 
gent a token of right hohavit^r. and 
their worship as pervasive as the wor- 
ship of the Xew Englanders. lUit they 
abode in a warmer creed, thev were 



Lutherans rather than Calvinists, and 
their lives, bent upon an earthly com- 
fort which often became a somewhat 
sordid prosperity, were nigh to the life 
beyond in the intimations and forebod- 
ings which hold the material and the 
spiritual world in world communion. 
As they changed through the modern- 
izing influences they changed less than 
the Xew Englanders, and they failed 
to evolve the quaint and mocking 
humor which became the relief of the 
Puritans from the grimness of their 
faith and the austerity of their life. 
— Harper's Monthly, August. 



In the Royal Guard 

King Frederick of Prussia was al- 
ways very anxious to have large, well- 
built men in the Royal Guard. Xc) 
matter what the cost, his recruiting of- 
ficers were under no restrictions in ob- 
taining them. Upon one occasion the 
recruiting officer discovered a very 
tall Irishman. He spoke to him in 
English, and proposed that he should 
enlist. A soldier's life, and especially 
the large bount}-. pro\'ed a great in- 
ducement, and Tim consented. 

"But you must learn to speak Ger- 
man, or the king will not pay \'OU so 
much," said the officer. 

"Och sure." said Tim. "an' I don't 
be able to schpake a word o' German I" 

"X'ever mind." said the officer, "you 
can learn in a short time. The king 
knows e\ery man in the guard. As 
soon as he sees you. he will ride u{) 
and ask you how (^Id you are. "Ymi 
must say. 'Sieben und zwanzig.' Xext 
he \vill ask how long you have been in 
this service: you will answer. *Drei 
wochen." Then he generally asks 
whether \-ou are prv^perly pnnided 
with iood and cKnhos: you answer. 
Beides. (both). 

Tim soon learned his Gorman an- 
swers, but forgot to familiarize him- 
self with the questiiMis. In three weeks 
he anpoarcdi beft^re the king in review. 
Suddenly his royal highness rode up 
to him. Tim stepped forward and 
presented arms. 



THE FORUM 



"How old are you?" asked the king". 

"Three weeks," said Tim, in Ger- 
man. 

"How" long have you been in the 
service?" 

"Twenty-seven years," faithfully 
answered Tim. 

"Am I a fool or are you one?" thun- 
dered the king. 

"Both," replied poor Tim; where- 
upon he was immediately sent to the 
guard house. Later, when the king, 
had the matter explained to him, Tim 
was pardoned. 



■Exchange. 



Witchrcaft Trial in Northampton 
County 

Hellertown, Pa., July 15, 1910. 
Dear 'Mr. Kriebel, 

In the July number, 1910, p. 444, the 
Yearbook of Pennsylvania Society of 
New York, 1910 is quoted and respon- 
sible for the statement that Pennsyl- 
vania has had but one trial for Witch- 
craft. As soon as I had read the ar- 
ticle I recalled reading of another trial 
in Folk-Medicine of the Pennsvlvania 
Germans by AA\ J. Hoffman, yi. D. 
(From proceedings of American 
Philosophical Society.) 

This monograph was read before 
society, ^vlay 3, 1889, and printed, a 
complimentary copy 6i the author 
being furnished me through the kind- 
ness of Dr. J. F. Kocher, Walberts. Pa. 

Dr. Hoffman quotes the following- 
trial from The Historical Magazine, 
N. Y., vii, 1863, p. 283; reprinted from 
THE LUTHERAN, under the title of 
GLEANINGS OF AN ANTIQUAR- 
IAN IN GERMAN PENNSYL- 
VANIA. 

"In the southern part of Williams town- 
ship, Northampton county, there is a hill, to 
which the witches have left their evil name 
and fame. It is known as 'Der Hexenkopf.' 



or the Witches Head,' because it was there 
that their ladyships were supi)0sed to hold 
niglitly revels. On these occasions they be- 
witched their neighbors' cattle, and made 
themselves generally hateful to all good, 
order-loving citizens. They did not, how- 
ever, always escape with impunity, as is 
proved by the following indictment, which is 
carefully transcribed from the Session 
Docket, omitting only names and date. The 
case was 'for bewitching a horse whereby 
he became wasted and became worse. 

" 'The Jurors do upon their oaths, pres- 
ent, — That S B of Williams town- 
ship, in the county of Xorthami)ton. widow 

on the day of in the year at the 

said county of Northampton aforesaid, did 
commit certain most wicked acts (called en- 
chantments and charms), at the county 
aforesaid, maliciously and diabolically 
against a certain white horse of the value 
of 4 pounds, of the goods and chattels of a 

certain Justice W of Williams township 

aforesaid, on the day aforesaid, and county 
aforesaid, then being, did exercise and prac- 
tice, by means of which the said horse of 
the said Justice W . on the day afore- 
said at the township of Williams aforesaid, 
greatly WORSTEXDED (pejoratus est> 
and wasted away, against the peace of our 
said Commonwealth, and against the laws in 
this case made and provided.' " 

"'Judgment: a year's imprisonment, and 
every quarter to stand six hours in the pil- 
lory.' " 

'•The poor woman at first resolutely de- 
nied the charge; but the learned judges at 
last convinced her of her guilt, and she al- 
ways confessed herself a witch, though she 
was unable to say in what manner her en- 
chantments had been performed." 

In visiting my parishoners belong- 
ing to the Old Williams Church. I 
have frequently passed "Der Hexen- 
kopf.'' I can vouch most truthfully, as 
yet, I have not had the pleasure of 
meeting a witch or a spook : but am ex- 
ceedingly S(^rry that some oi m}- par- 
ishoners, mt^re than I know perhaps, 
are to this da\- tirm believers in 
witches, spooks, pow-w<^wing. and kin- 
dred superstititions and beliefs. I am 
, Sincereh- ^•^>ur^. 

(Rev.) H.'B. RITTER. 



"^ 



576 

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OCrOF3ER, 1910 



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■CONTENTS: 



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Dk. .Ii?-L^Ei. H. BETZ 

Family Reunions. . . : 

Chronology OF Fikst Settl'c:\!ent of .Lancaster County 

Slatincton, Pa 

iNUiiNN Chiefs of Fent^sylvania, Tammany 

The Defiant Dlalect , 

. The People's Instructor . . . 

Recollections of the Wyoming Massacre 

Lancaster County Familils 

Tke Bisiiop Metzler .Bible 

1 HE Use of Willow Rods by the Ancient Gek5L\n::- 

Number of Americans of Germ.\n Ancestry 

Rev. John Hershey ■ 

IaEgister Plan for Genualogies 

The Study of F.uiily H-story 

Die MuTTE'Rsri^ocH 

Revikws ani" Notes '..' 

Historical Notes and News 

Genealogical Notes and Queries 

The Fouum 

Editorial Oefaktmext 

The P-G Prog-^am roH VAl 











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585 




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Publishers: Tl\^ i:XPR£SS PRINTING CO. tltlitor: H, W. KRIPBEL L^tit?, 

CopyrU-ht 30W by H. W, KrwNil. Ent-r^vl a^ Second CLuis Mau MaLter at t};o Pv<t OiT-cc at I u.i: 



Pa. 






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DIM[IEiMlJlWnisp:i[rji 









Vol. XI 



OCTOBER, 1910 



No. 10 






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I. H. IIETZ. M.l>.. YOKK. I'A. 



578 



H. Betz 



Dr. Israe 

By *'A Friend" 



NOTE. — We are sure our readers will be 
pleased to read the following sketch of one 
of our regular contributors, i)rei)ared by one 
thoroughly competent to pass judgment. To 
know Dr. Betz personally is an honor, a 
privilege, a pleasure. — Editor. 



the aj^e of 
parents to 
Ohio, goins: by canal 



ME subject of this sketch 
who resides at York, 
Pennsyhania, and is a 
____ Pennsylvania German, is 
"l'^' V^ one of the most remark- 
I |j«^ * ^^^^ n^Qn in the state. He 
I I'fei^ .1 was born in Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania in 1841. At 
six he removed with his 
the Western Reserve in 
and crossing 
with boat on the portage from Holli- 
daysbtirg to Johnstown. ( Later the 
boat was towed by a steamboat from 
Pittsburg to Beaver Falls, from thence 
by canal to ^lassillon. Ohio, and thence 
by wagon fifty miles). This trip took 
from May 2 to ^lay 18. Ten years 
later the return trij) was made b}' rail- 
road from ^lansfield, Ohio, to Harris- 
burg in eighteen hours. Before this, 
however, in driving sheep to eastern 
Pennsylvania, forty to fifty days were 
constmied. ]Mr, Betz also had expe- 
rience under his father in driving 
horses, cattle and turkeys along the 
public highway. Xorthern Ohio was 
largely settled by New Englanders. In 
fact it has been said that there is a 
streak of Yankeedom from Connecti- 
cut to Nebraska. 

The ancestors of Mr. Betz emigrated 
from Germany in 1746. No less than 
seven generations were known to have 
been connected with the working of 
the Trias or New Red Sandstone for- 
mation in Europe and America. At an 
early age Mr. Betz became familiar- 
ized with the practical side of the busi- 
ness in quarrying stone and dressing- 
it. Still later he became acquainted 
with its scientific relations, as taught 
in Geology and ^fineralogv. He is 



now engaged iii making an elaborate 
presentation of the Trias as it is de- 
veloped throughout the world (and es- 
pecially in the United States.) 

Mr. Betz was educated in private 
and public schools, en"ii)racing Normal 
and classical schrjol courses. In 1865 he 
took up the study of medicine, and af- 
ter a full course as then taught, he 
graduated at JetYerson Medical College 
at Philadelphia in i8*38. He has since 
critically studied the later develop- 
ments of medicine, and materially 
added to them. He practiced medicine 
in Cumberland county, Penn.s\-lvania 
for a quarter of a century, building up 
a very large practice. For the past 
eighteen years he has lived at York, 
and is still engaged in the practice of 
medicine. He was always an indus- 
trious student and has collected a 
library embracing thousands of vol- 
umes, rich in history, medicine, science, 
philosophy and literature. Fie has 
written many articles for magazines 
and reviews, also some large \'olumes 
on genealogy and medical history. 
Other volumes on geography as also 
elaborate scientific i)apers have come 
from his pen. Still others are in prep- 
aration. 

He is one of the most learned men in 
the country, and learned in more 
l)ranches than almost any other man. 
Besides being an expert chemist, physi- 
cian and natural philosopher he is 
specially skilled in geoK\i,M-. and has 
made a profound stutly ot the rocks in 
York and other counties of Pcmisyl- 
\ania. He has digged into the history 
and genealoo^y ot" Pennsylvania in a re- 
markable way and rescued from obliv- 
ion many of our noblest heroes and 
scholars. He has not considered the 
profit of his investigations, but. with- 
out seeking remuneratioTi. has given 
b(Mm(llcss research to them. He is 
tireless in his readini:" and writin,: and 



DR. ISRAEL H. BETZ 



579 



1ias a tlucr.t and elegant style, a^^ niay 
be seen from his papers in TllJ^ 
PENNSYLVANIA- GERMAN. lie .s 
a \ohible and interesting talker, ne\-er 
tiring in imparting his fund of infor- 
mation, lie is now preparing a num- 
ber of ela1)orate works whieh he will 
soon publish. Nothing gi\-es him moio 
pleasure than to talk \\ith anybody 
who can appreciate his learning and 
the conclusions \\'hich he draAvs from 
it; If he cencentrated his talents on 



subjects of popular interest he would 
be one of the best known authors in 
this country; but he cares more for 
quietly serving mankind than for mak- 
ing fame for himself. He is thoroughly 
unselfish, both in his professional work 
and scientific in\'estigations ; and the 
wonder of those who meet him is how 
he could produce so much and on such 
a variety of themes. Mis conversation. 
if taken down, would make good litera- 
ture, so accurate and thorough is he. 



Family Reunions 







AMILY reunions are a 
characteristic of the twen- 
tieth century, noteworthy 
for its innovations and 
f o r w a r d movements. 
Though they are known 



by the same general term, 
there is a very consider- 
able diversity of aim, method, scope 
and value in these gatherings — ranging 
from a local family attair with simple 
ephemeral tastes, objects and pleasures 
to an international movement of a clan 
delving into the misty and musty re- 
cords a thousand years old and reach- 
ing to the uttermost parts of the earth. 
Some meet to eat, drink and be merry 
— others toil that data underlying the 
history of our glorious country may be 
made known to the historian and thus 
help to mould the world's destiny for 
Aveal or woe. 

Whether these reunions shall be 
mere playthings, ragdolls, hobbyhorses 
and soapbubbles to be used for amuse- 
ment and perhaps cast aside or allowed 
to pass away as of no moment is a 
problem. The probability is that, fad- 
like, these will in many cases end in a 
fizzle to become ere long a memory. 
The fact, however, that a family like 
the Scheetzes have succeeded in keep- 
ing enthusiasm alive for thirty years 
inspires the hope that scores of assiv 
ciations may follow their example. 

Reasons why such reuniv^ns should 
be held will readily suggest themselves 



— to a fe^v of which Re\-. Roland Ring- 
wait and Rev. W. Barnes Lower call 
attention. 

(Editorial in Moorestown Republican, -)y 
Rev. Roland Ringwalt, Associate Editor.) 

In a recent issue a prominent daily paper 
mentions six family reunions, and the by- 
gone summer may have given rise to six 
hundred. Beyond all question such gather- 
ings are more numerous than they were 
twenty years ago. They are likely to grow 
in favor, the fasliion has been followed by 
the Chief Magistrate of the Union, and the 
space given them in the press shows that 
the public is at least mildly interested in 
such assemblages. On three grounds it may 
be argued that family reunions are worth 
holding. 

First, all thinking men and women recog- 
nize that every human being is a compound 
of many ancestors. Bring to.:?ether a hun- 
dred of your relatives, sir or madam, and 
notice the different types, yet the underlying 
likeness. Farmers, merchants, inventors, 
professional men. probably a missionary 
from the East and a young engineer from 
Panama are in the group, and you go 
awny. feeling as if your kindred had done 
something for the country in which we live. 
One is certainly better fitted for historical 
study, foi- inxestigation of character after 
taking part in one of these informal meet- 
ings — social, antiquarian and semi-parlia- 
mentaiy. 

Second, the ties formed at these reunions 
are sometimes close and helpful. While 
Artemas Ward, rather than let the Union 
perish, was willing to sacrifice all his wife's 
relatives, and the averace num feels as if he 
couhl siKue some of his own. still blood 
counts for a great deal. A relative whom 
we like is more to us than one not of our 
kin. The intimacies formed at these meet- 



580 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



ings may lead to interchanges of heirlooms, 
long-sought letters turn up in a fiL'teentn 
cousin's garret, we unexpectedly discover 
the spinning-wheel that our great grand- 
mother used or the gun aji ancestor carried 
in the French and Indian wars. ^Nliscella- 
neous information about old family customs, 
long lost maps and deeds, liotsam and jet- 
sam of all kinds are wafted upon the sliore. 
There is also a possibility that out of 
these gatherings may come something of 
more than local or family import. It may 
chance that a relic or document opens the 
way to something of State or national inter- 
est. Already the old families of New Eng- 
land have made notable contributions to 
American history. Judge Gayarre drew val- 
uable material from the old families of 
Louisiana. The South Carolina planters of 
the Pinckney and Loundes day, the Bayards 
of Delaware, the Biddies of Philadelphia, 
knew facts of more than ordinary value, and 
possessed manuscripts linked with many a 
chapter in peace and war. 

(Parts of address delivered by the Cor- 
responding Secretary of the Eergey Family 
Association, Rev. \Vm. Barnes Lower, D. D., 
at the last family reunion. Bonnie Bra Park, 
July 30, 1910.) 

Family reunions are each year growing 
in popularity and becoming a feature in the 
social life of the older sections of our coun- 
try. To be a success family reunions, like 
religious and political conventions, must be 
planned for in advance. All successful or- 
ganizations must have in them a drawing 
feature. While the spirit of these gather- 
ings is fellowship and the renewing of rela- 
tionship, there must also be added certain 
social ingredients that will create interest 
and be entertaining and instructive. This 
may be done by a program of music, sing- 
ing and speaking, the parts being taken by 
members of the family and invited guests. 
Where there is a brass l)and the members 
of which are members of the family, this 
will be found an attractive asset. The time 
has come when these family gatherings, 
semi-religious as they are in their tone, 
should realize a larger field of usefulness 
and influence. In the case of our own Ber- 
gey family I would like to see us have a 
program larger than the one we have lis- 
tened to today. I nrike a strong api^eal to 
the family to mould the organization into a 
virile moral force in our American life. 
What a moral dynamic is to be found in 
such an organization as this, and similar 
family gatherings which have met this sea- 
son and are meeting at this time. 

The inspiration and spiritual impetus we 
receive from .these gatherings let us carry 
with us and help enrich the communities 
from which we come. My observations of 



life in the country and life in the city has 
led me to believe that the percentage of ir- 
religion and immorality is as high, if not 
higher, in our rural districts than in our 
larger cities. The country has been pic- 
tured as the citadel of piety and the assem- 
bly-ground of all virtues. This has been 
done by city- living people who are senti- 
mental and may have lived in the country, 
or by city men who visit the country oc- 
casionally. The picture of rural America 
as we see it today is not as bright as it 
should be. Why? Because rural America 
is now no longer countrified but citified. 
Country lanes are linked with city streets, 
by telegraphs, telephones, trolleys, automo- 
biles, and the rural free delivery service 
with its daily city paper. The country feels 
its metropolitan character. It will respond 
more readily to a city movement. There is 
a big church problem at hand in the coun- 
try. Theie is a large church attendance 
among the Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenk- 
felders. Reformed and Lutheran church i'a 
the country but it is not of the young people. 
The young people do not take readily to the 
old forms, and customs and services of the 
fathers and consequently will not attend 
church except upon special occasions. The 
young will always drift toward something. 
Where there is a drift away from one thing 
there will be a corresponding drift toward 
something else. The vices of the city have 
crept out into the country and in the freer 
air have grown proportion. Ay. It is toward 
these vices that the youn^, people drift. In 
conversation with prominent members of 
the IMennonite Church one said to me he 
believed that 75 per cent, of the marriages 
in the country were forced marriages. An- 
other to whom I had mentioned this state- 
ment felt that 75 per cent, might be a "little 
high,"' but he l)elieved that fully 50 per cent. 
were forced marriages. Another, a church 
clTicial, told me that in his family, a min- 
ister's family, of six children, all married, 
three were forced into marriage. Another 
prominent church worker and Sabbath 
School superintendent said there was a 
gradual drift of the young people away from 
church. And another superintendent told 
me practically the same thing. What a need 
of high moral living does this show in the 
rural districtsi What a moral dynamic 
there is in these family gatherings! If 
these statistics are true, and I have no 
means to verify them, nor dispute them, is 
it not time that we enlar'j:e our program of 
work? The power to push forward in real 
religious and social and moral reforms is in 
our hands. F\imily gathoriuMS represent 
the best in our rural life and should stand 
for the best. In the country lies the hope 
of our State and Nation. In political and 
social life a people rise no higher than 
their morals. The farmer's prosperity has 



FAMILY REUNIONS 



oil 



made him a materialist hustlins Tor gain. 
He demands Sunday for secular and social 
recreation. Sunday visiting and the big 
dinner at the home visited is i)art of the 
social life of the Pennsylvania German. The 
Sabbath is made by many families a day of 
social dissipation. What an oi)j)ortunity to 
mS,ke these family gatherings moral dynam- 
ics that will stay the drift cf rural immo- 
rality. The insi)iration received here through 
fellowshii) and the social touch, pouring into 
souls should send us out with a determina- 
tion that we will earnestly work toward a 
higher moral culture in the several commu- 
nities from which we come. If this be our 
individual determination, we will not have 
met in vain. The high moral purpose of 
our reunions will then be conserved. The 
Pennsylvania German character, represent- 
ing as it does in such bodies, the staunch- 
€st life in our American commonwealth, will 
continue to be the moral leaven working to 
make the church more spiritual, the school 
more religious, the State more cultured and 
the country more Christian. 

The application by these gatherings 
of modern methods of cooperation — 
concentration and distribtition of labor 
' — wotild probably, in some respects at 
least, be accompanied by expedition 
and an economy in time, work and 
money. Avoidance of needless expense, 
the frttits of friendly counsel, coopera- 
tion in searching records and publish- 
ing the most important, a system of 
cross references, uniformity of pub- 
lished records would undoubtedly re- 
sult, 

A meeting of officers of such asso- 
ciations and those directly interested 
would seem to be a logical movement 
to make to effect such cooperation. We 
would respectfully suggest such step 
to those of our readers who are officers 
in such associations. AA'hy not get to- 
gether, compare notes and get the ben- 
efit of concerted action? Who will set 
the ball a-rolling? 

A common meeting-ground or me- 
dium qf communication for the expres- 
sion and exchange of views would also 
afford a most excellent opportunity for 
service. We believe that if present 
interest is maintained the time is not 
far distant when these associations 
will have their own official organ. W hy 
should they not? What a rich mine of 



interesting historic lore might not be 
collated were the historians, the book- 
worms, the grandfathers and grand- 
mothers, the story tellers connected 
with these reunions speak out freely 
in open meetings. Would our hisi..»- 
rians, orators, and writers of fiction and 
penny-a-liners dare to continue to ma- 
lign a worthy class of citizens, if they 
knew tliat a l^-nx-eyed congress of 
family associations would be after 
them to call them to public account? 

We offer the pages of The Pennsyl- 
vania-German for such use for a time 
or until the associations may have an 
organ of their own. Begin'ning with 
the new year we will set aside space 
in the magazine for the direct use of 
the associations. \\'e cordially invite 
contributions for such department — 
sketches of early life in pioneer fami- 
lies, or of the tirst generations of Ger- 
man American families, anecdotes. 
humorous stories, biographies of prom- 
inent descendants and tirms. announce- 
ments of meetings, etc. Should there 
be enough interest manifested to war- 
rant the step sixteen pages per month 
will be added for such use to be placed 
under the direct editorial control oi 
capable men representing the associa- 
tions. If in union there is strength, 
such cooperation should and would be 
fruitful of good results. We invite 
correspondence on the subject and con- 
tributions for the department. 

We regret exceedingly that space 
does not permit the elaboration of tlie 
following list. Interesting data have 
accumulated respecting the associa- 
tions which must l)e passed over at 
preseitt. In the preparation of the list 
valuable services were rendered by Mr. 
T. r.. Ifaag of Lititz and J. G. nechtolJ 
of Steelton. We fear mistakes have 
crept in which we shall be pleased to 
correct. 

We gi\e sc^ far as known to us. in 
order, the name of the family, the num- 
ber of meetiui?. the month, dav and 



place oi meetin; 
officer. 



and the name of an 



582 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Berks 



City. 
, Philadelphia, 



Acker — Macungie. 

Adams — (1st) — 9 : 7— Shamokin. 

Pres., W. G. Adams, Paxinos. 
Ariier — 8 : 17 — Weissport. 

Secy, C. W. Arner, Weissport. 
Ash — 9:x — Chester county. 
IJadiiion — 8 : 11 — Charlestown. 
JJaer — 8 : 13 — Kutztown. 

Pres., H. C. Baer, Rosedale. 
Baltliasar— 8 : 20— Lower Heidelberg, 

Co.,* 
Doclitel— 8 : x— Galjelsville. 
Bc'chtel— 9:10— Ringing Rocks. 
Benfiold— 9:4— Huff's Church. 

Pres., H. N. Benfield. 
Berg-ey-dlth)— 7:30— Spring 

Sec'y, Dr. D. H. Bergey 

Pa. 
Bertolet — 8 : x — Olney . 
Beyer— 8:20— Mingo. 

Pres., W. B. Beyer, Norristown. 
Bittiier— 8 : 10— Neff s. 
Blauch- Blough- Plough — (3rd) — 8:24 — 

Somerset. 

Pres., D. D. Blauch. Johnstown. 

Sac, F. K. Saylor, Johnstown. 
Bodey— 8:11— Black Bear. 

Pres. H. W. Bodey, Yellow House. 

Sec'y, A. W. Bodey, Reading. 

Descendants of five Bodey brothers who 

came from Holland. 
Bolicli — 8 : 27 — Dreshersville. 
Borden— 8:3. 

Borkeys— 9:15, Jefferson, Pa. 
Borlz— (6th)— 8:19— at Dorney Park. 

Sec'y, W. M. Stettler, Wescoesville, Pa. 
BoAver — x — Fairchilds Park. 

Historian, Rev. A. V. Bower. Scranton. 
Boyer— (6th) — 7:17 — Mt. Gretna. 

Historian, C. C. Boyer, Kutzto-wn. 
Bradfield— 9 : 3— Hunting Park — Phila. 
Brady — 8:19 — Mount Holly Springs. 

Pres.. W. G. Murdock, Milton. . 

Celebrated 200th anniversary of their 

common ancestor. 
BroiYii — 8:x — Robosonia. 
Brown — 9 : 3 — Friedensburg. 

Pres.. Frank A. Brown. Friedensburg. 
BroAvnl;ack— (4th) — 6 : 18 — Spring City. 

Pres., Dr. W. H. Mosteller, Phoenixville. 
Bruhaker- 9 : 1 — Mansfield, Ohio. 
Bueh— 8:27— Lititz. 

Pres., D. R. Buch, Lititz. 

Sec, Rebecca Bucb, Akron. 
Buohnian — 8:25 — Xeffs. 

Historian, Rev. F. N. D. Buchman. Al- 

lentown. Pa. 
Buck— 9:5— Edgemont Park. 
Caduallader— (1st)— 9: X— Warrington. 

Pres.. Washington Cadwallader, War- 
rington. 
Carl — S : 13 — Macungie. 

Sec'y, Samuel H. Hillegass. Macungie. 
Carrell— 9 : 10— Willow Grove. 

Secy, Ezra P. Carrel. Jamison. Pa. 
Clierringtou 



Cloud — S : 3 — Edgeniont. 

Cook— 8:x — Willowdale. 

Cornell — 9:17 — Willow Grove. 

Coveny— 8 : 11— Mansfield. 

Creitz— 8:28— (1909)— Lynnport. 

Currens — (6th) — 8:14 — Gettysburg. 

Ba^is — 8:x — Paoli — descendants of George 
and Elizabeth Davis. 

Dart t— 8 : 18— Charleston. 

Datosman— (2nd)— 8:26— Bangor. 

Dr. Hiram F. Datesman, Passaic, X. J. 

Beibert— (2nd)— 8:27— Schuylkill Haven. 

BePrefontaine — 8 : x — Willow Grove. 

DeLong — (4th) — 7:7 — Lafayette. Indiana. 
Sec'y, J. A. Deong, Delphi, Indiana. 

Lienor — S:x — Ringing Rocks (near Potts- 
town). 

Dieroli— 9 : 3— Gabelsville. 

Sec'y, A. B. dinger, Pottstown. 

Dietrich — meet every other year; next meet- 
ing will be held 1911. Expect to pub- 
lish a complete family history. 
Sec, W. J. Dietrich, AUentown. Pa. 

Bietz— 7:28— Paint Creek. 

Sec, J. V. Dietz, Johnstown. Pa. 

Diller — 6:17 — New Holland — Descendants of 
Casper Diller. 
Pres., Theodore Diller, M. D.. Pittsburg. 

Bunkelber^er — 8:24 — Carsonia Park, liead- 
iiig. 
Pres., G. F. Dunkelberger, Newport. 

Eckert— 7 : 23 — Reinert. 

Elser-Oberlin — i8th)— 9:10— near Ephrata. 

Eudy — 9 : 4 — Friedensburg — Descendants uf 
John and Esther Endy. 
Pres., T. K. Endy, Oley. 

Essicks — (2nd) — S:13 — Sanatoga. Pa. 

Sec, James I. Essick. Coventryville. 

Fairehild — S:x — Carsonia Park. 

Fr.snaclit — 9 : 1 — Lititz. 

Fausold — 9 : 1 — Shamokin. 

Historian — Rev. John C. Fausold. Wil- 
liamstown. 

Fetter jnan — x — Bloomsburg. 

Fisher— (2nd )—S : IS : 1909 — Rolling Green 
Park. Descendants of John Adam Fish- 
er, born near Reading. 1744. 
Pres.. Prof. G. E. Fisher, Selinsgrove. 

Fisher — 9:5 — I-oyertown. 

Finney — 9:17 — Willow Grove. 

Flack — 9 : x — Newton. 

Fiory — 8:13 — Bangor — descend:\nts of Jo- 
hann and Elizabeth Fiory. 

Folhveiler — $ : 6 — Neffs. 

Foltz— S:x— Paxtang Park. 

Fuller— Barwel!—S : 13— Troy. 

Furry — 8:27 — Carsonia Park. Reading. 
Pres.. H. S. Furry. Reading. 

Fretz— 8:20- Tohickon Park. 

Pres.. C. D. Frelz. Sellersville. 

Garrett— (3d)— S:x—Herrville. 

(»arrison — S : 4 — Daggett. 

Gehrnan — 8:27 — Waldbeim Park, near Allen- 
town. 
Sec, Harry A. Gehman, Cooporsburg. 



II 



FAMILY REUNIONS 



Oerberich— (5th)— East Hanover township, 

Lebanon county. 

Sec'y, Dr. H. L. Gerberich, Lebanon. 
Clery — (6th) — 8:C— Siesholtzville. 

Sec, C. O. F. Treichler. East Greenville. 
Cieyer — 9:17 — Ringing Rocks, near Potts- 

tovv'n. 

Historian and Secretary, Jacob Smith, 

Pottstown. Descendants of John Geyer, 

who migrated from Germany 1794. 
'Cilift — 8 : 4 — Fricdensburg. 
Glatfeltcr— 8:13— Attendance about 2000— 

will be incorporated. 

Historian. Dr. N. M. Glatfelter, St. 

Louis, Mo. 
Gottsehalk— (6th) — 8:20 —Chestnut Hill 

Park. 

Pres., John W. Gottschalk. Philadelphia. 
Groeiunvalt — 8 :2.5 — Franklin ville. 
Greiiier — 9:24 — Lititz. 

Pres., William Frantz. 
Grim — (9th) — 8:9 — Dorney Park, near Al- 
len town. 

Sec, Cyrenius Grim, Monterey. 
Gring' — (2nd) — 8:18 — Vinemont, on farm of 

Joshua Gring. 
Gnibb — (6th)— 9:.3— Sanatoga Park. 

Sec, G. F. P. AVanger, Pottstown, 
Gruber — 4th — 9 : x — North Heidelberg. 
Gruver—(9th)—S:17— Willow Grove. 

Sec, H. G. Carty. Trenton, N. J. 
Gutli— 8:18— Jackson Park. 

Historian, Dr. N. C. Guth. 
Haas— (7th)— 8:10— Dorney Park. 
Hafer — 8 : x — Reading. 
Hall— (4th)— 8:27— Neffs. 

Sec, B. F. Hall. Danielsville. Pa. 
Hallnian— (3rd)— S : 4— Chestnut Hill. 
Haiiey— (1st)— 9:3— Red Hill. 

Pres., John Lewis Haney, Phila. 
Hamia-Gardiicr — 8 : x — Agar's Park. 
Harley— 8:27— Collegeville. 

Pres., J. M. Harley. North Wales, 
llarrold— 8:25— Willow Grove. 
llartor — 8 : x — Bloomsburg. 
Hartnian — (4th) — 9:5 — Boyertown. 
Heilnian — 8:25 — Paxtang Park. 
Ileinly— 8 : 20— Kutztown. 

Historian, H. F. Heinley. Readir.g. De- 
scendants of INIatthias Heinlein, who 

migrated 1749. 
Heisey— 8 : 25— Rheems. 

Historian, F. G. Heisey. Lebanon. 
Holler— (5th)— Wind Gap. 

Sec, U. S. Brown, Bangor. 
Heiich-Dninirohl— New Bloomfild (1909). 
Hershey— 9:3— Lititz. 

Historian, Hon. \V. L. Hershev. Mariet- 
ta, Pa. 
Hess— ( 4th )— 8 :20— Rittersville. 

Pres.. Asher L. Hess. Philadelphia. 
inibisclt— ( 19th^— 8: IS— Rolling Green Park 

Historian. G. E. Depi)en. Esq.. Sunbury. 
Hill— (2ndi— S:2G~Shanu^kin. 

Pres., Joseph Hill, Williamsport. 



Hoover— (15th)— 8:17— Chestnut Hill. De- 
scendants of Jacob Huber, who came to 
America 1732. 

Hoffman — 9:5 — Neffs. 

Horn — (7th) — 9:x — Mount Bethel. 

Pres., Frank Horn, Stone Church. 

Hudson— 8:13— Elmira, N. Y. 

H unsicker— 8 : 1 1— Collegeville. 

Hiirn— 8:31 — Pitman, N. J. 

InsiiiJier — (2nd) — 9:14 — Philadelphia. 

Jaeol) — (3rd)— 8:3. 

Sec, O. F. Reinhard, Bethlehem. 

Johnson — 8:27 — Holland. 

Jones — 8:13 — Ringing Rocks Park. 

Keller — 8:25 — Wind Gap — First ancestor ar- 
rived 1737. 

Kemper— 8 : 20— Lititz. 

Historian. G. A. Kemper, Akron. 

Kennedy — 8 : 18 — Delmar. 

Kereliner — (3rd) — Rittersville. 

Sec, Miss Kate Faust, Macuugie. 

Kersehner — 8 : 11 — Waldheim. 

Ketner — 8:27 — Pinedale. 
Pres., John N. Heim. 

KielJline— 8 : 20— Belfast. 

Pres., Dr. J. C. Kichline, South Bethle- 
hem. 

Kistler — 8 : 17 — Kempton. 

Chaiiman, Rev. C. E. Kistler. Reading. 

Kizer— 8:31 — Westfield. 

Klase — (1st) — 7:27 — Shamokin. 
Sec. J. H. Klase, Snydertown. 

Klein — Descendants of Elder George Klein. 
Pres., D. R. Kline. Allentown. 

Klotz — Nells. 

Klotz— (10th)— 8:19— Rittersville. 
Sec, Phaon Klotz, Walnutport. 

Kneeht— (3rd)— 9:5— Waldheim. 

Historian. D. Geo. Kneeht. D. D. S.. Al- 
lentown, Pa. 

Knarr — (2nd) — S:x — Dubois. 

Sec. Silas Knarr. Dubois. Fourth fam- 
ily to locate in Clearfield county. 

Knerr — 9 ; 6 — Pottstown. 

Kiianss — (6th) — 8:5 — Waldheim. near Allen- 
town. 
Pres., J. O. Knauss. Harrisburg. 

Koelier — (1st) — 8:15— Fowlerville. 
Pres., E. M. Kocher. 

Kostenbauder — S:x. 

Sec, Harvey O. Gottschall. Bloomsburz. 
Pa. 

Krammos — Will hold first reunion near Pine 
Grove 7:9. 1911. 

Kratz — 8:15 — in Bucks county. 

Krause— 8:3 or 8:9— Neffs. 
Pres.. G. H. Krause. 
Descendants of John Krause. 

Kreider — (3rd) — 8:2 — Lititz. 

Pres.. J. Lehn Kreider. Annville. Pa. 

Kres'xe — S:20 — Siroudsburg. 

Kriek — 8:6 — Lititz. 

llistoiian. Fcv. T. H. Kriek. Coplay. 

Krieljcl— (6th)— S;27 — West Point. 

Pros.. H. S. Kriebel. North Wales. 

Kurtz-Sehaeffer — Tuckerton. 



584 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Lamberts— (2iid)~8: 2— Rittersville.. 

Pres., Rev. J. F. Lambert, Catasauqua. 
Luux — 6:17 — Brookside Park, near York. 

Sec, Augustus Loucks. York. 
Leiby— (2nd)— 8:10— Jacksonville. . . . 
Lesher — (1st) — 8:27 — Virginsville. 
Lewis— 8:13— West Point. 
Liclieinvalncr. 
Line — (4th) — 6:4 — Carlisle — Descendants of 

George and Salome Carpenter Line. 

Pres., A. A. Line. 
Livezey — 9 : 5 — Fairmount Park. 
Livjjjg'ood— 8 : 27— T-'riedensburg. 

Sec, Howard I\I. Livingood. Birdsboro. 

Descendants of Ulricli Leavengood, mi- 
grated 1733. 
Longenecker — (10th) — 8-: 27 — Ringing Rocks 

Park, near Pottstown. 

Descendants of Daniel and Ulrich Long- 

enecker. 
Ludington — S : 11 — :\ransfield. 
Liuhvig- — 8:20 — Ringing Rocks, near Potts- 
town. 

Pres., D. R. Ludwig, Reading. 
Lutz — 8 : 13 — Kempton. 
. , Pres., W. L. Lutz. 
Lutz— 8 : 19— Neffsville. 

Pre^., Rev. H. F. Lutz. Millersville. 
Maliii— 8 : 31~Woodside Park. 
Markley — 8:25 — Ringing Rocks. 

Pres. W. S. Lord, Pottstown. 
McIIIianey-King — 9 : 24 — Hunterstown. 
Mengel — 9 : 5 — Adamsdale. 

Sec, Howard S. Mengel, Fricdensburg. 
Micheiier— 8 :27— Tohickon. 
Miller— (2nd)— 9:3— Powder Valley. 

Sec, A. S. Miller, Reading. 
Miller— 8 : 20— Bloomsburg. 

Pres., O. F. Miller, Catawissa. 
3Iiller— (1st)— Drehersville. 

Pres., J. P. Miller, Schuylkill Haven. 
Miller— 8 : 1 S— Schnecksville. 

Warren K. Miller, Esq., Allentown, a 

speaker. 
Yost Miller— (1st)— 8:25— Stoyestown. 

Pres., W. H. Miller, Stoyestown. 
Moore — 8 : 9 — Adamsdale. 
More— (1st)— 8:5— Dorney Park. 

Pres., Rev. W. F. More, Womelsdorf. 
Moyer— 8 : 27— Perkasie. 

Pres., Henry G. Moyer, Perkasie. 
Morrison_9:i7__\villow Grove. 
Mowery— S : 25— Pa .vra ng Park. 
31yers— 8:3— Mount floHy Park. 
>'ewliaril— 8:31 — Dorney Park. 
Niei.olas—8:lS— Dorney Park. 
Ouden— ( 2nd)— 8 : IS— (:'leartield. 

Descendants of Daniel Ogden. first set- 
tler in Clearfield, died 1819. 
Park— 9 : x— Northbrook. 
Varliinau and HIesli. 
l'('jirs<.n— S : 1 0— Srroudsburg. 
IVter— 8:11— Neffs. 
riiilips— S : X— Downingtown. 



Piirsel — Kleim's Grove, near Bloomsburg. 

Pres., Mrs. Emma Pursel Ziegler, 

Bloomsburg. 
QuijruI('-3Ionti?ofiiery — 8:25 — Nippono Park. 

Pres., Wm. Hayes Grier, Columbia, Pa. 
Raiick — 8:17 — Columbus. Ohio. 

Descendants of Philip Ftanck. Pres., F. 

M. Ranck, Westville. Ohio. 
Reedy— 8:21— Mil l])ach. 

Pres., John J. Sallade, Womelsdorf. 
]JeitY.Jiie.st — (8th)— 9:9— Manheim. 

Sec, A. R. Reiff, York. 
Kex— 8:27— Neffs. 

Pres., Edgar W. Rex, Allentown, Pa. 
Rex— 9:17— Chestnut Hill. 

Historian, Dr. Herman Burgin, German- 
town, 
l^ickenhach. 
Roadanne! — 9:1 — Shamokin. 

Historian, William Roadarmel. 
Roth — near Bowers. 

Descendants of r^Iatthias Roth and wife 

Betty (Schlaganhaft). 
Rohrhacii— 8 : 13— Hancock. 

Pres., D. R. Rohrbach, Williamstown. X. 

J. Immigrants — Jacob, 1739; Johan 

Rinehart, 1749: Christian, 1752; Peter, 

1754. 
Ruby. 
Riinkle— 8:12— Hershey Park. 

Pres., Abner S. Bowman. Bismarck, Pa. 
Saul— (8th)— 8:12— Temple. 

Pres., J. Elmer Saul, Norristown. 
SeliaeiYer — descendants of Gerhart Schaefier 

who migrated 1710, settled in Schoharie 

Valley. New York. 
Sclieetz— 8 : 30— Perkasie. 

Sec, Grier Scheetz. Held reunions since 

1882. 
Scheirer— 8 : 9 — Neffs. 
Sclienek- Fletcher — 8:25 — floward. 
Selnnojer — (1st) — Breinigsville. 
Sclnvalni— -8 : 5 — Hegins. 

Pres.. A. A. Schwalm. Hegins. 

Descendants of John Schwalm. 



sian soldier, born 1752. came to 



a Hes- 
Ameri- 



ca with other mercenaries 1775. 
Sclnveuk— ( 5th)— 9 : 10. 

Descendants of Hans Michael Schwe'n 
Scott— 9:3— Holland. 
Sechler— 8:22 — Jacksonville. 

Historian. Charles Sechler. Reading. 
Seifert — 8:19 — Siiringtown. 

Pres.. Joseph Seifert. 
Seiple — S:1S — Easton. 

Historian. M. F. Seiple. 

Descendants of Georsre 

migrated Sept. 20. 173S. 
Sensing<»r— 8 : 15 — Neffs. 

Pres.. A. P. Dreisbaoh. 
Shei>e— 8:18— D;\!xgett. 
Shinier — 8:13 — Easton. 

Pres., Allen R. Shimer, Bethlehem. 
Shenk — "n : x — Pottsto^\ n. 
Sliuu-lniY- (13tlO— <;; ij^— WVst Point. 
Sloi'uin — X — Northfork. 



Bangor. 
Heinrich Seiple, 



Allentown. 



FAMILY REUNIONS 



oS^ 



Sruith-Kinbody — S:2G — Ringing Rocks Park. 
Pi-6s., W. 1. Smith, Pennsburg. 

Sinitli— 8:26— Trexlertown. 

Descendants of Samuel Smith. 

Smith- Fiirifiis — S:18 — Nipi-ono Park. 
Pres., Byron E. Smith, Ridgway. 

Suyder— 9:3— Oley Line. 

Historian, Rev. E. J. Snyder, Reading. 
Descendants of Johannes Snyder, mi- 
grated from Switzerland 1T7C. 

Spare— 8:6— West Point. 
Sec, Miss Adele Sijare. 

Spauldiii;?- 8 : 26— Middlebnry. 

Spohu- Young: — 8:26 — Reading. 

Siileler— { Sth)— 9 : 10— Byers. 

Swoisford — 9 : 5 — Pottstown. 

Swoyor — (3rd) — Dauberville. 

Teits-vvorlJi — 8:15 — Blocmsburg. 

Pres., Newton Teitsworth. Catawissa. 



Thomas — S : 27 — Chalfout. 
Trail irer — 9 : 4 — Ferndale. 
A'ettormaii — Wind Gap. 
Waller— 9 : 17— Wiilow Grove. 

Historian, .John S. Bishop, Philadelphia. 
Weakley- ri2thj— 8:10— Mt. Holley Sprinzs. 

Pres., Frank Weakley, Carlisle. 
AVeaver — 8:x — Knziuers. 
^Vells — 9 : 4 — Pottstown. 
Wetzel— (4th)— 8: 2u— Allen town. 

Pres., ^V. W. Wetzel, Allentown. Pa. 
Williards— 8:27— Williards— Willow Grovn. 
Winslow — (3rd)— 8:25 — Benezette. 
Wood— 9 : 6 — Kinseyville. 
"Wort Jiiiigtoii— 8:27 — Tchickcn Park. 
Wotring— (5th)— 8:13— Neffs. 

Historian, Rev. W. H. Wotring. Nazareih 
Yearick. 
Zartmai! — 8 : 1 — Hanover. 

Pres.. Rev. Rufiis C. Zartman, Phila. 



Chronology of First Settlement of Lancaster County 

(Part of "Chronology" in Official Program of Exercises Commemorating the 
Bi-Centennial of the First Settlement of Lancaster County) 



June 28, 1707 — Gov. Evans, suite and 
servants cross the Octoraro and visit 
the Shawanese at the Indian town, 
Pequehan, thence to Conestoga. 

1708 — Alartin Chartierc locates his 
trading- post near "Indian Fort" — 
now 3.Ianor township. 

1708 — William Rittenhouse becomes 
first Alennonite bishop. 

April 26, 1709 — William Penn writes 
to Logan: "Herewith come the Pala- 
tines whom use with tenderness and 
love and fix them so that they may 
send over an agreeable character: 
for they are a sober people, divers 
Menonists and will neither swear 
nor fight. See that Guy uses them 
well." (Skippack Settlement.) 

1709 — Chalkley, after visit to Holland 
reports : "There is a great people 
there whom they call ^^lennonists 
wdio are very near the truth and the 
fields are white unto harvest among 
them spiritually speaking." 

1709 — Flood of I'alatine immigrants 
pours into London. 

August 6. 1709 — Jacob Telner writes 
from London of eicrht families of 



exiles shipped to Pennsylvania. 
(Skippack Settlement.) 
April 6. 1710 — Bishop Benedict Brech- 
buhl, from Trachesselwald, journey- 
ing down the Rhine, on his way to 
the Xew World, reached Xinwe^en. 



June 27, i; 



Martin Kucndiir. Hans 



Herr and others, exiled Bernese 
Mennonites. write from Lt'jndon to 
friends in Amsterdam oi their im- 
pending departure for America. 

June 29, 1710 — First Lancaster Coun- 
ty settlers sailed from London in 
ship. "]\[ary Hope:" reached Phila- 
delphia in September. 

Octol)er 10. 1710 — Order issued to Ja- 
cob Taylor to survey 10.000 acres in 
(now) Lancaster County, for the 
Colony at Pequea — "Swissers lately 
arrived in this province." 

April 2y, 171 1 — Six thousand, four hun- 
dred and seventeen acres distribuiod 
among the {purchasers. 

June 18. 171 1 — Gov. Gookin holding 
treaty with tlie Indians at Conestoga. 
requires them to l^e friends "with 
the Palatines settled at Pequea." 

September 12. 1712 — Maria W'eren- 
bauer. Weimar or Fiere a French 






586 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Huguenot widow from Strasburg-, 
Germany, at the instance of ATartin 
Kendig-, has 2,000 acres of land con- 
firmed to her, east of Strasburg. 
Hence the Feree, Lefever, and other 
families, descendants of whom were 
General John F. and Admiral Wil- 
liam Reynolds Admiral \\'. S. and 
Governor Schley, and many other 
distinguished persons. 
1712-1717 — ]\Iartin Kendig returns to 
Switzerland and brings over Peter 
Yordea, Jacob Miller, Hans 
Tschantz, Henry Funk, John 
Houser, John Bachman, Jacob 
■ Weber, Christopher Schlegel and 
their families and others. 

Later came Christian Brenneman, 
Hans Kaiggy, Christian Hershi, 
Hans Pupather (Brubaker), Hen- 
rich Baer, Peter Lehman, Benedic- 
tus Witmer, ^lelchor Brenneman, 
Henrich Funk, ^lichael Schenck, Jo- 
hannes Landes, Hans Huber, Isaac 
Kauffman, ^lelchor Erisman, and 
others; Jacob Hostetter, Jacob 
Kreider, Hans Graff, Benedictus 
Venerich, Rev. Jacob Boehm. (the 
first blacksmith in the Pequea re- 
gion, and father of Martin Boehm, 
founder of the United Brethren 
Church), Flans Faber, Theodorus 
Eby, Heinrich Zimmerman and 
others. 

February 8, 1717 — The Proprietors 
"agreed with ^lartin Kendig and 
Hans Herr for 5,000 acres of land to 
be taken up in several parcels about 
Gonestoga and I^equea Creeks at 10 
pounds ct. to be paid at the returns 
of the surveys and usual quit rents, 
it being for settlements for several 
of their countrymen that are lately 
arrived here." The warrant for this 
land is signed on September 22, to 
the following: Hans Mover, 350 
acres; Chr. Flearsay and FLins Pu- 
pather. 1,000; Hans Kaiggy, 100; 
Mich. Shenk and Flenry Pare, 400; 
Ffans Pupather. 700; Peter Lehman, 
.?oo Molker T^enerman, 500: Henry 
and John Funk, 550; Chr. Fransis- 
cus, 510; ^lichael Shank, 200; Jacob 



Fundus and Ulrich Plarvey, 150; 
Emanuel Herr, 500; Abr. Herr, 600; 
Flans Tuber, Isaac Coffman and 
Melkerman, 675; Mich. Miller, 500. 
[Minute Book of Board of l^roperty. 
Pa. Arch. 2nd Ser. xix, 622.] 

1717 — John Brubaker and Christian 
Hershey patent 1,000 acres in East 
Hempfield — Brubaker erects Abbey- 
ville grist mill, the first in the coun- 
ty. The Landis Brothers — Rev. Ben- 
jamin, Felix and John — Swiss Men- 
noni-tes, came- to Anierica from 
Mannheim, on the Rhine, whither 
they had been driven from Zurich. 
Benjamin located in East Lampeter 
township. Felix patented 400 acres 
of land from the London Company, 
in Gonestoga township. John first 
settled in Bucks county but later 
took up 300 acres at the junction of 
Middle and Hammer Creeks, in what 
is now Warwick township. Hans 
Graff moves from Pequea Colony to 
Graff's Thai, West Earl township, 
and takes up 1,150 acres. 

1719 — Christian FTerr stone house 
erected and used as a meeting house. 
Log meeting house on Brubaker- 
Flershey tract, west of Lancaster, 
built in 1730. Byerland log meeting 
house erected in 1747; Millersville 
meeting house, 1746; "Stone" meet- 
ing house in 1755; Providence town- 
ship meeting house, 1766; Hernley 
meeting house, 1766; stone building 
at Mellinger's, 1767; log church at 
Landisville, 1790: Groft'dale place of 
worship, 1755: A\'eaverland, 1766; 
Bowmanville. 1794. 

1718 — Assessment lists of Gonestoga 
township show added names of Jos- 
eph Stemen. Isaac Lel'\n-re. Hans 
Houre. Martin Baer. Henry Kendig. 
Andrew Kauffman. Isaac Kauff- 
man, Jacob r)rubakor, ^^lelchoir 
Erisman. Hance lUirghalter, Hance 
Xeucomer. Jacob Landes, Haiice 
Henry Xeff, Franz Xetf. }\dix Lan- 
des. Jr., Martin ]»oycr. Hance Boyer, 
I^iencdictus Brackiull i P.rechtbuhl) 
and Christian Schans. Lands pur- 
chased in Manor township by John 



CHROXOLOGY OF FIRST SETTLEMENT OF LANCASTER COFNTY 



o8T- 



arid Abraham PI err, John and Mi- 
chael Shenk, Martin Funk, Michael 
Dauj^-hman and others. 

1/22 — Nicholas Erb and others arrive 
from Europe and settle on Hammer 
Creek, Warwick township; followed 
by Christian iJomberger and Peter 
Reist. 

1724 — John Jacob and Henry ^\'eber 
buy 3,000 acres from Penn and es- 
tablish Weber's Thai ( Weaverdale), 
now in East Earl township. 

1724 — Dunkards (Tunkcrs) follow the 
Mennonites into Conestoga, having" 
the year previous made a proselyt- 
ing tour throup-h the county, visiting 
GrafTthal Weberthal and Conrad 
Beissel. Thcv oro-anize a consrreoa- 
tion on Mill Creek and worship for 
seven years at the house of Rudolf 
Xagele (East Earl) whom, with 
others later, they convert from the 
^Mennonites. 

No\'ember 30, 1725 — Martin Boehm 
born south of Willow Street ; con- 
verted by the \\>sleyan revival be- 
comes one of the founders of the 
United Brethren church, and later a 
pioneer Methodist. He died April 15, 
1812; and Kishop Asbury preached 
his funeral sermon at ''Boehm's 
Chapel." 

1725 — First conference of the Menno- 
• nite Church in Pennsyhania. includ- 
ing the congregations of Skip-jack. 
Germantown, Great Swamp, Man- 
taut and Conestoga (Pecpiea). Min- 
isters from Conestoga present: Hans 
Burghaltzer, Christian Herr, Bene- 
dict Herschi, .Martin Baer and Jo- 
hannes Bowman. 

1726 — Kurtz establishes first iron 
works in Lancaster County. 

1727 — Assessment list sluiws recent 
arrivals of Christian Mt^sser, Sam- 
uel Hess. Al)raham lairkhalter, Jo- 
hannes Hess, Joseph Buckwalter, 
Peter r>aumgardner, Jacob X'ussli. 
who settled in Mount Joy t'.nvnship, 
Hans Schnebele, Jacob Guth, Jacob 
Beyer, Hans Jacob Schnebele, Hein- 
rich Musselman. Jac(.>b Kurtz. John 
Ulricli liuber, Johannes Lichty, Jo- 



hannes Stauffer, Johann Heinrich 
Bar, Jacob Weber, Heinrich Weber, 
Johannes Weber, George Weber^ 
David Longenecker, Peter Eby, 
Matthias StoutTer, Johannes Guth. 
Christian Steiner, Adam Brandt^ 
Simon Konig, Johannes Rupp, 
Philipp Dock. Rudol^)h Xagcdi. and 
?klichael Eckerlin. 

1728 — Conrad Beissel withdraws from 
the Dunkards, organizes the Seven 
Day Baptists' community at Eph- 
rata; joined by Michael Eckerlin, 
John ]\Ieylin, and other Mennonites^ 

September 14. 1727 — Quakers become 
alarmed at numerous Palatine immi- 
gration and the Principal Council 
compels lists of immigrants and de- 
clarations of allegiance to Great 
Britain and to the Pennsylvania 
Proprietary. Hence Rupp's 30.000 
names. 

September 2^. i7-7 — The ship "James 
Goodwill" brings Abraham Eber- 
sole. Ulric Stauffer, Peter and Ulric 
Zug. 

September 30. 1727 — On the ship 
"Mollev" come Hans Funk. Martin 
Kendigh. Samuel Oberholtz. Chris- 
tian Wenger (founder of the Men- 
nonite \\'enger family). Peter. Felix. 
Hans and Samuel Gut (now Good) 
Hans Halteman. Johannes Kurtz. 
Ulrich Riesser. and others followed 
on October 2. 1727. 

1729 — Among the arri\als with names 
to become familiar in Lancaster 
County were Dielman Kolb and L'l- 
rich Root (Rutt). Jacob Grebil 
(Graybiin. John Eschleman aiid 
Hendrick Sne\ele (Suavely). 

May 10. 1729 — Act passed esta))lish- 
ing Lancaster County, .\ugust 10, 
1749. York County cut otY from Lan- 
caster. March 11. 1752. Berks Coun- 
ty created, taking part of Lancaster. 
Januar\- 27, 1 7^0. Lancaster County 
territtuv (liminished by organization 
o\ Cumberlaiul. March 21. 1772. 
Xorthumborlaud County takes part 
(^i Lancaster. March 4. 1785. Dau- 
l^hin County created out oi Lancas- 
ter. February 16, 1813. Lebanon 



588 



THE PEXNSYLVAjXIA-GERMAaN 



County organized out of parts of 
Dauphin and Lancaster. 

May I, 1730 — Lancaster officially made 
the County seat — the first courts 
having been held at Jc^hn Posthle- 
waite's ordinary (or ta\-ern) in Con- 
estoga township. 

First case tried in the new Coun- 
ty of Lancaster was [Morris Can- 
naday's trial for larcenv of 14 
pounds 7 shillings from Daniel 
Cookson of Salisbury. lie was con- 
victed, whipped, kept in jail for a 
year to pay the fine and costs, and 
then sold for six years' service to 
John Laurence for 16 pounds. 

May 15, 1730 — Andrew Hamilton and 
wife convey to the County of Lan- 
caster land for a court house site, 
county prisc>n and public market 
house. 

1729 — Abraham Strickler purchases a 
large tract of land from Jacob 
Stoner, at Massanuttin (now Page 
County) Virginia, and becomes the 
Mennonite pioneer of the Shenan- 
doah Valley ; he was accompanied or 
soon followed by ]\lichael Kauffman, 
a Bernese exile, from Lancaster 
County. In 1735 Jacob Funk and 
John Prupecker, of Lancaster Coun- 
ty, bought lands on the Xorth Fork 
of the Shenandoah; in 1736 Martin 
Cofifman and Christian Xiswanger 
followed. 

1730 — Lidividual ]\Iennonites enter the 
Cumberland A'alley and press on to 
the Shenandoah Valley; settlements 
'from Lancaster County and Colon- 
ies follow. Christian Blanch, from 
Lancaster County, was the first 
Mennonite to cross the mountains 
and locate at Berlin, Cambria Coun- 
ty, in 1767; his brother, Jacob, lo- 
cated in Somerset County in 17QO, 
became the first preacher of the 
faith there and subsequently a 
bishop. Afterwards they spread 
over Fayette, Westmoreland, Blair, 
Clearfield, Butler and other counties 
of Western Penns>-hania ; and into 
Ohio and all the States of the ^Nlid- 
dle West. 



August II, 1732 — Arrived on the 
" Samuel, '' from London, Jacob 
Oberholtzer, Oswald fiostetter, 
Hans Musselman, George Bender, 
Ulrich r)urkhalter, Jacob Gut, Ja- 
cob Albrecht, Michael Kreider, Ja- 
cob Stanffer, Andreas Shelter. Jo- 
hannes }3recld)ill, Wendel Brech- 
biehl, Heinrich Ramsauer and Peter 
Shellenberger. 

1739 — 40 — Dreadfully severe winter; 
deep snows ; great spring freshets. 

1741 — Oldest marked Mennonite 
graveyard in the county, at the 
Brick Church; L. G., 1741. 

1742 — Count Zinzendorf. the Moravian 
apostle, visits Lancaster, preaches 
in the court house. He fails to in- 
volve the Lancaster County Menn<:)- 
nites in his effort to unite the va- 
rious religious elements in Pennsyl- 
vania. 

1748 — Translation of '"The Martyr's 
\Mirror, published at the Ephrata 
Press for the ^lennonites and at 
their expense. The first edition of 
this notabe work was published in 
the Dutch language at Haerlem in 
Holland, in 163 1, but the edition 
that formed the foundation for the 
later editions is that of Dr. T. J. 
Von Bracht, published in Amster- 
dam in 1685 in the Dutch language. 
This is the chief work of the Men- 
nonites and traces from the earliest 
times the history of those Christians 
who opposed infant baptism and 
warfare. It details the persecutions 
of the Mennonites by the Spaniards 
in the Xetherlands and the Calvin- 
ists in Switzerland, and also de- 
scribes the death and sufferings of 
many individuals among the later 
^Fennonites. 

1742 — The Lancaster County Amish 
successfully petition the General As- 
send)ly for special naturalization 
laws on account of their conscien- 
tious scruples against the oath re- 
quired. 

1750 — Mennonite settlers from Lan- 
caster organize cungregaiions in 
Dover township, York County; in 



CHRONOLOGY OF FIRST SETTLEMENT OF LANCASTER COUNTY 



589 



Heidelbori^ township, near Hanover. 
(1753) ; the Penns grant twelve 
acres for a ^[ennonitc meeting" house 
and school building in York County 
(I774J. 

1755 — Christian Burkhart plants the 
faith in the Leiterslmrg district, 
Washington County, Maryland, fol- 
lowed by John Reit'f and Jacob Good 
in 1765. 

December 14, 1763 — Conestoga In- 
dians massacred by "Paxton Boys'' 
at Indiantown. 

December 2"], 1763 — Remnant of tribe 
murdered in the Avork house at- 
tached to the old jail, where Fulton 
Op ra House now stands. 

June /*, 1775 — Henry Boehm born on 



Boehm homestead, between Willow 
Street anrl Herrville; becomes itin- 
erant M. E. preacher. Boehm's 
chapel erected in 1791 (still stand- 
ing), first 2vl. E. church in Lancas- 
ter; becomes centre of Methodism. 
Boehm travels and preaches through 
many States, west, south and out to 
the western wilderness; dies a cen- 
tenarian. 

1812 — X'ew or "Reformed"' Mennonitcs 
organized. John Herr. baptized by 
Abraham Landis, elected bishop and 
baptizes Landis. who is chosen 
preacher and Abraham Grolt. wlio is 
made a deacon of the new organiza- 
tion. 



Slatington, Pa. 

By S. DeLong, Slatington, Pa. 




NOTE. — This is the fourth of our series 
of articles on the Scenic and Historic Le- 
high Valley, articles having appeared in the 
May, June and September issues. 

VERY tourist should have 
an objective point, a goal, 
for his trip in order to 
keep up his enthusiasm. 
Our party left Philadel- 
phia this morning via the 
Liberty Bell electric route 
and after a change of cars at Allen- 
town we are speeding towards our goal, 
Slatington — "the town at the end of 
the line." 

Immediately after leaving X'eff's we 
look towards the east and south and a 
grand \'iew meets our eye. A stretch 
of fertile country lies before us of 
about fifteen miles scjuare. The smc-)ke 
from the xarious indtistries along the 
Lehigh \'alley frcmi Allentown to 
Cement(Mt is seen rising. Our trip 
now takes us o\er a rollings country iox 
about five mile> and we reach Fried- 
ensville, a small village at the fr»ot t^l 
School Iliil and a mile from Slating- 
ton. This village is properly namcvl. 



Besides a small grocery and a post of- 
fice there is not enough excitement in 
the place at any time to cause a breach 
of the peace. At this point our car as- 
cends a short, bu'. steep, hill. The 
speed of the car is scarcelv att'ected, 
the high-tension power oi the lii\e 
being never- failing. In a few minutes 
we reach the summit of School Hill 
and here we signal to the conductor to 
stop. As we alight and face towards 
the north the sublimest natural scen- 
ery greets us that we have met with 
since we left Philadelphia. T \\ e 
abruptness of tliis transformaticu adds 
to its beauty. In front of us. as well 
as to our right and left, as tar as we 
can see, our line <^i vision is inter- 
rupted by the Blue Ridge Mountains. 
If it were not for the well-defined Le- 
high daf"), so beautifully grand, the un- 
initiated would say we have come to 
the uttermost part o\ the world. "Tlie 
world with a fence around" almost 
ceases to be a joke as the scene re- 
minds us ot the jumping- off place of 
the earth with the mountains serving 
as a guard rail against accidents. The 
beautiful Lehigh Gap 1k>K1s our atten- 



i90 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Lehigh Water Ga* 



Pa. 






*^^^, 



■%«,^ 



U^iJSii^^liiilSiiM^i^^&iili^^ 



.^ 



^jg^^^j^^^jg^^^,^,;^ 






^^■^a^ffipM^Mr^n'^ 



:-\:^i«^. 



>>-:. Ciii'l^'-ih ■.,^iKi^i^ 



k 



1.EHIGH WATER CxAP 



tiou from this view-point. It is per- 
haps not so romantic as a vicAV from 
Flagstaff, Alauch Chunk, but it is by 
far the grandest scene of anything 
along the line from Philadelphia to 
Slatington. One of our party remarks 
^'how providential that nature has left 
this gap in the mountain so the Lehigh 
River can flow down through it." This 
is one way of looking at it but \\o\ the 
scientific way. It is true the ri\-er runs 
through the gap but few people real- 
ize that the river created its own 
chaimel. ^Millions of years ago the 
water, dammed up behind this moun- 
tain, in its raging effort to reach the 
sea, found a depression in the moun- 
tain chain and. wo doubt, tlowed mer 
it at a much higher elevation then. 
The friction, caused by the water's ac- 
tion, for these millions of years, with- 
out doubt, caused this -well-defined, 
beautiful gap which, economically con- 
sidered, is of such great importance to 
the railroads that pass through it. 



As our eyes turn to the right we 
notice another gap a]:)Out five miles 
east. This is called Little Gap and 
Daniels vi lie is located at the fi>ot of it. 
Still farther east we see the Delaware 
Water Gap, which, as everybody 
knows, is a great summer resort. To 
our left we see the mountaitis dividing 
us from apparently everything beyond 
as far as we can see. About twelve 
miles to our left, around Tripi^li, \ve 
notice a high point in the mountain. 
This is called r)ear Ivixd<s and the view 
fr<^m that point cannot be adecpiately 
described. It must l)e seen to be ap- 
preciated. On a clear da\- a tourist 
will be al)le to see into nine counties 
from this point with naked eye. The 
following named counties y^{ rennsyl- 
vania can be seen : Scluiylkill, Carbon. 
Monn^e, Xorthampton. Lu/erne.IUicks. 
MiMitgcMuery. Lehigh and I'erks. It is 
fifteen hmulred feet abo\ e sea lc\el 
and on account oi the wonderful scen- 
erv manv tourists are drawn to these 



SLATIXGTON, PA. 



591 




BEAR ROCKS 

rocks. The city of Rcadini^ is distinct- 
ly visible and the smoke from tlie 
numerous inckistries is seen rising. T he 
city of Allentown is plainly seen with 
its high church steeples and other high 
objects. Looking north the renowned 
Switchback Railroad, above blanch 
Chunk can be seen. The Delaware 
Water Gap and many other places of 
interest to tourists can be seen from 
these rocks. Looking down on either 
side of the mountain we see fertile 
valleys that will always be remem- 
bered. Tourists, who have seen the 
Alps, say while this scene is not as 
grand as that of the A1")S it ranks sec- 
ond only to anything they e\er saw. 
Tourists coming to Slatington can get 
to these rocks in half an hour bv auto- 



;:^^.'-'> 




-'■■•' ' -■-■.,«.■ •> 


*. ■- . 













m(jl)ile and such a visit will ne\er be 
regretted by any one. 

About tw(j miles nf)rth of licar Rocks 
is another beautiful nature spot called 
the l>ake Oven. It also affords a com- 
manding view and has attained great 
fame as a resort. It has for years been 
a signal station in the L'nited States 
Coast Survey and has been <jf vast 
benefit for that purpc-se. A trip to 
Bear Rocks would be incomplete with- 
out a visit to Bake Oven at the same 
time. 

Before leaving School Mill, from 
which point we behold this grand nat- 
ural scene, we cannot help remark- 
ing what an ideal spot this wr>uld be 
for a summer resort. It is like lo.>king 










h 1 



KF.RN'S S.\W Ml 1.1, 



M.VIN STREET. SLATINGTON. LOOKING NORTH 

into the workshop of the Creator to 
contemplate the natural scenery from 
here. The grand stretch ox mt">untain, 
the beautiful Gap, the fertile valleys all 
around us all coml)ine to inspire us 
with feelings of awe and admirati mi. 
If Moses had a grander view of Canaan 
he failed to descrilK^ it. A toriinio 
awaits any enierprising man who will 
build a hotel here, lie c«nild furnish 
high living at a li>w ci>si. One S(|uare 
meal |)er day woaild satisfy his guests. 
for the rest he c«Hild feed them on pure 
ozone with a can of Lehigh Cou!Uy 
buttermilk thrown in. What a magnih- 
cent place \o watch a sunrise or a sun- 



592 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



set or a thunder storm. What surprised 
the writer a !::;ood deal is the fact that 
some people that cross back and forth 
over this hill, almost dail}-, confessed 
they never saw the scenery to admire 
it. Sureh' some people "have eyes but 
see not." There are too many people 
vdio attach a commercial \'aiue to all 
things. It is either dollars and cents 
or it is nothing". A tourist ^vants to 
have a love of nature and of the beau- 
tifid in his heart before he will be able 
to appreciate such a natural scene. A 
man that cannot see beauty in a 
flower, a cloud or a sunset is to be 
pitied. I would advise such people to 
read Stoddard's Lectures, also to study 
the works of John Burroughs, the nat- 
uralist. 

But a cemetery to our left reminds 
us that time is fleeting and that we 
cannot always be here, so we start to 
walk to town. The Transit Company's 
cars, from where we are, run by 
gravity to the end of the line, al^out a 
mile from this point. Slatington is not 
an old town. Previous to 1850 only a 
few farm houses stood on the site 
where the town is located today. I'p 
to the time of the discovery of slate 
nearly all the land hereabouts was 
owned by the Kerns. The original 
name of the place was A\'a\'erly, but 
when it was incorporated into a P>or- 
ough in 1864 its name was changed to 
Slatington, the name being suggestive 




of its leading industry. The history of Transit Comnanv's tracks and 



<R#*'WWi^*^ 









■is 



.■m:sia 



fiJ"'i.i"i i^ » .■■aJiitnl 



n, 



1.^ ^± 



SLATINGTON HIGU SCHOOI, 



M.\IN STREET. SLATINGTON 
LOOKING SOUTH 

the Kern family goes back to 1737 and 
perhaps the oldest building now stand- 
ing in the town is a stone barn with 
the date of its erection dis'played as 
1807. One of the Kerns owned and 
operated a saw-mill here during the 
years that Fort Allen, at W'eissport 
was built and IkMijamin Franklin, in 
his report to Governor iMorris, in Jan- 
uary, 1756, states that he procured 
boards and timber for the building of 
this Fort, from Kern's saw-mill. A his- 
torit building, still standing along 
Trout Creek, in the middle of the 
town, is the old stone grist mill which 
is operated by Alfred J. Kern, Main 
street, Slatington, extends from about 
half way up the slope of School Hill to 
the terminus of the Kehio-li X'alley 

is a full 

mile long. All the hotels and business 
places are along thi- street. The town 
is noted for its la^ge and well-ap- 
pointed stores. There are three com- 
modious school buildings that accom- 
odate over one thousand children. 
Two banks take care of the financial 
end. Si.x luuels furnish accommoda- 
tiiMis to travelers. Ten Protestant and 
one Catholic church look after the 
spiritual welfare of its inhabitants. 
Tlie toufi has the distinction of having 
the pUiCSt water of any town in the 
state ot Pennsylvania. It is bronght, 
through two eight inch pipes, from 



SLATING TON, PA. 



193 



the base of the Bhie Mountain and 
runs by gravity, no pumping- being 
necessary. As already stated, the 
leading industry of the place is the 
manufacture of roofing slate and all 
other slate products, such as school 
slates, mantels, black-boards, sink 
tops, etc. These slate products are 
shipped to all countries of the world. 
The Slatington Rolling ]\lill Co. have 
their plant located here and while their 
capacity is not large they enjoy the 
reputation of making the best qualit}^ 
of iron in the United States. When 
other brands fail "Slatington Iron" fills 
the bill. The Post, Sheldon Corporation 



operate a large silk mill here which 
gives employment to a few hundred 
hands. 

For health and cleanliness Slating- 
ton enjoys an enviable reputation. 
Tourists coming here can reach, by 
train, such places as Mauch Chunk, 
Glen C)noko and Switch Back in 
twenty minutes. People coming here, 
if they will take these side trips, to- 
gether with a visit to Bake Oven and 
Bear Rocks, if they are lovers of na- 
ture, will go back and, like the Queen 
of Sheba, will sav the half has not been 
told. 




\ \\ 









A "XIN'GTON HOTKI« 



594 



Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania 

By Cyrus Hamilton Williston, B. S. Shamokin, Pa. 
TAMMANY 




there is any special ft-a- 
ttjre of Indian history of 
v/hich very little is re- 
corded, it is the biog- 
raphy of this greatest of 
a:'; Indian chiefs. A\'e have 
the recorded history of 
chiefs famed for War, 
Love and Hate, but nowhere is there 
^ one who for pure goodness of heart, 
I outshines Tarnmany. 

In Xoven-jber. 1682, William Penn 
; came in an oj^en boat from Upland, 
I now the city of Chester, and landed at 
I Kenquenaku, the site of the present 
I city of Philadelphia. Here he met 
1 Tammany and the assembled Dela- 
! wares, and made the "treaty without 
; an oath which was never broken." 
The parchment roll on which Tam- 
many inscribed his name has been lost 
to posterity, only the belt which com- 
memorates tliat historic treaty re- 
mains. It is in the possession of the 
Historical .Society of Pennsylvania. 

In the ("olonial Records, we find the 
foUowin;^^ deed to William Penn. 

"We do acknowledge to have received 
full Hi\ih\i'.icXU)u for all that tract of land 
formerly h^ion^ing to Taminents (Tam- 
many) antl othf;rs, which we parted with to 
William I'«-nii. I'roprietor of this Province of 
Pennsylv.'tfiia. Tho said tract lying between 
Neshomeiiah und T'oriuessing, upon the river 
Delawar<^ and extending backwards to the 
utmost hoiitids of the said Province. There- 
fore wo do hffi-chy acquit, release and dis- 
charge the ;<;ild }>roprietor, his heirs and 
successor-H from any further claims, dues, 
demands wfia,t;io«!ver, concerning the said 
lands or any other Tract of Land claimed 
by us, from the beginning of the world, to 
the date of this day hereof. Witness our 
hands at I'hlKnh-li.hia, the 15th day of June 
1692 

The mark X King Taminent. 
His name is also attached to a deed 
to William Penn. dated lunc 2:^th. 
I^;83, for land along the" Schuvikill 
Hiver. On June 23rd. 1682, he deeds 
the land between Nesheminah and 



Pcmmapecka creeks, to William Penn. 
He received the following articles 
in payment. 

4 handfulls bells 
10 tobacco boxes 
6 coats 



5 pairs stockings 
20 bars of lead. 
2 guns. 
2 kettles. 

5 hoes. 

7 half-gills 

6 axes 

3S yds. dufhlls 
16 knives 
2 blankets 
10 glasses 
15 combs 
100 needles 



8 shirts 

20 fish-hooks 

5 hats 
25 lbs. powder 

1 peck of pipes 
12 awls 
10 tobacco tongs 

4 yds. Stroud water 

5 caps 

9 gimbletts 
scissers 



11 pr. 

No one knows wdiere nor wdien 
Tammany was born, nor where he 
died. Plis people honored him as a 
favorite of the Happy Hunting 
Grounds, who held frequent intercourse 
with the Great Spirit. His was a pure 
and lofty spirit, a product of primitive 
environment, unsullied b y contact 
with an alien race or his own. It was 
said that those wdio ktiew him best, 
loved him best. 

Uncertain of the date of his birth, 
the I2th of ]\Iay Avas assigned as the 
anniversary of the event. It was an- 
nually celebrated by his admirers for 
many years ; until on account o'f the 
excesses committed, by the public, and 
in the army, it was discontinued by or- 
der of the Secretary of War. This 
event is now celebrated in proper style 
by the Improved Order of Red Men. 

The name of the great chief is kept 
alive by the great political organiza- 
txou, knoAvn as Tammany Hall, of Xew 
York. \*arious spellings oi his name 
are given, the following being the 
most common : Tamina, Tammany. 
Tammany, Tattimanen, Tcnicny, Tam- 
manend. Tamaned. 

In 1685, May 30th, a great treaty was 
made with the Indians, whereby a 
large portion of Pennsylvania was 
gi\-en up to the whites. On the deed 



LXDIAN CHIEFS OF PEXXSYLVANIA 



59i 



for this land, the name of Tammany 
docs not appear. From this we infer 
that he must have died between the 
last appearance of his name (1683) and 
the date of this treaty C16S5). The fol- 
lowing' legend of Tammany is attrib- 
uted to the researches of the late Dr. 
Samuel L. Mitchell. 

Long before the discoveries of Fer- 
dinand de Soto. Tammany and his peo- 
ple inhabited that extensive and fertile 
tract of land west of the Allegheny 
Mountains, and extending northward 
of the Ohio river. In his youth he was 
famed for his exploits as a hunter and 
warrior. / 

From beyond the Father of Waters, 
to the Great Salt Lake, his deeds are 
recounted at e\ cry council lire. Me 
waged for many years a war with his 
great enemy, the Evil Spirit ; during 
this time his courage and prowess ex- 
ceeded all that is related in song of the 
Grecian Hercules. 

The Evil Spirit took every occasion 
to annoy the great chief and caused 
poison sumach and stinging nettles 
to grow in the land, which diffused 
virulent exhalations through the air, 
poisoning his people. Tammany, af- 
ter various eff'orts to destroy them, 
finally took advantage of an excessive 
drought, set fire to the prairies and 
consumed the venomous plants, which 
burned with so much rapidity that the 
Evil Spirit, himself, who was skulking 
around, was sorely singed by the 
flames. In revenge for this, his enemy 
sent innumerable rattle-snakes to in- 
fest the land, which Tammany de- 
stroyed by sowing the seeds of the 
ash-tree upon the grounds, and cured 
their bites by seneka-root and plan- 
tain. 

After this the Evil Spirit l^rought 
great droves of mammoths and (Hher 
huge animals fr(Mn behind the Great 
Lakes and turned them loose upon 
Tammanial territories. These beasts 
caused great devastation among the 
people of Tammany. They were swift 
and ferocious, and arrows fell blunted 
and l)roken from their sides. Tam- 



many caused salt to be sprinkled at 
various places throughout his domin- 
ions, forming salt licks. As the ani- 
mals went to these licks for the salt, 
he caused large pits to be dug which 
were concealed by means of trees and 
leaves. Into these they fell and were 
killed, being inpaled upon the points 
of the sharpened trees, and their bones 
are found there to this day to confirm 
the truth of the story. 

His enemey was mortified and en- 
raged at his disappointment in his en- 
deavors to injure Tammany, and now 
tried another expedient to effect his 
purpose. He had a large dam thrown 
across the lake, where the city of De- 
troit now stands, causing a great ris- 
ing of the waters of lakes Huron and 
}vlichigan, which was intended to del- 
uge the country south of it, where lay 
the territory of Tammany. He also 
threw another dam across at Niagara, 
raising the waters of Lake Erie. The 
disastrous effects of this, Tammany 
averted by opening the drains in which 
the waters of the [Miami, the Wabash, 
and the Alleghany now run, and by 
cuttings a ditch which forms the pres- 
ent channel of the Ohio. For this he 
was pronounced by his people "the 
savior of his country." The Lakes 
gradually subsided, but the rapids of 
Detroit, and the Falls of Xiagara, still 
remain as monuments of the astonish- 
ing event. 

After this the Evil Spirit stirred up 
the Indians of the East and Xorth 
against Tammany, and a long and 
bloody Avar ensued: but they were at 
length defeated anti a great number 
taken prisoners. When they found 
themselves in the power of Tammany 
they expected to be put to the torture. 
Each prepared himself for the horrible 
execution, and like Alkmoonac. had 
tlotermined to sing liis death song. 
while gashes were separatins^ limb 
from limb, and bla/ing splinters stuck 
into his tlesh. Imagine their surprise 
when they learned that tlie victorious 
chieftain liad determined to spare their 
lives. He or«lered them \o be brtnii^^ht 



596 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



to his wig-warn where he delivered to 
them a discourse so full of reason and 
sound sense that they stood abashed 
in his presence. 

The Evil Spirit seeing all his plans 
frustrated, determined to attack Tam- 
many himself. 

Tammany knew however by the 
moving of the bushes, that his enemy 
was secreted, and pretending not to 
notice the discox'ery, he advanced, and 
with his hickory staff, he dealt him 
such a blow, that he bellowed out with 
pain — "they chnched and dreadful was 
the crashing of timber which they trod 
down in the scuffle. Xe\ er since the 
time when the giants piled mountain 
upon mountain were there such exer- 
tions of animal strength. For the 
space of more than a league square, 
not a tree was left standing — all were 
crushed and trampled tiat by the com- 
batants. At length, after unceasing- 
exertions for many days (50), Tam- 
many, skillfully taking advantage of 
the hip-lcclc. threw Iiim. head and 
shoulders into the Ohio, but an im- 
mense rock staiding in the way, he 
was unable to quite effect his purpose. 
He then seize i him by the throat, and 
would certainly have strangled him, 
had not h's wrist and thumb been so 
sprained and weakened that they 
could not grip him hard enough to 
stop his breathing. Tammany by this 
time grew faint aitd.exhausted, which 
the Evil Spirit perceiving, slipped out 
of his hands, but as he departed he \vas 
told to confine himself to the cold and 
remote regions of Labrador and Hud- 
son's Bay, and was threatened with 
instant death if he should ever be 
caught showing his face on this side oi 
the Great Lakes." 

After this Tammany devoted him- 
self to the arts of peace. He brought 
maize, beans, and tobacco from their 
uncultivated states, and domesticated 
plum trees and oni(Mis. I'y these 
things he endeared himself to his peo- 
ple. His government was not of the 
patriarchal kind, mild but tirm, and his 
people looked up to him as a father. 



and referred all their differences and 
disputes to him. His decisions were al- 
wavs law. Plenty pervaded his land 
and his people were contented and 
happy. Their watchwords were 
"Tammany and Liberty." 

About this time Mauco Capac. the 
great Inca of Peru and descendant of 
the Sun, who had heard of the wisdom 
and powers of Tammany, dispatched 
messengers inviting him to an inter- 
view, the place of which he would 
mention might be Mexico, a spot about 
equi-distant from the dominions of 
each, where he wished to consult him 
on a form of government which he was 
about to establish for the Peruvian 
nation. Tammany, before departing, 
called together his tribes and delixered 
the following precepts to each. 

'•Children cf the First Tribe: The Eagle 
shoulfl be j'OLir model. He soars abo\e the 
clouds, loves the mountain tops, takes a 
broad survey of the country round, and his 
watcht'uUness lets nothing escape him. 
From him learn to direct your thoughts to 
elevated objects, to rise superior to the 105s 
cf prejudice and passion, to behold in the 
clear atmosphere of reason all things in 
their true light and posture, and never ex- 
pose yourself to be surprised while the sun 
shines, in a ft of drowsiness of slumber. 

"Children of the Secoud Tribe: The Tiger 
affords a useful lesson for you. The ex- 
ceeding agility cf this creature, the extraor- 
dinary quickness of his sight^ and above all, 
his discriminating power in the dark, teach 
you to be stirring and active in your re- 
spective callings, to Icok sharp to every en- 
gagement you enter into, and to let neither 
misty days nor storniv nights make yon lose 
sight of the worthy object of your pursuit. 

"Children of the Third Tribe: You are to 
pay attention to the Deer. He possesses 
uncommon readiness cf hearing — can judge 
of sounds at a great distance. In like man- 
ner oi'en ye your ears to whatever is i^ass- 
ing; collect the substance of distant rumors, 
and learn before dan-zer surrounds your 
corn-fiolds and wigwams, what is going on 
at a distance. 

"Children of the Fourth Tribe: There is 
one qualitv in the Wolf to which I would 
call your attention. Flis wide extent cf nos- 
trils catches the atoms floating in the air and 
gives him notice of the approach cf his 
i>ro>' or his foe. Thus when power crows 
rank, and like a contasrion sends abroad its 
pestilent streams. I see tiio Wolf, like the 
Myrmidons of Tammany, the first to rouse. 



INDIAN CHIEF^S OF PENNSYLVANIA 



oG>T 



turn his head and snuff opi)ression in every 
breeze. 

"Children of the Fifth Tribe: You, my 
children are to take useful hints of the 
Buffaloe. He is one of the strongest ani- 
mals in the wilderness; but strong as he is, 
he loves the company of liis kind, and is not 
fond of ventjrins upon distant journeys. 
This is v/ise in the Buffaloe, and it will be 
wise for you to imitate him. Operate in con- 
cert, stand together, support one another, 
and you will ba a mountain that nobody can 
move; fritter down your strength in divi- 
sions, become the spirit of parties, let wtg-- 
warn be divided against wigwam, and you 
will be an ant-hill, which a baby can kick 
down . 

"Children of the Sixth Tribe: That social 
and valuable creature the Dog, offers some- 
thing for you to profit by. The warmth of 
his attachment the disinterestedness of his 
friendship, and the unchangefulness of his 
fidelity, mark him as an object for your imi- 
tation. Do but love with half the warmth, 
sincerity, and steadiness with which these 
your constant hunting companions, love you 
all, and happiness, comfort and joy, will 
make your land their dwelling place, and 
ye shall experience all the pleasures that 
human nature can bear. 

"Children of the Seventh Tribe: You are 
to take pattern after the Beaver. His in- 
dustry merits your regard. Forests must be 
cleared, hills levelled, rivers turned to ac- 
complish your plans. Labor and perseve- 
rance overcome all things; for I have heard 
your old people say their ancestors, assisted 
in making the sun. immense as he appears. 
by collecting into one heap, all the fireflies 
and glow-worms they could find; and the 
moon was made in like manner formed by 
gathering into a pile all the fox-fire or 
phosphoric rotten wood, they could procure. 

"Children of the Eighth Tribe: The Squir- 
rel, my children, offers something profitable 
to you. It is his practice, as he has the 
fore-sight, to collect acorns, chestnuts and 
walnuts, and carry them in large quantities 
to his hole, for the winter. In like manner 
it becomes you to look forward to the win- 
ter of life, and have some i)rovision neces- 
sary for yourselves, at that needy time. This 
you may enjoy at your fireside, while all 
around you. frost rends the trees asunder. 
and the white powder lies so thick upon 
the ground that you cannot venture out 
without your snow-shoes. 

"Children of the Ninth Tribe: You are to 
learn a lesson from the Fox. He looks well 
before him as he travels, examines carefully 
the ground he treads upon, and takes good 
care that his enemies do not come upon him 
by surprise. Such keen examination will 
guard you from difficulties; and. if in the 
course of nature, you shall be, in spite of 



all this, beset by them, nothing will more 
effectually enable you to extricate your- 
selves. 

"Children of the Tenth Tribe: The Tor- 
toise who supports on his back the world 
we inhabit, offers a world of instruction to 
you. Were it not for his benevolence in keep- 
ing afloat on the immense ocean in which 
he swims, this land we inhabit would soon 
go to the bottom; and the displeasure he 
feels when men lead lives of idleness and 
vice, when they quarrel and injure their 
neighbors and families, has induced more 
than once to dip a part of his shell under 
water, and drown a set of wretches no 
longer fit to live. If, then, you wish to at- 
tain a long life, be honest, upright and in- 
dustrious. 

"Children of the Eleventh Tribe: I recom- 
mend to your attention the wholesome coun- 
sel derived to man from the Eel. He was 
never known to make a noise or disturb- 
ance in the world, nor to speak an ungentle 
word against any living creature. Slander 
never proceeded from his mouth, nor doth 
guile rest under his tongue. Are you de- 
sirous my children of modest stillness and 
quiet? 

Would you like to live peaceably among 
men? If such be your desire, learn a les- 
son of wisdom from the Eel, who, although 
he knows neither his birth or parentage, but 
is cast an orphan upon creation, yet shows 
by his strength and numbers, the excellence 
of his mode of life. 

"Children of the Twelfth Tribe: I shall 
point out for your improvement some ex- 
cellent traits in the character of the Bear. 
He is distinguished by his patient endur- 
ance of those inconveniences which he finds 
it impossible to ward off. Thus when scar- 
city threatens your country with famine — 
when disease among the beasts strew your 
hunting grounds with carcasses — when in- 
sects destroy your beans, and worms cor- 
rode the roots of your corn — when streams 
refuse their accustomed supplies, or when 
the clouds withhold their rain, bear with 
patience and resignation whatever necessity 
imposes upon you. Show youi-selves to be 
men; for it is adversity which gives scope 
to your talents. 

"Children of the Thirteenth Tribe: I call 
your attention to the economy of the Bee. 
You can observe among those creatures a 
discipline not surpassed by anything the 
woods affonl. Idlers, vagrants, and enibez- 
7.1«^rs of public property have no toleration 
there. Regularity and method pervade every 
department of their government. Borrow 
fom them an idea of arrangement in busi- 
ness; and al)0ve all deriv.e from their in- 
structive examples that alchemy of mind, 
which, by an operation somewhat analogous 
to the production of nectar from venom, 



598 



THE PENXS YLV AN I A-GERM AN 



converts private feelings into public advan- 
tages, and makes even crimes and vices ul- 
timately conducive to the public good." 

After delivering these precepts to his 
tribes Tammany departed for his in- 
terview with the Inca. On his return 
to his own people, he found that the 
Evil Spirit had taken advantage of his 
absence to breed idleness and dissipa- 
tion into the minds of his people. Dis- 
eases had broken .out among them, 
which he after many trials was able to 
conquer. At last after many years of 
happiness and usefulness, he went the 
way of all flesh, and amid the univer- 
sal lamentations of his people, was 
laid to rest within the great Indian 
Fort of Muskingum. 

This is the legendary history of 
Tammany, wisest, greatest, and best 
of Indians. Of his real life our 
knowledge is fragmentary and incom- 
plete, but we do know that Tammany 
was well disposed toward the white 
man. That he lived to a great age is 
attested by all accounts, both historical 
and Icgendarv, and died the ''Taman- 



end of many days." Some of the early, 
patriotic societies were named after 
this great .chieftain, the St. Tamina 
Society of Annapolis in 177 1, being 
one of them.. When the War of 1812 
broke out, we find the names of mem- 
bers of these Societies enrolled among 
those who fought for their country a 
second time. This ends the history of 
the man whom the patriots of the 
Revolution adopted as their patron 
saint. If he had not performed 
miracles, he had rendered good ser- 
vice, to his own people, and to the 
whites. While it was always hi> wi>h 
to live in peace with all men. yet he 
would permit neither wrong nor abtise, 
nor submit to a. loss of his liberty or 
his rights. 



Bibliography: 

Colonial Records. 
Pennsylvania Archives. 
Paxinosa by Rev. U. W. Condit. Ph.D. 
' Otncial History of I. O. R. M.— Litch- 
man. 
Encyclopedia Brittanica (Am. Ed.) 



A Defiant Dialect 

Pennsylvania German in Fiction 
Edward \V. Hooker 



By 




LEV'ER writers of fiction 
have sought within the 
past few years to depict 
the life of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. It can- 
not be denied that the 
picturesc[ue peculiarities 
which abound among this 
people justify the efforts of autht^rs to 
utilize them iov a story setting. And 
that the P^MUisyhania German stories 
have not been failures is demonstrated 
by the large sales of Mrs. Helen Reim- 
ensnyder Martin's l)ooks and by the 
alacrity with which the magazines take 
advantage of opportunities to pui>lish 
short stories by Mrs. Martin and by 
^liss Elsie Singmaster, the two fore- 
most exponents of this branch of fic- 



tion. But the stories (^f these accom- 
plished young women, as well as the 
earlier Pennsylvania German sketches 
of John Luther Long, Xelson Lloyd. 
"Georg Schock/' and other writers, all 
present a comnuMi defect: for when 
the attempt is made to picture the 
Peims_\-lvania Germans in English fic- 
tion with that fidelity with which the 
pet^ple c^f Xew England, the duellers 
of the South, and the settlers of the 
West have been jx^rtrayed in many an 
interesting \olume, an insurmounialile 
ol)stacle is encoimtered in the dialect 
spoken by the PennsyUania Germans. 
In the stories the writers compel 
their characters to talk in a quaint jar- 
gon of broken English. This is altc^- 
uether at variance with realitv. for the 



A DEFIANT DIALECT 



599 



Pennsylvania Germans who cannot 
speak Eiiijlish with a fair degree of 
correctness do not attempt to employ 
that lang^uage at all in conversation 
among themeslves. - For social inter- 
course and for most business purposes 
in all the smaller settlements of the 
German districts of Pennsylvania, and 
even to a considerable extent in the 
larger cities, such as Lancaster, Read- 
ing and Allentown, the people employ 
their owm distinctive German dialect. 

Many readers who have never visited 
the Penns^dvania German country gain 
the impression from the Pennsylvania 
German, fiction passing under their 
eyes that the dialect of this people is 
the broken English used in the stories, 
and they are surprised to learn that the 
Pennsylvania German dialect is ac- 
tually so closely akin to German that 
it is not intelligible to any one who 
reads or speaks only English. It is 
this German patois that the Pennsvl- 
vania Germans employ when they 
speak to each other. Broken English, 
such as the story writers introduce, is 
undoubtedly heard in the Pennsylvania 
German country, but it is called into 
service onlv when the nati\ e finds it 
necessary to converse with an outsider 
who is unfamiliar with the customary 
dialect. 

The difficulty thus presented in deal- 
ing with the language forms ihe most 
formidable hindrance to the effort to 
give a faithful portrayal of Pennsyl- 
vania German life in the form of Eng- 
lish fiction. Traits, customs and pe- 
culiarities can be described with ac- 
curacy, but the dialog of the narra- 
tive is far \xox\\ being true to life. 

In some of the agricultural districts 
not more than fifty miles from Phila- 
delphia, the older inhabitants are en- 
tirely ignorant of Englisli, and even in 
small towns of a thousand or more in- 
habitants scores can be fouml who do 
not understand that laniruage. This 
ignorance prevails chiofiy among 
women, who. condemned tn a life of 
household druilgery, rarely come into 
contact with any (Mie outside their own 
limited circle of acquaintanceship. 



Public business in the villages and 
small boroughs is usually transacted 
in German. ^Members of the town 
council and school board, when they 
meet, conduct their official delibera- 
tions in the dialect, although the min- 
utes are kept in English. Sometimes 
when applicants for franchises for rail- 
v/ay, gas or water companies appear 
before the councils of these towns, the 
councilmen discuss the applicant's 
claims in his presence with a frankness 
which, if attempted in a language 
which the visitor understood, might re- 
sult in unpleasantness. 

Because all education is in English, 
the dialect, notwithstanding the tenac- 
ity with which the people cling to it, 
suffers from the inroads of the English. 
For instance, in dealing with financial 
matters, in adding, subtracting, multi- 
plying and dividing, the Pennsylvania 
German is compelled to resort to Eng- 
lish, for that is the only kind oi arith- 
metic he knows. The language of the 
country banks, therefore, becomes an 
extraordinary mixture, numerical 
quantities and banking terms being ex- 
pressed in English amidst a setting oi 
Pennsylvania German. Here is an il- 
lustration : The man who wants to 
have a check for $23.75 cashed express- 
es his inquiry in this form which is 
neither English nor German: "Kennsht 
du mir en Check casha fir twenty- 
three dollars und seventy-five cents?" 

It cannot be said that these people 
cling to German because of any pres- 
ent prejudice against English. The 
German seems to surxive because the 
Teutonic tendcnc\- to adhere to okl- 
time customs has had full sway tor 
nearly two centuries in those districts- 
where the Germans constitute almost 
the entire pt^pulation. 

When the original German settlers 
came to Pennsylvania, so^mi after Wil- 
liam Peim had founded the province, 
they formed coni'.nunities of their own 
in the region n«nv included within the 
counties o'x r.ncks. [>erks, ^fontgom- 
erv. L^lij^h, X.^rtha:npto.i. La:ica-ier. 
EcbautMi. Dauphin, Snyder and York. 
Thev had little intercourse with the 



600 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



English settlers, and hence did not 
find it necessary to learn their lan- 
guage. They established German 
schools ' in connection with their 
churches, and resisted efforts to open 
English schools, believing that the in- 
novation threatened their religion. So, 
from father to son, from mother to 
daughter, they transmitted the Ger- 
man. 

B^r far the larger part of the early 
German settlers came from the Palati- 
nate and the Rhine region. Their 
speeck originally was the imperfect 
German of the peasantry of those dis- 
tricts. In the course of time the sev- 
eral German dialects of the immigrants 
were merged into one, and into this 
consolidated dialect English words 
made their way. Thus the speech now 
known as Pennsylvania German origi- 
nated. 

When the man born and bred among 
people who speak this dialect under- 
takes to use English, it is only natural 
that in translating German idioms he 
should commit blunders that seem 
ridiculous to those who liave no 
knowledge of German. He will say 
"The sugar is all," when he means it is 
all gone. He will insist upon placing 
an unnecessary ''once'' or "yet" at the 
end of a sentence. He will say that he 
w^ants to buy "such a hat," when he 
means "one of those hats," and then 
when he has bought it his friends will 
say "he is proud with his new hat, but 
he'll be tired of it until Christmas yet." 

Moreover, he is painfully aware of 
his defects and wants his children to 
be better equipped than he is. So he 
strives to provide good public schools. 
and is liberal in his contributions to- 
ward the educational institutions of his 
religious denomination. Muhlenberg 
College, Allentown ; Franklin and 
^larshall College. Lancaster; Susque- 
hanna University. Selinsgrove ; Leba- 
non Valley College, Annville; Albright 
College, Myerstown : Pennsylvania 
College, Gettysburg: Ursinus College, 
Collcgevillc: Juniata College, Hunt- 
ingdon; Perkiomen Seminary, Pcnns- 



burg; and the State Normal Schools 
at Kutztown and Millersville, are sup- 
ported almost solely by the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans. 

Nearly all the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man towns have commodious public 
school buildings, and high schools are 
being established in many of the rural 
districts. Though the school boards 
conduct their deliberations in Pennsyl- 
vania German, the rule is generally 
enforced that the children must not 
speak Pennsylvania German upon the 
school grounds. 

And yet, in spite of these precau- 
tions, the chances are that as soon as 
the children leave the school grounds 
they will begin to talk in Penn>^vlvania 
German. In such circumstances it is 
no wonder that the effort to teach Eng- 
lish grammar, literature, composition 
and rhetoric in the Pennsylvania Ger- 
man districts involves a huge task for 
the instructor. 

At a spelling-bee in ore of the small 
Pennsylvania German towns a peda- 
gog not to the manner born, who was 
"giving out'' the words, came to "mort- 
gage.'' The spellers stared, seeming 
not to understand. 

Again no one attempted to spell the 
word. 

"^Lortgage," repeated the teachei. 

The county superintendent, who was 
present, surmised the cause of the dif- 
ficulty. He announced the word, but 
pronounced it "morgitch." 

Immediately the eyes oi the contes- 
tants brightened, and the word was 
si)elled correctly at the first attempt. 

A few minutes later the word 
"choose" was announced, and this was 
the way it was spelled : "I-e-w-s." 

The long domination of this dialect 
forms a terrible handicap even for the 
brightest pupils among the Pennsyl- 
\ania Germans. Its earmarks crop out 
frecjuently in the cases of some oi the 
foremost educators of the State. It can 
readily be credited that there was a 
foundation of truth in the anecdote 
tc^ld about Governor Joseph Ritnerand 
the office seeker from Center countv. 



A DEFIANT DIALECT 



601 



Governor Ritner was a typical Penn- 
sylvania German, and this particular 
Center county man had haunted the 
State Capitol ftj»r some months after 
the governor's inauguration in the ef- 
fort to obtain a place. Finally one 
day he had another inter\ie\v with the 
chief executive. After listening pa- 
tiently, Governor Ritner explained : 
''Now, you're from Center county. 
Well, I'm taking up the counties al- 
phabetically. Pretty soon Pll get to 
'S,' and then your case will be at- 
tended to." 

The churches of the Pennsylvania 
Germans play an important part in 
preserving their dialect. Everv effort 
made to introduce English or to use it 
more cxtensi\-ely in the services has 
given rise to the hottest kind of 
wrangles. The clergy, as a rule, want 
to make English tlie predominant 
language, but their flocks object. The 
usual custom in the rural congrega- 
tions now is to have German services 
in the morning and English services 
in the e^'ening. In the Lutheran and 
Reformed Churches, to which the 
larger part of the Pennsyh'ania Ger- 
mans belong, the pastors, being college 
trained, employ pure German in their 
services, although occasionallv bits of 
the dialect crop out in the sermons. 
These churches also use the old 
chorales of Germany, but in the sing- 
ing it is apparent that in spite of the 
fact that the congregation demands 
German ser\ices. the number who can 
read the German of the hymnbooks is 
rather limited. It is safe to say that 
less than half of those who daily speak 
Pennsylvania German are able to read 
pure German. 

Besides tlie Lutheran and Ref(^rmed 
adherents, there are among the Penn- 
sylvania Germans many members of 
the "plain sects." Dunkers. Menno- 
nites. Schwenkfelders and the like, and 
also the members of the two branches 
of the Evangelical Church, which is 
similar to the Methodist Episcopal. In 
the services of all these denominations. 



Pennsyh'ania German is the pre\ail- 
ing speech . 

The Pennsylvania German dialect is 
also a factor that muht be considered 
in politics, for in many counties the 
candidate not con\'ersant with it is 
likel>- to make an unsucccs^ful can- 
vass. In the last judicial campaign in 
Lehigh county, the two principal 
newspapers in Allentown took up the 
issue as to whether or not former 
Judge Harvey, the Democratic candi- 
date, could speak Pennsylvania Ger- 
man, and the Republican organ ac- 
cused the Democratic newspa )er oi re- 
sorting to falsehood by attempting to 
create the impression that the -candi- 
date in question spoke and understood 
the popular dialect. Alluding to the 
candidate, the Republican organ con- 
tinued : 

Of course it is not his f lult that he was 
born of English parents in the Pennsyl- 
vania German county of Bucks, but he came 
to Allentown when a youn? man and here 
he made a vast fortune in the law business. 
He be2:an his residence in Allentown in the 
prime of his youth, and nine hundred and 
ninety-nine people out of a thousand would 
by this time, under the same conditions, 
have acquired a knowledge of the Pennsyl- 
vania German language as the most rlupnt 
native of Lehigh. Mr. Harvey, however, 
chose to look down upon this so-called 
Pennsylvania Dutch, and the result is that 
today he can speak and understand very 
little more of the dialect of our people than 
he did nearly forty years ago. . . . The 
question whether the judicial candidate can 
or cannot speak the Pennsylvania German 
is a vital issue in this campaign, and it in 
no way reflects upon the intelligence of any 
public man to be able to do business in a 
language that has been spoken from the 
earliest history of the country. On the 
other hand, it is important that the man 
who sits upon the Bench to administer jus- 
tice with an even hand shall be conversant 
with the dialect of a large majority of the 
people, and which does not always admit of 
strict interpretation. 

This argument seemed effective, for. 
in spite oi the fact that Lehigh county 
is normally Democratic. Mr. Harvey 
was defeated. 

I'pon at least one memorable occa- 
sion the dialect of the Pennsylvania 
Germans \\as heard in the halls of 
Compress. Xer Middles warth was a 



60: 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Snyder county statesman who was 
sent to the thirty-third Congress. One 
day an erudite colleag-ue delivered an 
address which was so leplete with clas- 
sical quotations in Latin and Greek 
that it disgusted Cong-ressman ^lid- 
dleswarth; and when the orator had 
closed his speech, the Snyder country 
representative jumped to his feet and 
started a vigorous harangue in Penn- 
sylvania German. AX'ith considerable 
difficulty, the Speaker succeeding in 
checking ^Ir. ]\Iiddleswarth, declaring 
him out of order. Mr. ]\Iiddleswarth 
apologized, and explained that he 
merely wanted to show that the other 
speaker was not the only man in the 
House who could speak more than one 
language. 

Although the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans have but recently become sub- 
jects for the writers of fiction in Eng- 
lish, they have long had a literature of 
their own. This it is true, is rather re- 
stricted ; for Pennsylvania German, 
being primarily an oral dialect, has no 
established orthography, and therefore 
offers much difficulty to writers. Some 
Pennsylvania German authors spell 
according to the German sound of the 
letters, while others attempt to follow 
the English rules. 

Many newspapers in the Pennsvl- 
vania German country print syndicated 
weekly humorous letters in the dialect. 
The originator of this form of litera- 
ture was Edwin H. Ranch, a blanch 
Chunk newspaperman who died in 
IQ02. For a score of years or longer, 
over the nom de plune ''Pit Schwefcl- 
brenner," he wrote a weekly colunm of 
'Pennsv'lvania German that amused 



thousands of readers. One of his most 
interesting attempts was the transla- 
tion of a portion of Shakespeare's 
writings into F'ennsylvania German. 
.Mr. Ranch's version of the remarks of 
the ghost in Hamlet is as follows : 
Ich bin dein dawdy si spook; 
G'seiiteiiced for a tzeit long rumm laufa 

nauchts, 
Un im dawg fesht stecka im fire 
Bis de schlechty saiicha os ich gadu hob in 

meina noddoor's dawga 
Ous gabrenn'd un ous g'loxeerd sin. 
A^er ich darraf der now net sawga 
Wass de secrets fun meiu gTeugniss sin. 
Ich kent der'n shtory derfu fertzalla 
So OS 's geringshta wardt 
Deer di sale uf reisa dait; di ycong's bloot 

kalt freera; 
Die tzwae awga ous 'm kup rous gooka 

maucha we fireiche shtarna, 
Un di hohr uf 'm kup grawd nuf shtella 
We dicky, shteify si-parshta. 

Several Pennsylvaniji German poets 
have produced verses that are consid- 
erably above the ordinary. Of these 
the foremost and earliest was the Rev. 
Henry Harbaugh, a clergyman of the 
Reformed Church, whose poem, "Das 
Alte Schulhaus on der Krick" has be- 
come a classic in Pennsylvania Ger- 
man literature. 

The late Lee L. Grumbine. of Leba- 
non, also employed the dialect effec- 
tively in prose and verse. Others who 
have written extensively in Pennsyl- 
vania German are Daniel Miller, oi 
Reading; Henry L. Fisher, of York; 
C. S. Ziegler, of Easton ; the Rev. Dr. 
A. R. Home, of Allentown : H. A. 
Schuler,, of Allentown : Miss Rachel 
Pahn, oi York county; E. M. El^er- 
man, of Bethlehem, and Colonel 
Thomas Zimmerman, of Reading. 

— The Book Xews Monihlv. 



co'i. 



The People's Instructor 




Through the courtesy of the veteran pub- 
lisher and editor, W. F. Schlechter. of Al- 
lentown, Pa., the editor of Tlie I'emisylvniiia 
Gcrinan had the pleasure recently of exam- 
ining the first coi)y of the weekly, "The 
People's Instructor", issued Wednesday, 
August 8, ISIO. We give herewith a hasty 
study of the paper. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

HIS v/as a four column pa- 
per, English and German 
being run i n parallel 
columns ; spacing w a s 
used between paragraphs 
to keep subject matter in 
juxtaposition. The ar- 
ticles were numbered and 
unsigned. There must have been a 
shortage of type as italics and wrong 
capitals were used. The first issue had 
quite a number of typographical er- 
rors. 

There were only four pages each 
week during first year. 

At the end of the year publisher 
thanked subscribers for patronage, and 
payment; some were in arrears. An- 
nouncement was made that "Instruc- 
tor'' would be issued in quarto form, 
to be published every Wednesday 
evening and "delivered at the homes 
of the subscribers at Easton. Bethle- 
hem and Xorthampton and to others 
forwarded in such nianner as they will 
please to order." The price was raised 
to one dollar for every six months if 
not paid in advance. "Prompt pay- 
ment for this paper is peculiarly neces- 
sary, because it is the cheapest printed 
in Atnerica." 

Contents are shown by an extract 
from Index giving items under letter 
"A." 

Achen ; adxertisement, curious, 
afwestad ; anecdotes ; antipathy o\ 
some persons against dowers, fruits, 
meats, etc.; antipodes; antiquities: ap- 
ples, directions for gathering: arsenic; 
aspects, what they are: atheist, there i< 
acttially none. 

In No. 2, no domestic political news. 
A few recipes appeared and the death 
notice of Afrs. Jacob Opp merchant of 



Easton. Other notices appeared in 
later issues. 

In Xo. 3. Xo domestic political 
news. 

In X'o. 4. 
eign political 



Se\enteen lines of tor- 
news and six lines of 
domestic referring to a threatened In- 
dian war on the Xorthwestern Fron- 
tier. 

Many articles v/ere continued from 
week to week. 

In the seventieth issue an article ap- 
peared "On the culture of turnips'* 
signed by ''A farmer from Hamshire." 
the first response to the editor's call 
that every friend of science contribute 
his mite to the paper. 

The following notice appeared in the 
issue for January 2. 181 1: 

''Owing to the late holidays and a 
severe indisposition of the Editor 
the People's Instructor could not ap- 
pear before this day. We hupe this 
will excuse its late appearance this 
week." 

In last issue for first volume — Au- 
gust 14. ad\ertisements appeared as 
follows : 

A country store stand at P>elvidere 
was ottered for rent. 

John r)runner. r^fatthias Gross and 
John Eittcnbach oAered themselves as 
candidates for the otTice of SheritY of 
X'orthampton County. 

A large, convj^^nient ta\ ern o n 
X'ancy Run was otVered for rent. 

George Savitz offered for sale the 
newly discovered improvement in tan- 
ing of leather in one-third the time. 

The Union School Lottery adver- 
tisement was still running, drawing' 
having been deferred to the first Mon- 
dav in X'(^vem])er on account of tlic 
want oi returns from a number of ihcir 
agents. 

INTRODUCTION 

"The wish oi a number oi my friends 
to see the luiglish and German papers 
published in my oflice of the same con- 
tents, in order that they miglit be uscvl 
by Ix'ginners of iMie or the otlier Ian- 



604 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



^ua^e to improve tliemsclves therein, 
first brought on the idea of a pui)lica- 
tion like the present. And as this ])a- 
per is solely intended for such as are 
desirous of extending" their knowledge 
I supposed they would not wish to be 
interrupted in their studies by the con- 
tentions of political parties but would 
expect to sec the columns of this pa- 
per filled with other useful informa- 
tion. I concluded to suffer nothing of 
an objectionable nature to creep into 
the same, but to devote it entirely to 
the improvement of languages and use- 
ful sciences in general. 

According to this plan I issued in 
March last proposals lor the publica- 
tion of the 'People's Instructor' and 
they have been received with such flat- 
tering marks of applause that I am en- 
abled to commence the publication 
thereof this day. I flatter myself that 
this paper will become what the title 
thereof contemplates an Instructor for 
the American people and that every 
friend to science will contribute his 
mite toward the promotion of this de- 
sirable object by an early subscrip- 
tion. 

Christian Jac. Hiitter. 
Easton, 8th August, 1810." 

CONTENTS OF FIRST ISSUE 
Introduction. 
No. I. Political Xews. 

"Nothing of any consecpience 
has hapened i n the political 
world," (referring to European 
news). 

'* The inhabitants of Florida 
have had several large meetings 
' the results of which has been a de- 
termination to declare themselves 
independent of all European p(~)w- 
ers and to claim the protection of 
the United States. They have al- 
ready ordered all Frenchmen to 
leave their territorv." 
No. 2. High Water. 

Bridge across the Fehigh near 
the Pjorough of Easton and an- 
other across Broadheads creek in 
Lower Smithfleld township were 
carried awav. 



Xo. 3. Description of a remarkable 
Lake in Germany. 

The Cirknitz Sea near the town 
of the same name, lake four or five 
miles in length, about two in 
breadth — in it person may sow 
and reap, hunt and fish within the 
space of a year. In long droughts 
water runs off through, eighteen 
holes, into subterranean reser- 
voirs, in which water runs off 
through small holes as through a 
sieve leaving the fish behind. On 
appearance of ebbing a bell is 
rung" and about a hundred men 
and women run into the lake with- 
out any covering for body and an 
incredible number of fish are 
caught. On return of waters 
fish of a very large size abound, 
also live ducks with grass and fish 
in their stomachs. Ducks are 
ejected that are blind, very fat. of 
a black colour and almost without 
feathers. If the lake ebb early 
grass groAvs upon it which is cut 
and millet is afterward sown. 

Xo. 4. Remarkable Sea Monster. 

Animal stranded on one oi Ork- 
ney Islands — fifty-five feet in 
length with girth of a pony and 
head no larger than that of a seal. 
"Xo doubt could be entertained 
that this was the kind of animal 
which had served as the prototype 
of all the wonderful sea snakes 
whose ai)pearance is t^n record." 

Xo. 5. On the dift'erent kind of stars. 
A Dialogue. 

Xo. 6. Sentimental Atiecd«ne. 

Xo. 7. Biography of the late Major 
General Xat Greene. 

Xo. 8. Peach Trees. 

Xo. 9. Anecdote. 

"Every subscriber will do well to l)e 
\erv careful with Ir's pa;>ers, so as to 
keep his file complete, as at the end of 
each vear a ccnnplete Index ami Title 
page will be furnished for sr.ch as will 
wish to luwe them hmmd. 
luiston. Penn.. 
Printed by Christian lluttcr 
At One Dollar fifty cents per annum.*' 



THE PEOPLE'S INSTRUCTOR 



605 



ADVERTISEMENTS 
A DlSTILLEf< WANTED 

The first advertisement appeared in 
the fifth issue September 12, as fol- 
lows : 

- "The subscriber living in Lower Sac- 
cona Township, Northampton County 
on the Lehigh ri\er, five miles below 
Bethlehem wishes to engage this fall a 
DistiHer wdio is well acquainted with 
distilling rye. He must be a single man 
and can have a whole year work if at- 
tentive to his business. 

ISAAC SHIMER. 
Sept. 5th, 1810." 

A STRAY HEIFER 

Has trespassed on the plantation of 
the subscriber, living in Williams 
township, Northampton county, since 
the 17th inst ; it is apparently in the 
third year of its age, of wolf striped 
colour. The owner is requested to 
fetch the same as soon as possible, and 
pav the expenses. 

JACOB LATTIG. 
31st October. 1810." 

SCHOOL HOUSE LOTTERY 

In issue for February 13, announce- 
ment was made of drawing of lottery 
second Monday in }vlay for Union 
Schoolhnuse lottery — 6500 tickets 
being offered at t\vo Dollars each. The 
commissioners were Daniel Snyder, 
Frederic Hausman. Peter Kern. Mich- 
ael Deiber. Stephen Ballict and Peter 
Butz. The drawing had to be deferred 
to August on account of "the North- 
ampton church lottery not having fin- 
ished its dra^ving as soon as was ex- 
pected" in consequence of which the 
promised wheels could not be used as 
expected. 

BATTALIONS 

Brigade orders were issued by 
Richard Brodhead, Ifis^cctor, giving 
dates. for meeting of militia companies 
for practice the folhnving May. 

DESCRIPTION OF NORTH CAROLINA 
INN. P. 92 

"The first thing that strikes your at- 
tention after emerging from the w(^ods 
is a small building either of logs or a 
frarne. The whole house ctMumonlv 



consists of but one room and the whole 
furniture in that room of some benches 
a miserable bed and a large pine chest 
which has a lock and key and contains 
the clothing and victuals of the family. 
Yon may always know an ordinary, at 
ever such a distance, by the pipe of the 
chimney not being carried above the 
roof. Just before the front door (and 
indeed the only door in the house) 
.stands an oven composed of clay, un- 
der and about which are commonlv 
seen a parcel of black hogs indulging 
themselves in the sun. Oats in these 
parts is the rarest thing in nature; if 
you can procure some Indian corn and 
blades for the animab that carries you, 
you may set yourself down in your 
journal for one of fortune's favorites. 
H vou be under a necessity of putting 
up for the night you may think your- 
self happy to procure a blanket, and as 
to a pillow, the saddle must be a sub- 
stitute, for a pillow in those places 
would be deemed a dangerous luxury. 
If it be winter you lay yourself down 
b}^ the fire; if summer, the best \\ ay is 
to be out of doors, with the blanket 
stretched over you on four small stakes 
to cover you from the dews and avoid 
the persecution of the fleas. Whether 
you call for breakfast, dinner or sup- 
per it is all one the constant fare is 
bacon and eggs. No sooner you are 
seated at the table with your meal be- 
fore you. than the house dog — for the 
•most part of the large wolf breed — 
comes and sets down by you and looks 
directly up in your face. The young 
children of the house, at the smell and 
sight of the victuals, instantly set up 
a yell, until they are appeased by the 
hostess, who quiets them by saying. 
"They shall have S(^me when the gen- 
tlemen is done" which is. by the bye a 
hint to you. not to eat too much. By 
this time a number of young cats are 
clawing at your elbow, and as it were 
putting you in mind that they ought 
to come in with you for snacks; and if 
\ou bo \\oi very circumspect, some of 
the m(^re enterprising among them 
will Icai^ up in an instant ami unrlesh 



€06 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



your fork with as much dexterity as if 
they had served seven years' appren- 
ticeship to the business. As to conver- 
sation with the innholder it is gener- 
ally of a very contracting nature — con- 
pliments of the high price of New Eng- 
land rum and the very dull market for 
pitch, turpentine, tar or tobacco. Lit- 
tle information or amusement then 
being to be got in this way, the best 
thing you can do, after you ha\'e dined, 
is to order your horse to be fed and 
stand by yourself, the whole time 
with a cudgel; otherwise the poultry 
will not leave the horse one grain in 
five hundred." 

A FEW NOTES 
''The people of London are in gen- 
eral votaries of pleasure. The public 
walks, the theatres, the great number 
of concert halls and coffee houses, the 
manifold clubs and assemblages, the 



innumerable teagardens are all con- 
stantly crowded with people. A young 
Englishman, possessing two thousand 
pounds expends while single, scarcely 
two hundred pounds for his necessi- 
ties; the rest is all devoted to pleas- 
ure." 
(From Description of London, p. 35). 

A frog story is told in the issue of 
October 17 to the effect that James 
Kerr near Chambersburg in splitting 
an oak tree found a live frog that had 
been imbedded in the tree without air 
or food for ninety-two years. At first 
it appeared to be dead : in a short time 
it gave signs of life and hopped away. 

In issue for February 13, 181 1 E. 
Biro informs inhabitants of Easton. 
"that he intends to reside sometime in 
the place, during which he will take a 
few pupils to study the French lan- 
Sfua.cre." 



Recollections of the Wyoming Massacre 




NOTE. — The following Recollections were 
secured from the author by Dr. G. M. Brum- 
baugh, Washington, D. C. We hope other 
subscribers will follow the Doctor's example 
and send us similar contributions. 

HOMAS BROWN, m y 
father, was a native of 
Stonington, Conn., and a 
sailor, until crippled by 
exposure and then com- 
pelled to cjuit the sea. His* 
first pitch on land was 
made at Quaker Hill, on 
- the border of the State of Xew York, 
where I was born in 1771. From that 
place we moved to Wyoming \'alley. 
Pa. in 1776, and lived on the river 
bank about 80 yards below the Market 
Street bridge, Wilkesbarre, Pa., and 
were there at the time (^f the massacre. 
Our familv then consisted of mv father 
THOMAS r.ROWN and his wife PA- 
TIENCE (PROCKWAY) BROWN, 
an older half brother, Thomas P>rown 
2d., two older brothers and three chil 
dren younger than mvsclf: and lA- 
BEZ. and ^ JOSEPH ELLIOTT who 



came into the valley with us and took 
part in all our affairs until the cam- 
paign of General Sullivan, in which 
they bc^re a part. The family life was 
uneventful until the summer of 177S 
when the invasion of the Indians and 
Torys, under \\'alter Butler made the 
valley a theater of bloodv carnage and 
suffering. This culminated on July 3 
when all the able bodied men and bovs 
marched from Forty Fort to offer l^at- 
tle to their foes who were encamped 
in the up[)er part of the valley. With- 
out an attempt to describe the conhict 
it is sufficient to say that our people 
were overcome and in the rout were 
ruthlessly overtaken and slain. Of 
those belonging to the family who in 
the running marched to the battle and 
of which this narrative treats — the 
two ELLIOTTS and the oldest 
THOMAS BROWN— only JABEZ 
returned at night and br< night the 
news that Thomas was among the 
slain ; while Ji^oph his brother, was 
among the missing, which meant a fate 



RECOLLECTIONS OF THE WYOMLXG MASSACRE 



607 



worse than death — savage torture. 

The night after the massacre was 
long to be remembered. Mourning for 
the absent and missing ones, mingled 
with fears that the savages would in 
the night sweep down upon those left 
alive and thus make complete destruc- 
tion throughout the valley. All night 
the survivors made hasty preparations 
to fly as soon as the morning broke, 
and seek safety wherever it might be 
found. JABEZ ELLIOTT and the 
Browns lashed two canoes near to each 
other, and over these made a platform 
large enough to carry the children and 
the mother, while father prepared to 
lead his three horses down the river 
shore to Catawissa, their destination. 
Just as they were about to start JOS- 
EPH ELLIOTT came in sight in a 
very sad condition; his only garment 
was a shirt and his body was all cov- 
ered with blood. A\'e did not have time 
to hear his story, but at once placed 
him on the float and made him as com- 
fortable as we could and started down 
the river. We arrived at Catawissa the 
next day, then went by Fort Allen to 
Strouds, then on to Goshen, Orange 
county, where we remained until the 
last of October. 

While we remained at Goshen we 
had sold two of the horses, so that 
when we returned to the valley all our 
provisions were carried on the one re- 
maining horse. liowever, people gave 
aid as far as they could, and especially 
to those who had been driven from 
house and home. From vStrouds we 
came nearly in the rout afterwards lo- 
casted as the Eastern and Wilkesbarre 
turnpike. We came to the Bear Creek 
at noon of a very rainy day; the creek 
was high and our only way to cross 
it was to fell a tree tall enough to 
reach the other side — we felled several 
before we succeeded, as the water 
would swing them down the stream. 
Previous to our arrival here it had 
been necessary to send to Wilkesbarre 
for food and fire. In the eftt>rt JABEZ 
ELLIOTT and the horse he rode came 
near being drowned,, and our bundle of 



spare clothes was lost. Our condition 
when we got over Bear Creek was sad 
indeed with no relief nearer than 
Wilkesbarre, to which place Elliott 
had gone for help! The rain con- 
tinued and all were wet, chilled and 
hungry. The children cried and cc>uld 
not be conforted. W'c nearly perished 
in that dark and dreadful night, which 
I shall always remember as the time 
of my greatest suffering. Elliott came 
early in the morning, and we soon had 
a big fire and our hunger was ap- 
peased. Soon starting again upon our 
journey we reached Wilkesbarre at 
evening. 

The next year after Sullivan's cam- 
paign we moved to Wyalusing, Pa., 
and settled near where I have since 
lived. 

THOMAS BROWX, SR., was one 
of the first to rest in the old cemetery 
near the borough of Wyalusing, the 
stone marking his last resting place 
bearing the inscription, '"Sacred to the 
Memory of Thomas Brown, who died 
in 1 79 1, aged 74 years." He died June 
25, 1791. 

After I was taken prisoner, myself 
and others were taken to the camp of 
the Indians and tied securely, and 
closely guarded by our captor^ until 
the next morning. Twelve oi us were 
then taken near the second bank of the 
river within the present town oi ^\ y- 
oming; we were stripped of all our 
clothes except our shirts, and, led by 
two savages each, were marched in 
file to be tomahawked by a squaw 
whose son. a young chief was killed at 
Exeter on the ist oi July. This tragedy 
occurred on the 4th. I was next to the 
last in the line. TITL'S HAMMOXD. 
the last, and I determined to escape if 
the least chance otiercvl. As we moved 
to our turn, I saw just before me the 
body of a fallen tree about a foot in 
diameter over which our path led. As 
I came near ii. I sprang forwards, 
planting both feet against it anil in- 
stantly jumping backwards 1 tore my- 
self away from my guards. Ham- 
mond cleared him<elf at the same mo- 



608 



THE PEXx\SYLVAXIA-GERMAN 



ment, and we both jumped down the 
bank. I ran towards the river and 
Hammond turned to the right and hid 
in a fallen tree top. Between the place 
of execution and the river rye was 
standing, and it was higher than my 
head. It had been trailed by fugitives 
the day before, so I followed one. The 
pursuing Indians could not follow my 
path for certainty on account of the 
other trials so I gained a few minutes 
and this gave me time to get into deep 
water before they commenced shooting. 
As soon as I could I commenced to 
swim under water, only raising my 
head for breath. Once Avhen I came up 
a bullet hit me under my shoulder 
blade, disabling one arm, but I turned 
and swam on my back the rest of the 
way using the olher arm. As soon as 



I was over and away from the river, I 
put a piece of my shirt into the bullet 
hole to stop the blood. I found a loose 
horse and, with a piece of bark for a 
bridle, rode into Wilkesbarre. I had a 
hard time of it with the wound for sev- 
eral weeks but being tough, reco\ered. 
JOSEPH ELLIOTT and his brother 
joined the Rangers and went up the 
river with General Sullivan. JABEZ 
ELLIOTT, while guarding the cattle 
of that expedition, was killed by the 
Indians near Athens, they coming 
upon him by stealth." 

JOSEJH ELLIOTT m. (i) PA- 
TIEXCE BROWX (d. without issue), 
and m (2) Deborah Lewis. He died 
over 90 years of age, leaving many de- 
scendants. 



Lancaster County Families 

From the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland 
By Prof. Oscar Kuhns, Middletown, Conn. 



m 

JUUL-HL. 






HEX I was attending the 
Bi-Centennial of the first 
settlement of Lancaster 
county recently, I was 
surprised to find that one 
of the most important 
documents concerning the 
early Swiss settlers was 
unknown to many. It has seemed to 
me useful to say a word or two con- 
cerning this document, which throws 
so much light on the genealogy of 
many of Lancaster's pioneer settlers. 

Some years ago, I bought at an auc- 
tion a copy of the Ausbund. the origi- 
nal hymnboc^k of the Mennonites. first 
printed in 15S3. and containing a num- 
ber of quaint h\-mns describing the 
martyrdom of many early Mennonites. 
The copy I bought was published by 
Christopher Sauer in 1751. On one of 
the blank pages are written, in Ger- 
man, these words : "This l)(X)k belongs 
to the congregation in Rapho town- 
ship, one mile from Manheim. 1787." 



The book contains not only hymns, 
however, but also a "Confessio oder 
Bekantniss,'' by Thomas von Imbroich, 
(20 pages) ; and also, and this is of the 
greatest value, an account of the suf- 
ferings of the early ^[ennonites in the 
Canton of Zurich (46 pages). The title, 
which is in German, may be translated 
as follows: "A True Account of the 
Brethren in Switzerland, in the Canton 
of Zurich, and the persecutions which 
they had to suft'er for the sake oi the 
Gospel, from 1635 to 1645." The ac- 
count was written, as the introduction 
says, in order to give information to 
the I'rethren in Hc^lland, concerning 
their trials and sutYerings. It tells of 
the long discussions the B.rethren had 
with the State Church, especially as to 
regular attendance at Church, which 
they. would not agree to. preferring, as 
they said, to i^bey God rather than 
man. The result of these disputations 
was that the Brethren were given the 
choice either to go ti^ church or go to 



LANCASTER COUNTY FAMILIES 



609 



prison. They chose the latter alter- 
native; their houses and lands were 
confiscated, and many of them, men 
and women alike, were shut up in 
Cloister Oetenbach, "in einem tiefen 
und gar feuchten Gefangniss." All 
these people, spoken of in the little 
book, came either from Zurich itself 
or from towns and villages lying on 
-the banks of the lake, namely, Klonau, 
Wadensweil, Horgen, Uetikon and 
Griiningen. 

"And now," to use the language of 
the ''Account" itself, 'Sve will proceed 
to give the names of men, women and 
children and how they and their prop- 
erty were treated.'' 

First of all was a Rudolph Egley, a 
citizen of Zurich, who was shut up in 
prison, his property seized and sold for 
6000 gulden, and his children driven 
from home, among them being a sick 
child who was laid on the bare ground 
outside of his house. 

The same treatment was given to 
Haus ]\Ieyli and his two sons Hans and 
Marty and their wives, all thrown into 
prison. Similar treatment was likewise 
given to the following persons: Hans 
Miiller, of Uetikon, Rudolph Hagi. 
Hans Ringer, Heinrich Frick of Klon- 
au, who before his conversation was an 
Ensign in the Army, and possessed 
*' grosses zeitliches Gut"-, Stephen 
Zander of Klonau, Dorothea Grob of 
Klonau, Catharina Miiller of Klonau, 
Heinrich Gut of Klonau, Ottilly Mid- 
ler of Klonau, Barbara ]\Ivlin, Barbara 
Kolb, Elizabeth ^^Feylin. 

Most of the ab(^ve were from the 
Klonau District. A special heading is 
given to those from W'iidensweil and 
Horgen, under which are given the fol- 
lowing natues : Peter r.rubacher. Jac(~>b 
Ri.isterholtz, Hans Eandis "Ein bestel- 
ter Dicner in H(^rgerberg", 'Ilans 
Huber, Conrad Strickler. Hans Ru- 
dolph Bauman, aus dem Horgerberg, 
Oswald Fandis, X'eronica Ableny, Fine 
Altc Schwester aus dem Horgerberg. 
Jacob Riisterh<iltz, l'\dix Fandis. aus 
dem Horgerberg, antl his wife .\delheid 
Egli, Rudolph Sommer, ein junger 



Knab, in der Herrschaft Wadensweil, 
Flans Asper, W'erne Pleister, of Wad- 
ensweil, Ulrich Schneider, aus der 
Gemeinc Rutschwii, in der Herrschaft 
Wadenschweil, Sally Schneider, Ru- 
dolph j^achmann. 

Cnder the heading Amt Griiningen, 
the following names are given : Hans 
Jacob Heess, Hans Midler, Jacob 
Gochnauer, Jacob Egly, Georg \Veber- 
in der Herrschaft Kiburg, Jacob Baum- 
gartner, in der Herrschaft Kiburg, L'l- 
rich ]vluller in der Herrschaft Kiburg, 
Jacob Xiissly in der Herrschaft Ki- 
burg, Burckhart Ammen on Fake Zur- 
ich, Elizabeth Iliitzny, Heinrich Sch- 
nebely. 

As is apparent from this list of 
names many of our Fancastcr county 
families can easih' trace their ances- 
tors back to the original home on the 
shores of Fake Zurich. 

A word or two about the places 
mentioned above may be interesting to 
many. I have visited most of these 
places and can testify to their beauty 
and prosperity. Wadenswil today is a 
large market-town on the west shore 
of Fake Zurich, in the District of Hor- 
gen, and contains more than 6.000 in- 
habitants. Its situation is one of the 
most charming in Switzerland. lying 
on the slopes oi terraced hills, planted 
with grain, fruit and \ines, uith the 
waters of the lake, bathing its feet. 
There is a beautifid church, and other 
public buildings, and the inhabitants 
are noted for their industrial activity. 
Some years agi^ when I was in Zurich 
I looked up the directory of these 
places, and I found in Wadenswil the 
follmving well-known Lancaster coun- 
ty names: Bruj)bacher. Gut. Hugen- 
tobler. Midler, Riisterholz. P.achmann. 
Kunz. Baumann, Fandis. Stiihli. Frick. 
Ziircher, Aebly, Witlmor. etc. 

The Oistrict ot Horgen contains a 
niunbcr oi towns and villages, among 
them Wadenswil, liescribed above, and 
also the market-ttnvn o t Horgen, 
situated on the southwest slu^re of 
Fake Zurich, surnnrnded by beautiful 
meadow s and vine\ards. Its church is 



eio 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



reckoned as one of the most l^eautifnl 
in the land, with its high tower and 
mag-nificent chimes. The chief indus- 
try is the manufacture of silk. Among 
the Lancaster county names still repre- 
sented there are Bruppacher, Niigeli, 
Widmer, Bachmann, Gut, Miiller, 
Huber, Miinch, Hoffstetter. 

Grimingen is now nothing but a vil- 
lage, though once it was a small town, 
and is situated in the District of Hin- 
wil, Canton of Zurich. The village it- 
self contains only about 250 inhabi- 
tants, though the parish contains over 
1200. Lancaster names here are 
Maurer, Baer, Baumann, Strickler, 
Egli, Ehrismann, Bruppacher, Forry. 

Uetikon is also only a small village, 
lying on the East shore of Lake Zurich 
in the District ^leilcn. The inhabitants 
chiefly work at the raising of fruit, 
grain and grapes. Lancaster names to- 
day are Fiirrer, Nagli, Miiller, Biirkli, 
Baumgarten, Baumann; Kunz. 

Kiburg is a village on the way from 
Zurich to Winterthur, containing less 
than 400 inhabitants. It is famous 
chiefly for its castle, lying in a wild 
and romantic situation. 

Meilen is a District of Canton Zur- 
ich, and also the chief town of the 
same. Lancaster county names there 
today are Brupbacher, Riistenholz, 
Baumann, Naf, Burkhard, Egli \^6geli 
(Fagley), Aeschlimann, ^Miiller, Baum- 
gartner, Ringger, Funk. 

Klonau, is a misprint for Knonau, a 
village of less than 600 inhabitants, on 
the main road from Lucerne to Zurich 
and distant equally from both cities. 
It has a pretty church and a castle, and 
its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in 
farming and cattle raising. Lancaster 



county names today are Hagy, Frick, 
Baer, Huber, Baumann, Muller, Fur- 
rer. 

\\liile in vSwtizerland some years 
ago I jotted down some of the Lan- 
caster county names I found in the 
graveyards in several of the above 
places. Thus in the graveyard at 
A\'adenswil I found Leemann, Bach- 
man, Riisterholtz, Ziircher, Xaef^ 
Strickler, Widmer, Brupbacher, Miil- 
ler, Baer, Furrer, Good, Huber, Baum- 
gartner. 

In Horgen graveyard were Hiestand 
and Gut; in IVIeilen, Bruppacher, Bas- 
ler, Egli and Baumann. 

I have thought it worth while to give 
the above names, for it is beyond any 
doubt in my mind that at least some of 
the Lancaster county families could, if 
they took the time and trouble, trace 
their ancestry back to the above vil- 
lages on Lake Zurich, As is knov/n to 
everyone Lancaster county was first 
settled by Swiss Mennonites. These 
were divided into two groups, one from 
the Canton Bern, the other from Can- 
ton Zurich. The names given in the 
book I have described above are tliose 
who came from Zurich. Hence the 
Stricklers, Snavelys ( Schnebeli ) 
Burckhards, Forrers, ^Miillers, Ringers, 
Gochenauers, Fricks, Goods (Gut), 
^Meylins, Hoovers (Huber), Brubakers. 
Landes, etc., may all with a certain 
degree of positiveness look back to 
Zurich as their ancestral home land. 

(I hope in a later number of THE 
PENNSYLVANIA - GERMAN t o 
give a brief discussion of Lancaster 



coimty families 
Berne). 



from the (. anton 



The Bishop Metzler Bible 

C. E. Metzler, Boston, Mass. 



611 



By 



My dear Mr, Kriebel: 

I send you this story for the "Pennsylva- 
nia-German" if you consider it fit to print, 
not to advertize our family, but to enable 
those dear people who are taking interest 
in establishing the genealogical records of 
the good old Lancaster county stock as they 
were all intermarried and have a beautiful 
history. I was prompted to send you this 
by reading of the Hershey, Heisey and other 
reunions. 

Always yours, 
CHRISTIAN E. METZLER. 

'In I. D. Rupp's ''Gollection of 30,000 
names of the first settlers of Pennsyl- 
vania" appears the following : 

''From Cowes Eng. — Ship Glasgow — 
Master AA'alter Sterling — 349 Palatines 
— Arriving in America September 

Among these arrivals, many of whom 
w'ere Swiss ]\Iennonites, appears the 
name of Jost Mitzler, whiclf is sup- 
posed to be a mis-print, and, that it 
should read Jost Metzler. \"alti, or Val- 
entine as it was written later, a lad 12 
years of age arrived at the same time 
and is supposed to have been a son of 
Jost [Nlitzler or ^letzler as \'alentine 
wrote it. His name is not included in 
the Glasgow passenger list, as it was 
not then customary to publish the 
names of women, or children under 16 
years of age, in the passenger list of 
-arrivals. 

The following record is written in a 
-copy of the ''Martyrs ^Mirror'' an Eph- 
Tata. Pa., publication, now owned by 
Peter [Metzler, Columbiana, Ohio, a 
•great grandson of the Bishop. 

"Grandfather Valentine Metzler was a 
Bishop in the Mennonite Church. He was 
born in Europe. February 14. 1726 and came 
to America in 17;'8. and married Anna Nisli 
(Nissley) December 19th, 1749. Anna Xisli 
was born December 9th, 1727. My father 
Abraham Metzler was born February 24th, 
1753, and married Christiana Grof in Lan- 
caster Co., Pa. 

(Signed) David Metzler. age 77." 

Anna Xissley, wife of Valentine 
Metzler, was a daughter of Jaci')!) and 
Barbara Nissley. The other children 
of Jacob Xissley were Flenry, Jacob, 
Martin, Elizabeth, Plana (married to 



Abraham W'hitmore) and Mary (mar- 
ried to Jacob Brubacher). 

A similar record of Valentine r\Ietz- 
ler is written in the family Bible of the 
late Daniel Ressler, who died at Xew 
Providence, Lane. Co., Pa., a few years 
ago at the age of 99 years, 9 months 
and several days. Daniel Ressler was 
married to Mary ]\Ictzler a daughter of 
Rev. Henry, a son of \^alentine. 

Bishop ^letzler's Bible was printed 
in Zurich, Switzerland in 157 1, a large 
heavy-bound volume with brass hing^ 
es, clasps and mountings, pictorial 
throughout and containir^g a marginal 
reference concordance on each page. 

The follo\\'ing inscriptions are writ- 
ten therein : 

1st. "In this Bible are 35 books, and it be- 
longs to Christian Meier of "Ires Heimer 
Home" and my father presented it to 
me August 3rd. in the year 1734." 

2nd. "Anno 1734 the Sth day of June I 
Christian Meier promised my son Abra- 
ham Meier this Bible. It shall be his." 

3rd. "This Bible belongs to me. Christian 
INIeier, and after my death, it shall be- 
long to my son Abraham Meier's son, 
Christian Meier, without any other per- 
son's claim. 

Witness my hand this 26th day of De- 
cember Anno 174S. 

Christian Meier." 

4th. "Anna 175.7 my brother John Meier 
died. He lived in this world of sorrow 
73 years. 3 weeks. 3 days, (taken out of 
the family record of Dresch Witz~i." 

5th. "Anno 1760 Sept 12th. my father Chris- 
tian Meier died after a lingering illness 
of IS weeks. He lived in this world 70 
years, 3 weeks and 6 days." 

6th. "This Bible belongs to me Edward Hil- 
ton." 

7th. "This Bible belongs to me Valti Metz- 
ler. I bought for 40 shillings April 27th 
1767." 

All of the abo\ e inscriptions are 
written in the German language. 

Jacob X'isli (Xissley) father-in-law 
of Bishop Metzler. owned a tract of 
land consisting of 211 acres on the 
outskirts of Lancaster City on which 
was a family burial plot. After Mr. 
Xisslov's death in 1752 Bishop Metzler 
bought the farm for 145 pounds. In 
the conveyance papers the name is 



612 



THE PEXX S YLV AX I A-G E RM AN 



signed Xisslcy by the trther heirs but 
previous to this the name was written 
Xisli. The appraisers of the estate 
appointed by the Court were Sebastian 
Grass, Ulrich Rodt , Jost Musser and 
Hans Christy. Bishop Metzler and 
his wife and one son Christian as also 
the Xisli family were buried on the 
farm. The g-round has long since been 
cultivated and the graveyard has dis- 
appeared a:id its location is now 
unknown. The land is now a portion of 
the beautiful McGrann farm at the 
Junction of the Pennsylvania R. R. on 
the banks of the Conestoga. 



Family Record cf Bishop Metzler 

\'alentine ^'Ctzler and Anna X'issley 
were married Xo\-ember iQtli, 17-IO. 
Their Children 

Maria, born X'ov. 5th. 1750. married 
Bishop Hostetter. 

Abraham, born Feb. 24th. T753. 

Jacob, born May 31st, 1755. 

John, born X'ov. 7th. 1737.- 

Anna, born Jan. loth. 1760. 

Henry, born June 15th, 1762. 

Christian, born Sept. 23rd, 1764. 

Martin, born Feb. 8th, 1767. 

Elizabeth, born Oct. 1769. 

A'alentine died July 24th. 1783. age 
57 years, 5 mos., 10 days. 

Anna (his wife) died March 29Lh, 
^793' ^i^^d 65 years. 4 mos.. 26 days. 

Bishop Metzler. while non-combatant, 
was evidently in sympathy with the 
patriots in the Revolution, as the Co- 
lonial Records of Penna. show that he 
donated horses to the American army. 

Of his children, ^^aria, married to 
Bishop Hostetter, hatl a large follow- 
ing among the Hostetters. Hershcys. 
Brubakcrs. W'islers. by intermarriages 
in_ Lancaster county. 

John was a merchant at Spt^rting 
Hill where he lived all his lifetime and 
has many descendants. 

Henry, grandfather of the writer, 
was, ordained a minister iti the Mcnno- 
nite church anr' lies b'.iried in the Men- 
nonite graveyard at Strasburg, Lancas- 
ter countw Pa. 



At the death of Bishop Metzler in 
1783 his Bible became the property of 
his son Christian who never married, 
and died early in the 19th century. The 
Bible was then probably sold or given 
away. All records of it were lost until 
1832 when a tramp named Philip La 
Millar came to the house of Christian 
Hershey near Manheim, Pa., carrying 
something heavy in a bag. Mr. Her- 
shey said. **\\'as host du." the tramp 
repiied, "Die Heilige^ Schrift." . Her- 
shey asked to see it, and on opening it 
he said in German, '*This is old Bishop 
Metzler's Bible" and bought i t from 
La ^lillar for S5.00; where it remained 
until ]\Ir. Hershey died in 1864. 

After his death his two children, 
David and ^>Iary, wife oi Henry E. 
Brubaker, of Elizabeth township, di- 
vided the personal property but neither 
of them wanted the old Bible as it was 
too heavy to handle. David put it 
away in a closet at the Hershey home- 
stead where it remained until April 2, 
187 1. On that date Rev. Jacob X. Bru- 
baker (now Bishop) visited David 
Hershey and was shown the "Old 
Bible." Mr. Brubaker ottered to buy 
it. but Mr. Hershey made him a pres- 
ent of it. Mr. Brubaker took it to his 
home near Mount Joy where it re- 
mained until 1890. About that time the 
writer invited ^^r. Brubaker to preach 
for him in Germantown. Phila.. and at 
that time disco\ered that Bishop Bru- 
baker had his great grandfather's 
Bible tor which he had been hunting 
for many years. 

Mr. Brubaker at once volunteered 
to hand the I»ible over to the writer but 
said that it had been the rule of his 
life never to give away or dispose of a 
present befc^re first getting tlie vlonor's 
consent and that he wmild call on Mr. 
Hershev and get his permission. In 
the meantime Mrs. David Hershey had 
discovercil that her grandmother Dis- 
ho') Hostetter's wife was a daughter of 
r.ishi^p Metzler and that she was his 
great-grandchild. Then they felt sorry 
that they had given the luble away but 
of course would not mention it to 



THE BISHOP METZLER BIBLE 



613 



Bishop Bruljaker. So when Mr. Bru- 
baker called to ask their consent to ji^ive 
it away he was told that Mrs. Hershey 
was as near to Bishop Metzler as the 
Avriter and if Brubaker wanted to part 
with it that thcv wanted it back. Mr. 




MKTZE^ER HOUSE. STRASBURG 

Brubaker then wrote to nie to visit 
him and he would drive me over to 
Hershey. and Mr. Hershey and I could 
decide who was to have the Bible when 
we met at ^Iv. Hershey's home. ^^Irs. 
Hershey with a heart full of love said. 
"You take the Bible. It is yours, you 
still bear the name ^^letzler, and with 
me it has died out three generations 
ag^o." ^luch as I wanted it I felt sorry 
to take it as her eyes filled v.dien she 
said I could have it. During our stay 
she spoke much about the Love of 
God and her interesting work in their 
^lennonite Sunday School among the 
children. The writer then handed her 
a sum of money for the Sunday School 
which she gratefully accepted. 

The Bible was then taken to Ger- 
mantown and in 1897 to Lansdale and 
in 1900 to Boston where it now rests. 



Its next moxe will be to my grandson 
Christian E. Metzler, now living at 
Harrisburg. Pa. It will then be in the 
6th generation from liishop Metzler 
and in its time ha\e been knowingly 
owned by two Christian Meiers and 
three Christian Metzlers, good old 
Lancaster county names. 

The accompanying cut was the resi- 
dence of Henry Metzler a son of the 
Bishop and grandfather of the writer. 
The house still stands in Strasburg. 
Lancaster county. Pa. The lady 
standing in front of the house when 
the picture was taken is r\Irs. Elam 
Groft. a great-granddaughter oi Bish- 
op iMetzler and a resident now of Lan- 
caster city. Pa. 

The second picture is the old Men- 
nonite meeting house with its adjacent 






S£»„v;-.^.i..^«t:»w^i^^4i^i^.-'^:.-,\ . 



-.• <?-'«rTii^*^^_^.,;Mj 




MENXON'ITE GRAVE VARD. STRASEl'RG 

graveyard at Strasburg. Pa. In this 
house Heinrich Metzler preached. In 
the foreground are three . tombstones 
on the left that of Heinrich Metzler. in 
the center ''Esther" his wife and right 
the writer's father Henrv B. their son. 



614 



The Use of Willow Rods by the Ancient Germans 

By C. D. Mell, U. S. Dept. of Agiiculture, Washington, D. C. 




?kIOXG the ancient Ger- 
mans willow rods were 
already used for making 
a great variety of objects. 
Along rivers and streams 
as Avell as in swampy 
lowlands and in moist 
places generally, num- 
berless trees and shruljs yielded an 
enormous quantity of tough flexible 
rods which were gathered for eco- 
nomic purposes. The Germans under- 
stood very early in their history how 
to utilize this natural growth to their 
advantage. When they erected houses 
willow rods were used to tie the beams 
together and to hold them in place, 
and woven fabrics of young willow 
shoots covered with clay were used to 
close up the open places between the 
logs. The heavy oak doors were not 
hung on metal hinges as thev are at 
the present time, but strong willow 
rods were used instead. The fence or 
hedge around the houses was made of 
closely planted Avillow shoots ingen- 
iously interwoven so as to render the 
inclosure safe from ordinary intruders. 
Fields and pastures were inclosed by 
fences made of willows, briers and 
other underbrush, which produced a 
hedge so dense that one could not pos- 
sibly force himself through without 
the aid of a sharp-edged instrument. 

\\'illows were especially treasured 
as binding material. Perhaps the first 
use made of willow shoots was in tv- 
ing the arrow and spear points to their 
.shafts, and the ax and stone hammer 
to their handles. The young shoots 
of a great many \vilKn\-s native to Eu- 
rope are \-ery pliable and at the same 
time are exceedingly strong and hard. 
Their elasticity and lightness esj->ec- 
ially fitted them for weaving shields, 
which were covered with thick skins of 
animals and bossed with brass. The 
allusion to this use by ]ioets is well il- 
lustrated in the followino-; 



*'The bending willow into barks they twine- 
Then line the work with spoils of slaught- 
er'd kine." 

Rowe's Lucan, Book IV. 

It required an immense bow from 
the arm of one of those sturdy Teutons 
to force a hole through a shield by 
means of an ax or lance. 

The Germans also understood how 
to weave the rods into something on 
the order of a basket. Of course these 
baskets were very primitive, and. as a 
rule, exceedingly large and rough. 
They were made of green rods only, 
for the ancient Germans did not yet 
understand the art of removing the 
bark quickly and easily. The best 
baskets made at that time may have 
been somewhat on the order oi the 
bushel basket of the present day but 
without handles. The weaving oi large 
baskets was done entirely by slaves 
and bondsmen. The housewives and 
young girls understood how to work 
up the rods of finer quality into ar- 
ticles for household use. It is also 
said that the Germans made huge 
figures of wickerwork, which, on cer- 
tain occasions, were filled with crimi- 
nals, and set fire to. 

Another curiotis tise of the willow 
was for making baskets used for fish- 
ing in the streams antl rivers. These 
fishing baskets were low, narrow and 
elongated, and woven perfectly tight 
on all sides. A hole large enough for 
a fish to enter was cut in the middle of 
one of the small ends and the basket 
was completed and ready for use. The 
basket was placed on the bottom of 
the stream-bed with the open end 
pointing d(n\ n stream. Stones were 
placed on top of the baskets so as to 
keep them anchored to the bottom 
and prevent them from being washed 
away by the current. Some distance 
dtnvn the stream a number of men and 
bi^vs stepped into the water and waded 
up stream antl through the action of 



THE USE OF WILLOW RODS BY THE ANCIENT GERM.VNS 



615 



their feet in the water the fish were 
frightened and driven up stream. The 
fish believing- to have found a place of 
safety through the opening in the 
baskets swatn into it. The baskets 



were so low and narrow that the fish 
C(Duld not turn around and so were 
caught. The fishermen came along 
and then the operation was repeated. 



Number of Americans of German Ancestry 




HE writer in the Berlin 
TAEGLICIIE RUND- 
SCHAU, who has just, 
transferred these United 
States from the Anglo- 
Saxon to the Teutonic 
firmament, yields to a 
common disease among 
German students of thin<:'-s American. 

o 

Pfettv nearly every traveller from the 
Fatherland is under the duty of point- 
ing out that we are not as English as 
we appear. The rest content them- 
selves with pointing out that we are 
not as German as we ought to be. Pro- 
fessor Lamprecht was neither the first 
nor the last visitor from east of the 
Rhine to deplore the failure of the 
German element among us to impress 
themselves duly upon our civilization 
and our institutions. It is an old com- 
plaint that the Kaiser's subjects under 
new skies, abandon too readily the an- 
'cestral language and culture. Excel- 
lent raw material for nation-building, 
they seem content to play the part of 
brick and mortar without attempting to 
shape the builder's designs or the ar- 
chitect's scheme oi ornamenta^tion. 
Thus runs the usual complaint. It 
makes way now and then for the more 
complacent "Well, bricks and mortar 
constitute a mighty useful part in 
building oix-rations and, anyhow, see 
what mi^ght have ha])pcned if things 
had fallen thus and so.'' Such a critic is 
the RUNDSCHAU writer when he as- 
serts (t) that we are really a German- 
ic nation enil)racing 30,000,000 souls of 
Teuton descent, and (2) that it Muh- 
lenberg of Pennsylvania. Speaker of 
the first House of Rej)resentatives, had 
not been recreant to his father's lancf- 



uage, Mr. Taft and Mr. Bryan would 
now be speaking in German periods. 
Why should Muhlenberg have in- 
sisted in conducting the debates of the 
First Congress in German? There is 
no reason why. A volume fresh from 
the Census Bureau. "A C^^^^''^^ '"»» 
Population Growth, 1790- 1900'' comes 
pat to the subject. The first Census 
did not concern itself \vith registering 
the place of birth or the place of par- 
ents' birth. But taking the names of 
the heads of famines as a basis for 
determining nationality, the experts 
at Washington distribute the white 
population in 1790 into English. S3. 5 
per cent; Scotch, 6.7 per cent.: Irish, 
1.6 per cent.; Dutch, 2 per cent., and 
Germans, 6.6 per cent. North of New 
Jersey the German element was al- 
most non-existent. It was one half of 
one per cent, in Maine, less than one 
tenth of one per cent, in the rest of 
New England, and four-tenths oi one 
per cent, in New York. With New 
Jersey's 9 per cent, we strike ore. In 
Pennsylxania the Germans were 26 
per cent, of the population, in Mary- 
land 5.9 per cent. ; in \'irginia 4.9 per 
cent. : in South Carolina 1.7 per cent.; 
in Georgia, Kentucky and Tennessee, 
2.S per cent. Take the German popu- 
lation by itself, and no less than 70 
per cent, was concentrated in Penn- 
sylvania, while \'irginia had 13 per 
cent, ^laryland 8 per cent, and North 
Carolina 5 i>er cent. In only tour 
states, theretore. did the German stock 
form more than one-twentieth of the 
populaii(Mi, and in only one. Pennsyl- 
vania, vlid it reach a point where it at- 
tained the least probability in infiuenc- 



616 



THE PEXXS YLVAN I A-GEHM AN 



ing the language of the State as a 
whole. 

As to the strength of German cul- 
ture in 1790, the Census Bureau's 
volume supplies us with a single in- 
dex, in that year the number of news- 
papers and pericxlicals published in the 
United States was 103. Of these there 
were six in the German language, cor- 
responding almost exactly to the Ger- 
man ratio of population. All six pub- 
lished in Pennsvlvania, one at Ger- 
mantown, DIE' GER.AIAXTAUXER 
ZEITUXG, one at Lancaster, one at 
Reading, and three in Philadelphia, 
among the last, DIE CHEST- 
NUTi-IILLER WOCHEXSCHRIET. 
Pennsylvania's publications in all 
languages numbered 23, so that here, 
where the Germans Avere planted in 
solid bulk and where, if anywhere, 
they might exercise a cultural in- 
fluence disproportionate to their num- 
bers, their newspapers run again ex- 
actly parallel with their population 
ratio. The one-fifth of the German 
population resident in the Southern 
States had not a single one among the 
twenty-four publications in that sec- 
tion. Evidently, we were not. in 1790. 
tottering on the brink of Teutonic 
culture and oidy saved from the 
plunge by Speaker ^Muhlenberg's trea- 
son to the language of Goethe. 

The second point made by the 
RUXDSCHAU metapliA'sician, name- 
ly, that 30,000.000 Americans today 
are of German descent, is wrong, and 
badly wrong, but not so absurdly 
wrong as the enormous total would 
seem to imply at first sight. The prob- 



lem is, of course an extremely com- 
plicated one.. It can be discussed only 
in a way apt to give great pain to the 
trained statistican. But on this point 
the Census lUireau itself indulges in 
a little pleasant speculation. In 1900 
we had 35,000,000 of native stock, na- 
tives, that is, of native i)arentage. Al- 
lowing the German blood the same ra- 
tion it held in 1790, we get nearly 2.- 
000,000, souls of that strain. In 1900 
the population of foreign birth or for- 
eign .parentage numbered 29,000,000, 
and of these the Germans were be- 
tween seven and eight millions. And 
this to the old native stock and we 
have a total of 10,000,000. But allow- 
ance must be made for the probably 
higher rate of fertility among the Ger- 
man population of old native stock. 
In any case, the remarkable change 
that has come over the face of the 
c^riginal thirteen States is illustrated 
in an analysis made in 1900 of the 
schedules for Hartford county. Conn, 
and Columbia county. X\ Y., "which 
Ave regarded as typical urban and 
rural counties, res])ectivel}'." and 
which remained practically unchanged 
in boundary from 1790 to 1900. In 
1790, Hartford county had no German 
residents; in 1900 they formed 12.2 
per cent, of the population. In 1790, 
Columbia County's German popula- 
tion was four-tenths of one per cent. ; 
in 1900 it was 17.2 per cent. A claim 
of fifteen million people of German 
descent in this coimtry may not be 
excessive, and an error of fifteen mil- 
lions is not very bad iov a hot-blooded 
Pan-Germanist. — The Xation. 



— A service paper relates a good story 
of King Louis ct' Bavaria. His majesty was 
much annoyed on one occasion when the 
soldier on guard at the palace gates neg- 
lected to present arms. The truth was. the 
soldier did not know his majesty by sight. 
"Why don't you ])resent arms?" the latter 
asked, angrily. "Don't you know to whom 
you are indebted for your daily bread?" 



The sentry glared angrily at the king. and. 
imagining him to be the army baker, re- 
plied: 

"So you are the miserable son of a 
bake.r who furnishes th e soldiers with 
bread, are you? Well. I should like to have 
you by yourself in some quiet place. I'd 
spread your ungainly anatomy over three 
kingdoms! I'd make dough of you I" 



Gl' 



Rev. John Hershey 

By Dr. I. James Schaff, Chambersburg, Pa. 

(Reprinted from "The Religious Telescope") 




CCOMPAXIED by a 
friend, I made se\-eral 
tours recently to Hagers- 
town to the ^eat of justice 
of Washington Co.. Mary- 
land, and to several of the 
villages that are located 
along the trolley roads 
that radiate from that county seat. 
Hagerstown had its beginning more 
than a century and a half ago. origi- 
nally called Elizabethtown. but for 
many years has been known by its 
present name. In earlier years its 
growth was slow, but during the past 
quarter of a century the population 
has been almost doubled, the present 
number of inhabitants being probably 
fifteen thousand. It has well-pa\ed 
streets, excellent mountain water, fine 
public buildings, substantial and at- 
tractive private residences, numerous 
and costly church edifices of modern 
style of architecture, and good schools 
and school-buildings. Hagerstown is 
quite a railway center, the Cumberland 
Valley, the Western ^^laryland. the 
Norfolk and Western, and a branch of 
the Baltimore and Ohio, all enter the 
town, giving the "people iirst-class pas- 
senger scr\ice and excellent shipping- 
facilities. An electric railway covers 
the principal streets, and several lines 
extend to some of the villages and 
towns within the county, and to points 
outside its limits. The town has a 
number of manufactories, so that it is 
not only a residential town. *'a citv of 
homes," but an industrial and indus- 
trious town as well, combining bi~>th 
characters as few other towns do. 
Nearly all employees are native-born 
Americans, intelligent. industrious, 
honest, and abreast of the times. 

NEWCOMER'S DEATH 
On the first trip, my friend and I 
made a brief stop off in Hagerstown, 



and then boarded a trolley car for 
I'eavcr Creek, a small cluster of houses 
that takes its name from the stream 
that flows through the village. From 
Ijcaver Creek we walked to the grave- 
yard in which repose the remains of 
Rev. John Hershey and his wife, Mag- 
dalena Hershey, who spent many 
years of their life only a few miles 
distant from the cemetery in which 
they lie buried. The highway over 
which we journeyed skirts the eastern 
side of the farm on wh.ich Bishijp 
Christian Newcomer li\ed ft:»r more 
than half a century. The large stone 
mansion, erected while he was tlie 
owner of the land, and in which he 
died March 12, 1830, also his barn in 
which sacramental meetings were 
held, could be seen plainly from the 
public road — the road, doubtless, over 
which the Bishop made his last ride 
ten davs 1>efore his death occurred. 
He had gone to Boonsboro. about four 
miles distant fn^m his home, intend- 
ing to continue his journey to \'irgin- 
ia on the following day. During the 
night he became somewhat unwell. 
and in the moiming returned home and 
gradually grew worse, passing peace- 
fully away ten days later. 

"Fahrney's Graveyard" is the name 
of the l)urying ground in which Rev. 
John Flershey and his wife are buried. 
and is one of the oldest in the eastern 
part of Washington county, inter- 
ments having been made there more 
than a century and a quarter ago: but 
the year in \\hich it was set apart ior 
burial purposes cannot now be deter- 
mined. It is situated upon a knoll, 
about midway between Beaver Creek 
and Boonsln^ro. and the view that pre- 
sents itself to the eyes of the beholder, 
as he stands within tlie inclosurc. is 
magnificent — grand beyond descrip- 
ticMi. The gTiHuuls are enclosed by a 
substantial fence, contain several 



618 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



acres, and are kept in a condition that 
reflects credit npon those who ha\"e 
oversight and care. The cemetery ad- 
joins a church owned by the German 
Baptists. It is a brick structure that 
occupies the site of its predecessor, a 
log building- that \\as erected before 
the Revolutionar}' A\'ar, and ^vas in 
use until, probably, two score years 
ago, when it was removed to make 
room for a larger edifice, one more in 
keeping with the age, and -better 
adapted to the wants of the people 
who are accustomed to worship there- 
in. 

We lingered for quite a while in the 
cemetery, reading the inscriptions on 
.such of the markers as record the date 
of death of those whose earthly pil- 
grimage ended lc)ng years ago. The in- 
scriptions showed that then, as now, 
many died young; some reached mid- 
dle age; a few lived ouc the full four- 
score years," while a smaller number 
attained a greater age, but none lived 
four-score and ten. Tnose who sleep 
in that "city of the dead'' were un- 
disturbed by the booming of the can- 
non and the roar of musketry during 
the battle of Antietam, fought a few 
miles southward, in 1862. The graves 
of Rev. John Hershey and wife are 
each marked by a neat headstone and 
a footstone, the inscriptions on each 
being in German. That on the head- 
stone of the husband, when translated 
into English, reads as follows : 

''Here Rests 

Preacher John Hershey. 

Who died April 4th, 181 1. 

In the 71st year of his age." 

The inscription on the headstone at 
the grave of his wife reads thus: 

"Here Rests 

^lagdalena Hershey, 

The wife of John Hershey. 

Who died January 16. 1808. 

In the 64th year of her age'' 

Bishop Xewcomer and Rev. John 
Ilershev were warm, personal friends; 



but the Bishop in hi: 
no mention of having 



journal makes 
preached the 



funeral discourse, though under date 
of April 5. 181 1, he wrote: "This day 
Brother John Hershey was buried.'' It 
is doubtful if the Bishop attended the 
funeral, for his wife was seriously ill, 
her death occurring a few days later, 
and his presence was needed at her 
bedside, llie road from the Hershey 
liome to the cemetery passed near the 
Bishop's residence, and likely it was 
over that highway that the funeral 
cortege passed. If so, the venerable 
Bishop saw the slowly-moving pro- 
cession as it went on its way, follow- 
ing the remains of his friend and co- 
laborer to their final resting-place. 

JOHN HERSHEY'S HOME 
After photographing t*ne markers at 
the graves oi Rev. John Hershey and 
wife, also the cemetery and the church 
adjoining, we retraced our steps to 
Beaver Creek and, taking passage on 
a trolley car, a ride oi a few minutes 
brought us to the "Hershey home- 
stead.'* Rev. John Hershey was a son 
of Rev. Andrew Hershey, who, with 
his brother Benjamin, came with their 
father, Hans Hershey, to America 
from Switzerland in 1719. They 
landed at Philadelphia, and soon after- 
ward made their way to Lancaster 
county, one oi the most beautiful and 
fertile portions of Pennsylvania. They, 
with others oi their countrymen, lo- 
cated in the Conestoga \'alley, and 
one of their first acts was to erect saw. 
grist, hemp, oil, fulling and cider 
mills ; having come ti^ the Xew World 
with the purpose of spending the re- 
mainder of their li\es in it. They 
erected substantial dwellings. They 
were built of stone, and were impos- 
ing structures, comparing favorably 
with those built during more recent 
years. Their houses were two stories 
in height, many oi those early dwell- 
ings have arched cellars, wide hall- 
ways, open fire hearths, massive walls, 
quaint inscriptions, with the date of 
erection being, in "some instances, 
{-•laced high upon the gable ends. They 
tilled the soil with care, and did much 
to develop the neighborhood in which 



REV. JOHN HERSHEY 



61& 



they settled. Some of the building-s 
then erected are yet standing and in 
use, none the worse, apparently, for 
their long term of service, the one built 
by Andrew Ifershey, tlie father of 
Rev. John Hershey being among the 
number. 

Andrew Hershey had a large family. 
Some of his children remained in tlie 
Conestoga A'allcy; other moved be- 
yond the limits of Lancaster county, 
and some to other States. Two of the 
sons, Rev. John Hershey and Isaac 
Hershey, removed to A\'ashington 
county, Maryland, John locating on 
the farm on which he died, and his 
brother becoming the o\vner of a farm 
some miles to the westward. At what 
time the brothers settled in ^Maryland 
is not definitely known, but presum- 
ably about the year 1770, or very soon 
thereafter. The house in which Rev. 
John Hershey lived is yet standing, 
though in an enlarged and modernized 
form. \\'ithin the walls of the original 
building the pioneer ministers of the 
United Brethren church frequently 
held forth the "word of life" ; and in 
the barn, which was destroyed by fire 
not many years ago. sacramental or 
"two days' meetings," as they were 
sometimes called, were occasionallv 
held. 

NEWCOMERS COMPANION 
John Hershey was brought up in the 
Mennonistic faith, and for some years 
was a member of that denomination, 
but changed his churcn relationship 
after his removal to the Beaver Creek- 
settlement, identifying himself with 
the United Brethren in Christ, and 
later was granted license to preach. 
For many years he was an honored 
and useful mend)er of the "llagors- 
town Conference." now the ^enns^d- 
vania Conference. Frequently he ac- 
conq)anie(l Bishop Xewcomer. and 
others of his colaborers. on their 
preaching tours through Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, and journeyed alone. o\\ 
several occasions to Canada, preach- 
ing as opp(^rtunity afforded. He \\as 
a good man, and had the confidence 



and esteem of a wide acquaintance- 
ship. 

One of John Hershey 's sons, alsa 
named John Hershey. located in 
Hagerstown soon after his marriage, 
and became one of its most influential 
and honored citizens. He was a tan- 
ner by trade, and did an extensive and 
paying business, becoming quite rich. 
He was elected mayor of the town, a 
position that he filled for a number of 
years. He was also one of the chief 
promoters of the Hagerstown bank, 
and was one of its directors for quite 
a long period. The tanning establish- 
ment, which stood a short distance 
east of the Public Square, has gone to 
decay ; but the dwelling in which he 
lived, located on the tannery lot. has 
nobly withstood the ravages oi time, 
and seems but little the worse for its 
long term of service. 

John Hershey joined the United 
P>rethren Church at an early age. and 
labored as assiduously for the further- 
ance of its interests as he did in his 
business affairs. He was one of the 
charter members of the church in 
Hagerstown. where the first church 
built by the denomination in the Cum- 
berland A'allc}- was located. It occu- 
pied a site near the center of the town, 
and on one of its principal tht^rough- 
fares. In that building John Hershey 
worshiped until the membership had 
so increased in numbers as to make it 
necessary to build a larger temple. A 
new site was selected, upon which a 
house of worship, better adpted to the 
wants of the congregation, was built 
during Mr. Ilershey's life-time, and 
toward which project he contributed 
with generous hand. The first Preach- 
ers' Aid Society of the United l»reth- 
ren Church was organized in iSj2. 
largely thriHigh his inthience. It was 
at the home of Jc^hn Hershc>' that 
Biishop Xewcomer was often enter- 
tained. It is dindnful if he visited any 
other home in the town more frequent- 
Iv. his visits there commencing s.'^on 
after Mr. Hershey and wife began 
housekeeping, and continuing until 



620 



THE PENXSYLVANIA-GERMAX 



probalby less than a month before the 
Bishop's death, more than a quarter of 

j ^ century. 

HER SHE Y DESCEXDAXTS 
Another of the early meml)ers of the 
•church in IlagerstJwn was Joseph 
Hershey, son of Isaac Hershey, of 
whom mention has been made. On the 
second tour I visited the farm on which 
Isaac Hershey lived and died, and on 
which he and some of his chldren are 

' buried. The homestead can be reached 
by rail. The farm dwelling is also a 
stone structure, and is the one in which 

1 Isaac died in iSii — the same year in 

! wdiich the death of his brother, Rev. 
John Hershey, occurred, being- then al- 
most sixty-seven. The death of his 
wdfe did not occur until thirty-four 
years later, or October 23, 1845. She 
was at the time of her death in her 
•eig-hty-ninth year. I believe Isaac Her- 
shey was a member of the River Breth- 
ren, possibly the ]\Icnnonite Church ; 
but, whatever his church relationship 
may have been. Bishop Newcomer oc- 
casionally preached at his home. Jos- 
eph, the son referred to, located in 
Hagerstown when a young man, and 
■continued to reside there until the 
time of his death. To his home Bishop 
Newcomer also made frequent visits 
and often lodged there. Next to the 
last night that he spent in Hagerstown 
he lodged at Joseph Hershey's. That 
was the night of February i, 1830, 
about six weeks prior to the Bishop's 
death. Joseph Hershey died Novem- 
ber 30, i860, and his remains, as well 
as those of his cousin, John Hershey, 
repose in the cemetery at Hagerstown. 
They, with other of the Hershey peo- 
ple, had been buried in the graveyard 
adjoining St. Paul's United Brethren 
Church; but the church edific^ was en- 
larged in 1900, at which time their 
bodies were exhumed and reinterred in 
the cemetery named. 

Some of John Hershey's descen- 
dants are yet living in I lagerstown antl 
'Other parts of Washington county; 



and many of them are adherents of the 
United P.rethren faith, worshipping 
with the St. Paul's congregation, of 
which Rev. A. B. Statton is past(jr, or 
with the Second Church, served by 
Rev. Gordon I. Rider. Each of the 
two congregations has an attractive 
and substantial church edifice in which 
to worship, with a large membership ; 
and it need surprise no one if a third 
church should be added \\'ithin the next 
decade. 

RICH L\ REMINISCENCES 

Flagerstown — indeed almost e\ery 
part of A\'ashington county — contains 
a rich harvest of reminiscences that in- 
vites the pen-sickle of the historian. 
Washington county was the home of 
Newcomer, Geeting, the Hersheys, 
Bishop Russel, and others, through 
whose labors the doctrines oi the 
Church were spread throughout the 
Cumberland \'alley, and to points far 
beyond its confines. It was in Hagers- 
town th?.t J. J. Glossbrenner was born 
about a year before Otterbein died. 
Here Glossbrenner was converted, 
joined the United Brethren Church, 
went forth as an itinerant to "proclaim 
the glad tidings." and subsequently 
was chosen to the Bishopric, his long 
retention in that position attesting his 
worth and showing the contuicnce and 
high regard which his ministerial and 
lay brethren had for him. John and Jos- 
eph Plershey were two of the half 
dozen members who contributed funds 
to purchase a horse for the young itin- 
erant, as he started on his ministerial 
career, his means at that time being 
limited. The generosity of the dv:inors 
was much appreciated by Mr. Gloss- 
brenner, and the contributors must 
have derived pleasure from the thought 
that they had been instrumental in 
starting him on the way to usefulness 
and greatness. Yes. Washington coun- 
ty cv'intains a bountiful harvest ot 
remini>ccuces that should be gathereil, 
and ijathered soon. 






Register Plan for Genealogies 

NOTE. — In our July issue we called attention to the '"Register" Plan for 
Genealogies and ofiercd to send sample pages to those preparing genealo- 
gies for publication in "The Pennsylvania-German.'' We reproduce herewith 
the pages referred to. — Editor.) 

During the first twenty-three years of the ptil)lication of the 
REGISTER, 1847-1869, no fixed plan for the arrangement of 
genealogies was required, and each person was allowed to ar- 
range his genealogical contributions according to his own taste 
or fancy. In the latter year the Publishing Committee, find- 
ing that so many different plans were confusing to the read- 
ers of the REGISTER, agreed to adopt one and require ar- 
ticles to be arranged according to it. The plan then adopted 
. was the work of Col. Albert H. Hoyt, the editor at that time, 
with suggestions from ^Ir. John \\'ard Dean, a subsequent 
editor. It has now been in use for many years, and has given 
satisfaction. The following explanation of the merits of the 
plan was published in the REGISTER for Januar}', 1870 (vol. 
24, P- 79) • 

1. It avoids all unnecessary figures. More than enough of these adds 
greatly to the cost of printing, confuses the reader, and mars the p:.ge. 
Consecutive numbers have no advantage except as aids to reference: hence 
no consecutive number is placed against a name which is not subsequently 
taken up as the head of a fr.mily. Figures used as exponents, as Jolnr, 
are employed but once with the same name. 

2. The personal history of each individual is given in connection with 
his appearance as the head of a fr,mi}y. If an\' name is not subsequent- 
ly taken up as the head of a family, then his or her history is given when 
the name first occurs. 

3. Historical matter is printed in large type, and the nrmes of children 
in small type. This economizes space, and assists the e\-e in reading. 

As the printed record of the early generations of an emi- 
grant to Xew England will interest a larger number oi read- 
ers than any later records, the Publishing Committee deem 
it wise to limit the publication as hereinafter stated: 

1. Genealogies which include generations born later than about the year 
1850 are not desired for publication, but the record oi later generations 
may be filed if desired. 

2. Gener logics must be arranged uptui the Committee's plan now used 
in the Register. 

3. Preference is to be given to brief geneaU^gies. in which the facts 
concerning the generations are properly condensed and the dateS o t 
births, marriages and deaths fully and accurately carrieil out. 

4. Manuscripts must be typewritten or in legible handwriting on one 
side of the paper only, with one-quarter inch space between the lines, and 
with ample margins. 

5. Use such abbreviations and method oi punctuation as are given in 
the following specimen pages. Do not abbreviate given names of persons, 
and do not use & for avui. 

6. Omit dates of br.ptism when full birth dates are given. 

Those desiring to include the issue of stich children as are 
not carried forward as heads of families may emplo}- the fol- 
lowing method, the items in this case being wholly imagi- 
narv : 



i 



€22 THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 

V. Abigail, b. Mar. 1731; d. 9 Sept. 1800; m. at Cambridge. 7 June 
1749, John Brown, s. of Thomas and Elij^al^eth (Smith), b. al>t. 
172S, d. prev. to 1771. Children: i. John, b. 22, Nov. 1753: m. 
21 Apr. 1778, Mary Jones, dau. of Peter and Mary (Robinson); 
four children. 2. Abigail, bapt. 6 Mar. 1756. 3. Thomas^ b. 9 
Jan. 1757-8; m. (int. rec. 3 Juh' 1780) Susan Curtis; six chil- 
dren. 4. Sarah, b. 18 Feb. 1760-1 ; d. young. 

The right is reserved to decline any manuscripts that do 
. not conform to the above requirements. 



[Specmen of the Register Phni for arranging Genealogies.] 

THE WOODS FA^IILY OF GROTOX, MASS. 

1. SAMUEL' WOODS, whose parentage and ancestry 
are unknown, was a member of the train-band at W'atertown. 
Mass., in 1653 (Middlesex Co., Court files, 1653), and later 
lived in Cam])ridg'e, ?^Iass., where he married, 28 Sept. 1659, 
ALICE RUSHTON, whose parentage and ancestry are also 
unknown. In 1662 he moved to Groton, Mass., where he 
was an original proprietor owning an eleven-acre right, and 
there resided until the destruction of the town in King Philip's 
War, I\Iar. 1675-6, when he return.ed to A\'atertown. In 1677 
he signed the agreement, made at Concord, Mass., to resettle 
Groton, where he died about Ian. 1717-1S, as appears in a 
court petition (see REGISTER, vol. 51, p. 396 note), and 
Avhere his wife died 17 Apr. 1712. 

Both he and his wife were born about 1636, according to 
their depositions made in 1676 (Butler's Historv of Groton. 
p. 84). . ' 

Children : 

2. i. S.\ML'EL,- b. at Cambridge 3 Jan. 1660-1. 

3. ii. Thomas, b. at Groton 9 Mar. 1663. 

iii. Elizabeth, b. at Groton 17 Sept. 1665; rii- i Dec. 16S6, Thomas 
Tarbell; d. 24. Jan. 1717. 

4. iv. Xathaxiel, b. at Groton 25 Mar. 1667-8. 

V. Mary, b. at Groton 2 Aug. 1670; m. (i) Ei.eazer Parker; m. 

(2) 3 Jan. 1706-7, as his second wife. Johx Xuttixg. Jr. 
vi. Abigail, b. at Groton 19 Aug. 1672; m. (i) Daniel Pierce; m. 

(2) Samuel Barrox. 
vii. Haxxah, b. at Groton iS Sept. 1674"; d. unm. 29 Sept. 1703. 
viii. ToHX. b. at Watertown 4 Mar. 1676-7; d. young. 

2. SAMUEL- WOODS {Samuel, born at Cambridge, 3 

Jan. 1660-1, died at Groton IQ ^lar. 1712. 

He married at Chelmsford, ^^lass.. ^o Dec. 16S;, 
HANNAH FARWELL, born at Chelmsford 20 Jan. 
1667, died at Lancaster, Mass., 14 Aug. 1730. daughter 
of Ens. Joseph and Hannah (Learned) of Chelmsford 
and Dunstable, IVFass. She married secondly, as his 
second wife, Capt. Peter Joslin of I-ancaster. 

Children : 
i. Marv.3 b. abt. irxS7 : ni. 20 Xov. 1711. Joiix Goss of Lancaster. 

5. ii. • Samuel, b. abt. i6(X>. 

iii. Sarah, b. abt. i6r)3; li\ing unni. \\\ 171S. 

iv. SusAXXAH. b. at Groton 1(^5: m. before 171S, John Solexdixe. 

V. Rachel, b. at Groton 16)8; m. 12 Dec. 1721. Jo.vathax Whit 

comb of Lancaster. 
vi, Alice, b. at Groton 26 Dec. 1700; m. 30 Apr. 1724, Peter Tos- 

Lix, Jr., of Lancaster :d. 23 Sept. 17S4. 



REGISTER PLAX FOR GENEALOGIES 



there unm. in 1740. 






•^^ 



vii. Abigai,, b. at (Troton 12 Sept. 1703; d 
viii. Esther, b. at Groton 13 Nov. 1705. 
ix. Joseph, b. at Groton 21 June 1707. 

X. Martha, b. at Groton 15 Apr. 1709; m. 11 Sept. 1729, Jon.v 
Wheklock of Lancaster; d. 5 ^vlay 1802. 

THOMAS^ WOODS {SamueP), 1)orn at Groton 9 
Mar. 1663. died there 28 Aug. 1738. In 1735 he was 
"bereft of reason" (Middlesex Co. Probate). 

He married four times: first ELIZABETH , 

who died 21 Apr. 1688; secondly HANNAH WHIT- 
NEY, who died before Apr. 1713, daughter of Dea. 

Joshua and Lydia ; thirdly HANNAH . who was 

living in 1721 : and fourthly at Groton, 30 Apr. 1723, 
MRS. ABIGAIL (NUTTING) CHAMBERLAIN, 

who died before Oct. 1740, widow of Thomas of Gro- 
ton. 

Child bv first wife : 
i. J0HN.3 d. 1 May 1688. 

Children by second w^ife: 
ii. Abigail, m. 13 Oct. 1713, John Chamberlain, known as '"Pau- 

gus John." 
iii. Esther, b. at Groton 26 July 1697; d. 31 July 1705. 
iv. JosiAH, b. at Groton 15 Sept. 1701. 
V. Elizabeth, b. at Groton 9 Nov. 1702; ,m. 2 Nov. 1732. Dax- 

iel Farmer of Lunenbcrg. Mass. 
vi. Thoma"^, b. at Groton 25 Xov. 1705: killed in T,oveweir5 Fight 

at Pigwacket (Fryeburg, Me.) 8 May 1725. 
vii. Amos. b. about 1709. 

NATHANIEL- WOODS iSamucl'^, born at Groton 25 
Mar. 1667-8, died there 20 June 1738. 



10. \\\ 

11. iv 

V. 



vn. 
12. viii 

13- ix- 
14. X. 



He married four times: first ELEANOR ; 

secondly ALICE , born about 1673--}. died 10 

Jan. 1717-1S in her 45th year: thirdly, 3 lulv 1721, 
SARAH BROWN, born at Sudbury,' .ALiss.. '20 May 
1680, died at Groton 3 Mar. 1724-5. daughter oi Jabez 
and Deborah (Haines) of Sudburv and Stow. Mass.; 
and fourthly 14 Sept. 172s, Mrs. MARY (BLANCH- 
ARD) DERBYSHIRE/who survived him. daui^hter 
of John of Dunstable, and widow of John of Groton. 
Children, all born at Groton : 

Nathaniel/^ b. 19 Oct. 1694. 

Daniel, b. 10 Aug. 1696; killed in Lovewell's Fight at Pigwack- 
(Fryeburg. Me.) 8 ^Iay 1725. 

John-, b. 3 Mar. 1697-8. 

Isaac, b. 20 Feb. i6<)9-i7oo. 

Bathshera. b.. 5 Apr. 1702; m. (i )2 May 1722. Collins Moore 
of Oxford. Mass.: m. (2) 11 Aug. 1743. Samuel Town of 
Oxford; ni. (3) 2<d Dec. 1760. Joseph Phillips of Oxford; 
d. at Charlton. Ma<;s.. in 1773. 

Hannah, b. 16 Mar. 1704; ni. 27 Apr. 1725. John Farmer of 
Billerica. Mass.: d. before 173S. 

Phebe. b. Jan. or Feb. 1703-6; d. young. 

Aaron, b. 26 May 1707. 

Moses, b. 6 July 170CX 

Reuben, b. 11 Apr. 17 11. 



624 



The Study of Family History 

By F. J. L. Bachert. Philadelphia. Pa. 




VR love of the ancestral 
and the contemplation of 
bygone days is surely an 
impress of the Deity — it 
is our hold on immortal- 
ity. The same affection 
which makes us reach 
forward and peep into 
the- future, prompts us to travel back 
to the hidden events w'hich transpired 
before we existed. We thus feel the 
span of existence enlarged, even while 
we have the pleasure to identify our- 
selves .with the scenes and emotions of 
our forefathers, for the same causes 
that relics are so eagerly sought and 
sedulously preserved — they are full of 
local impressions and "transfer the 
mind to scenes before". 

There ought to be a feeling of pride 
in the heart of every Ainerican, in 
searching through the line of descent, 
to find out from whence he came; 
that is, from which country of Europe 
his ancestors migrated to this dear 
country, and if those ancestors helped 
to add fame and glory to America in 
the anxious days of the Colonies, his 
heart will swell with joy when he finds 
that he belongs to a family that helped 
make American history. 

As Americans we see in a short life 
more incidents to excite our observa- 
tion, and to move our wonder, than 
anv other people. The very newness 
of our history and country, ministers 
to our moral entertainment and in- 
creases our interest in contemplating 
the past, and we can look back through 
history and read the causes which led 
the people to find the shores of the 
new world, and which they decided 
should be a haven for the downtrodden 
and oppressed of the world. 

The earnest student cannt^t fail to 
be impressed with this fact anil it 
should pronijit liim to make the effort 
to find out who his ancestors were. 



I am convinced that a genealogical 
research is a very pleasant pastime 
and also very instructive. It teaches 
many lessons which, once learned, will 
never -be forgotten, and yet it is a sad 
thought that so many people know so 
little of their family history. It mat- 
ters not from what part of the old 
world they came, but come they did, 
else we today would not be here. 

\Mien those people came to America 
the one desire was to find a haven of 
rest. They came to make a country 
where they would have no 'Lordly Po- 
tentate' in church or state lording it 
over them ; no standing army to 
menace their liberties : no despot to 
riot in the oppression of its subjects. 

Xay, nay, so exalted are our privi- 
leges as a self-governed people, that 
the fact of our example and happiness 
is bidding fair to regenerate other na- 
tions, or at least moderate the rigor of 
despotic governments throughout the 
world. 

W^e should not forget these facts, 
our land and forefathers have been the 
subjects of many heaven descended 
mercies, and they who love to con- 
template the causes of the numerous 
eft'ects so indicative oi our blessings 
as a nation regard it no less a duty of 
piety than patriotism to thus preserve 
their memorial. W'e well know that 
at some time in the dim past the people 
from whom we are descemlcd, no 
matter from which country they came, 
heard of the new country, from those 
who had come and seen it. that it was 
God's country. They came, they saw. 
they conquered, and we, the people of 
today, are enjoying the full benefits of 
the eft'orts oi our ancestors. This fact 
should con\ince any student, or in fact 
anv person, that tlie research of their 
familv history would be a great benefit 
to them, and sliould be pursued to the 
fullest extent in order to settle the 
question as to whether their particular 



THE STUDY OF FAMILY IflSTORY 



62: 



ancestor had an}^ part in rcscuini^ our 
country from foreii^n oppression, and 
if they find that they had, surely they 
would feel proud to -know that people 
bearing the same name had a hand in 
the early struggle. 

The wTiter is now engaged in a re- 
search of his family, and had always 
been of the opinion that his ancestors 
came from Germany, but we now are 
finding evidence that the family is of 
French Huguenot extraction, there- 
fore, the love of home and country has 
increased ten fold since he has learned 
that he belongs to that honest, hardy 
race of people, who, rather than sur- 
render their principles, left home, for- 
tune, friends, and came to God's 
countrv. And there were no truer and 
more loyal people ever trod the soil of 



this country than the French Hugue- 
nots. They stood ready to defend 
their adopted country when the great 
struggle came, and were there until 
the last enemy had fled or surrendered. 

Therefore, the research of family 
history is both instructive and useful, 
and no person should be afraid to peep 
into the past. 

Xames may be spelled differently, 
and in man\' instances families have 
lost their identity through this means, 
and have never taken tlie time nor the 
patience to search through the records, 
nor even make any inquiry regarding 
their ancestry. 

The writer believes that if they will 
make the eft'ort, the}- will be fully re- 
paid for the time and the mone}- they 
expend. 



There is a very distinct value re- 
sulting from genealogical research 
outside of the actual information 
gained. The general value of the 
latter has been ^vell shown in articles 
published in xarious magazines re- 
lating to the subject and needs but a 
word of emphasis here. The special 
value mentioned above consists of the 
opportunty offered for gaining self 
knowledge, which the ancient philoso- 
phers strove so hard to obtain and 
which is very little thought of in the 
present-day rush for wealth and ma- 
terial advancement. A definite 
knowledge of one's capabilities and 
faults affords the best means of in- 
creasing the power of the former and 
decreasing the hindrances of the lat- 
ter. 

It is surprising to know to what ex- 
* tent this knowledge can be obtained 



from the study of our ancestors. In- 
quiry concerning them brings to light 
many characteristics which were un- 
suspected and others which confirm 
our theories as to the origin o f cer- 
tain of our tendencies. Conversion 
and correspondence with near and dis- 
tant relati\-es is highly instructive and 
interesting besides ])eing product- 
ive of a fund of knowledge which is 
highly beneficial. Believing in the 
power of heredity, there is no better 
way of ascertaining our heritage than 
by gathering material for a family 
tree. In addition to the specific value 
here mentioned there are many others 
resulting from the oxercoming oi dif- 
ficulties encountered and the famil- 
iarity with man}- l^ooks, records, etc., 
\\hich must be ciMisulteil to obtain 
data not otherwise accessible. 

JOHX G. DFCIITOLD. 



626" 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 

O, Muttersproch, du bist uns lieb " — A. S. 



Der Alt Grabmacher 

AVie still is doch der Kerchhoff do am Berg, 
Wie heilig do wu unsere Tode rnh'n. 
Wie viel, O well, die liegeii schon im Sargl 
Wie schiiell das End! Wie bal' musz man 
d'von. 

Es ruh'n millionen schon im Mutter-schoosz 
Der Erd'; aus Asch un Staub, zu Staiib im' 

Asch, 
Das is des Mensche' Schicksal; Ach, wie 

grosz 
Der Strom der fliesset aus der Welt so 

rasch. 

Em jeder werd 'n Grab, des is die Rule, — 
Lass' ihn nur warte, die Zeit bleibt net laug 

aus; 
Hat er im Lewe net so viel wie en Stuhl 
Er kri'gt e' mol 'n Bett, un au 'n Haus. 

Sel Haus zu baue' — 's nemmt wo'l net jiist 

so lang, — 
Sie mache's net zu grosz un au net zu kle', — 
Doch ebber musz es thu', bei'm letzte Gang 
Do find m'r 'n He'math f r sich selbst ganz 

'le'. 

E'n manches Haus wie sel hut der alt John 
Gebaut bei uns, — M'r hut jo gemaint es war 
Ke' Leicht, war er net d'bei geweszt; 'n 

Mann 
VoU Lieb un Treu, — ich sag's zu seiner Ehr 

Partic'lar war er — grad, senkrecht, un' 

schquare 
Muszt alles sel', 'n Schreiner hatt's gewisz 
Net besser mache konne. Nee, un war 
Er dra geweszt f r 'n Woch init allem Fleisz. 

In seine' Dealings mit de' Lent war er 

So grad wie in seinem G'schaft. In Noth 'n 

Freund, 
Austatt 'n Meil, ging gerne zwee. Je Mehr 
Die Miih, je besser. war er g'suit, hats 

g'scheint. 

Wie bittere Thrane hut er oft geweintl 
tin manches Triibsal hut ihn hart gedriicktl 
Soi' Herz so oft, so tief g'riihrt, hut g'scheint 
Als war es doch mit neuer Kral't erquickt. 

E'n andre Seit hut er au' manchmol g'sehe. 

Im Tod do sin die Sache oft verstimmt, 

Es hot noch Lent m' meent sie thiit 'u sich 

freue! 
Kunmit her das Schicksal das die ihrigen 

nimmt. 



's hut andre die sin' sehr geneigt mit Trug 
In Schrift un Marljle zuz'deeke jetzt 
Die Siind' un' Schand die immer plain genug 
Im Lewe war, doch, leiter, bleibt's verletzt. 

INIit allem Elend, allem Trug un 'Show. 
Is Niemand so bokannt wie der wu schon 
So lang dabei geweszt, es war darno' 
Ken' Wunner, halt er bal' genug davon. 

Doch jemand fallt das Werck zu als sel 

The'l, 
In diesem G'schaft werds nimmie' dull, 
In dieser Ernd' do schlagt's net e'mol fehl, 
Der Mutter Erde Schoosz der wird nie voll. 

Das Gut un' Bose wie au immer sonst 
Dasz reicht 'm andre eins die Hand, un' so 
Musz au' der John, fehlt manclimal die 

Gunst, 
's net zu hart nehm', 's geht jo net anders 

do. 

Er hut jo manchmal au sei Spasz, wie wohl 
Dem Kerchhoff geht m'r g'wisz net zu f'r 

Fun, 
Doch uuerwart kummt selbst der Spasz als' 

mohl, 
Dann lacht m'r mit, M'r koqnt ja sonst 

nichts thun. 

Der John war' schier 'mol f'r 'n Spook g'- 

pass'd. 
So in der Unschuld gi'bts manchmol Ver- 

drusz, 
The'l sehne Spooks war's ju^t 'n Schatte 

g'west, 
Spar't doch den Awergla'we, net die Busz! 

E'n Toder sollte 'rausgegrawe seiu. 

Das Wetter warm, die Nacht scho. hell — do 

sagt' 
Er zu sei'm Sohn. war diese Zeit net fein? 
M'r ruhe heut, no schaffe mer die Nacht 

'S war alles gut bisz grad' am End. da fehlt 
E'n Strick: er schickt sei Bu". der bleibt 

lang aus. 
Der John is miid. er losst sich nieder un' 

stehlt 
E'n bissel Ruh. der Tod jagfn au' net raus. 

Wie still is alles an dem Ort. wie weisz 
'M John sie Kop sel Hem', Es war 'n Pad 
Niichst an dem Grab, do kummt en Sohritt 

so leis?:, 
Der John hut liingst schon gewart "uf sei" 

Comrad. 



DIE MUTTERSPROCH 



627 



Schnell steht er 'uf sei voile lang, uii 

scbreit; 
"Well, kunimst dii bal'?" Look out! Do gebts 

awer Spriiiig! 
E'n fremmer Kerl der Me'nt 's war net so 

weit 
Wenii er so schriigs der Kerchhof niver 

ging. 

'S war net so weit f'r ihn; so zv/e' drei 

Schritt, 
'n Grish'. 'n Spiung, als hatt er Fliigel an d' 

Be'! 
So Jumps konnt 'n Hersch kaum nemme. 'r 

he'szt niemand rnit, 
Was bischte? Was boschte? Seines gleiches 

gebts gewisz net me'. 

Der Schrecke hielt ihn hernach so vest, 
Er hut nie g'schnauft vum weise Spook 
Bei jener :\lond-helle Nacht, nn lasst 
Nichts aus, lau'rt au der John lang 'uf un' 
ab. 

Die Traurigkeit kummt wieder nach der 

Freud, 
Er ist nicht mehr! Der treue Freund, seither 
Versorger vielen in Todes-kleid! 
Sein' Ruhe-statt verlaszt er nun nicht mehr! 

Dann schlafe siisz, 'n zarte Hand bedeck 
Auch dich. du hast 's verdient. wie ireu 
Hast dein Beruf erfiillt, der Herr erweck 
Dich einst zuni Leben un zur Krafte neu. 

(Rev.) A. P. HORN. 
Jan 29. 1906. 

Rev. A. P. Horn was born near Lehighton, 
Pa., December 26, 1852, the seventh child in 
■a family of fourteen. He began to teach 
school at the age of seventeen and after 
having taught four years entered Franklin 
and Marshall Callege, where he graduated 
with the class of 18S0. Three years later 
he graduated from the Seminary. He was 
licensed by the Lehigh Class of the Re- 
formed Church, ordained at the meeting of 
Potomac Synod held at Newton. X. C. and 
later in the same year installed as pastor 
of the East Rowan charge in North Carolina 
Classis. After a pastorate there of about a 
year, he was called to the Summit Hill 
charge, where he labored for eight years. 
He then became the pastor of the three con- 
gregations constituting the Springfield 
charge of the Tohickon Classis. Bucks Co.. 
Pa. He died August 7. 1906 and lies buried 
in the beautiful hillside cemetery near Le- 
highton. Pa. 



Die Sally tiolit nocli Cliicairo 

Lesht woch hot my bruder Benj. g'sat er 
geht noch Chicago, un wan ich mit wot, 
kent ich gch, un er d'het my fare bezahle. 

Ich hab en second kunsidrt, un weil ich 
en kousin drin wohne hab. un sie shon so 
•oft mich benadioht sic zu b'suge. so hab ich 



gedenkt "Kommt mir iiber der hund, so 
kommt mir iiber der schwantz." 

My kousin haist Polly Groui, un wohnt 
ganz cm end von der staadt. So hen sie mir 
g'sacht. Ich war yust about gepleest, you bet 
ich war. Ich hab gedenkt '"Now was kan 
ich der Polly nehme, das sei net hen in der 
staadt." "Ich glaub ich bock lep-kuche un 
fas-nacht kuche — der John hot sie als so 
gern gessa." 

Sella dag hab ich ovver hart g'schaft — 
Hab die Kuche gebocke zwe lep-kuche un 
en drei-galle hafte fol fet-kuche; hab em 
Benj sei weis hem geweshe un gebeigeit; sie 
roch-armel g"flickt, un sei stroh hut vvenich 
gemacht. PJr hot absolute em Fritz Weis 
sie stovepipe hut lehne wolle, for noch 
Chicago zu geh, awer ich hab ihm ausge- 
spctt mit seim style. Wie debt es gucke 
wan er so fine wehr, un ich mit meim babbe- 
deckel hut? No, sir, ich hab ihm net ge- 
losst. Er hot endlich versproche er dut sie 
stroh-hut uf. 

Der necht morge sin mer awer free uf 
gewest — am fere uhr — Ich hab unser carpet- 
sack gepackt. Awer, du lieber freeda. sis 
net halwer nei gauge. Bis ich dem Benj. sei 
kelschich hem, un ettiche schnup-dicher, un 
my Alapaca gound, un hals-dicher, un bobi- 
net kap, un a paar shartz drin hab kot, war 
es gedricht foil. Der Benj. hot g'sacht er 
mus sei alle-dags stivel surely mit nehme, 
don hot er sie in en gross halsduch ge- 
bunne. Un ich hab die fet-kuche in en schne- 
weis dichel gesthect. Ach, du my zeit, ich 
hab yo der schmir-kase vergesse! Der 
mus awer mit. Noth hab ich noch dopper 
en quart kessel voU gemacht. All die weil 
hot der Benj getrieve as ich mich dummele 
soil, Oder mir wehre geleft. Ich hab shon 
oft geherdt das Chicago wehr so en drech- 
icha staadt. un hab gedenkt ich du net all 
my beste glader ah, so hab ich my brown 
gedunich gownd on, un en schnee-weis 
halz-duch, un my kelch bobbedeckel hut. 
My bonnet hab ich in die banner-box, fer 
mit zu nehme. 

Es war so long das ich uf der kers wahr, 
das ich hab shere net gewist wie mir sich 
ahsicht. Die leit hen uns all so ahgegucki 
as wan mir tramps wehr. awer mir wahre 
mighty independent, mir hen nix gstholle. 

Wie mir in die staadt konune sin. wahre 
so fell leit as won"s en loicht wehr. un die 
nienner hen als ge;;riepche 'This way. sir, 
this way" ovver der Benj. hot g'saght er 
het ken gelt fer in der hoch-zich carriage 
zu fahre. 

Er hot en zimlich decenter man gefrocht 
wo die Polly Grout wohne that, awer er hot 
yust gelacht and gesaoht "I dont want any 
krout." un is defun geloffe. Note hot der 
Benj. en man mit en grose stern uf dem 
rock, gefucht. Der war deutsh. un hot 
wisse wolle. uf weller strose un weller 
number. Ach. du owig, des hen mir net ce- 



62? 



TH E PENXS YLV AX I A-GE RM AN 



wist. Der Benj. avver hot gemehnt es wehr 
uf der Halsted strose. Well, don sin mir in 
en kehr, wei der deutsh man gesacht hot. 
Er hot uns nie gepiisht an ebbes gesacht, 
iin endlich is es gange. Avver zimlirh glei 
hen sie g'stopt, iin mir sin raus for mir hen 
gedenkt des is unser station. Der Benj. hot 
der carpet-sack, im die stivvel un die kiiche 
getrache. Ich hab my banner-box, un des 
kessele g"hat. Mir sin geloffe un geloffe- 
Endlich hen dem Benj. sei fiiss so weh 
gethu un er hot es nimmie aushalte kenna. 
Er sacht "Ich bin en granger, en indepen- 
dent farmer, un ich geb nix drum" mit 
dem zeicht er die fina stivvel aus, unj^hut die 
annere ah. Xoth wars besser un mir sin 
widder en stick gonge. My deckele is ver- 
Ichre gauge, un der schmeer-kase wahr 
dehl rous geshlapt. Mir het es net ausge- 
fune, avver en klener buh hot gegrische 
"Cheese it, old man, cheese it." Es hot 
mich gahr greislich gespite as des verlohre 
gange is. Mir hen gar oft noh gefrocht un 
doch endlich sin mir zu du Polly kumma, 
un wahre so meith un hungerich. Ich hab 
gedenkt "Des is es erst mohl, un des lest 
mohl das ich in Chicago geh." 

Die Polly war recht froh for die kuche 
un der kase, avver ihre dochter hot meiler 
gemacht, un dekst du sie het en versucht? 
Xo, sir, ken bit. Sella nacht hen mir der 
best schJof g'hat in unser ganz lewe, avver 
ich wile nix mehr hehre von Chicago. 

MRS. H. D. A. 



Die Alt Or 

Die alt uhr henkt dort an der Wand, 
Ihr G'sicht is nier ganz gut bekannt. 
Sie gnackt noch wie in fruh'rer Zeit, 
Un segt zum Mensch, halt dich bereit, 

Gnick, gnack, 

Gnick, gnack. 
Von stun zu stun eilt hie die zeit, 
Un dragt uns noch der Ewigkeit. 

Deheem in alte Haus im Eck. 
Schun meh als sievizig Johr z'rick 
Die uhr hot zu de Mensche g"sat. 



Die zeit vergeht, bitt Gott um Gnad, 

Gnick, gnack, 

Gnick, gnack. 
Von stun zu stun eilt hie die zeit 
Un dast uns noch der Ewigkeit, 

Wo sin die Lent von sellem Haus, 
Die gange sin dort ei un aus, 
Mei Eltre un mei G'schwistre all, 
Der todt hot sie geernt schier all, 

Gnick, gnack, 

Gnick, gnack, 
Juscht zwee sin noch do in der zeit. 
Die anre in der Ewigkeit. 

In selle friihe Kindheits Johr, 

Sie kumme em noch immer vor, 

Hot mer der uhr ihr Gnack woll g"hort. 

Aver net gewisst was sie em lehrt, 

Gnick, gnack, 

Gnick, gnack, 
So hot sie g"sat die gauze'- zeit, 
Uns g'wisse noch der Ewigkeit. 

In jugend Johr hot mer sie g"hort, 
Juscht Freed un Gliick hot mer begehrt, 
Un net geacht ihr stimm so leis 
Mer hot gemehut mer war ganz weis, 

Gnick. gnack, 

Gnick, gnack, 
Sie hot als g'sat hie geht die zeit. 
Her kumt die lange Ewigkeit. 

Die Heemet ait is Ximme dort. 
Die uhr hav ich genumme fort. 
Xau henkt sie im eh anre Haus. 
Sie weist die zeit un ruft noch aus, 

Gnick, gnack. 

Gnick, gnack, 
Ken bleives hot mer in der zeit, 
Mer muss fort noch der Ewigkeit. 

Eh G"schlecht folgt ah em anre noch. 
Des is der B'schlusz der Allmacht hoch. 
Die Heemet die em bleibt is dort. 
Vor Gottes Thron am freude Ort, 

Guick gnack, 

Guick gnack. 
Die Heemet is net in der zeit. 
Mer find sie in der Ewigkeit. 

REV. J. S. STAHR. 



629 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 

By Prof. E. S. Gerhard. Trenton, N. J. 



]Miss Sin,q-master has one <)1 her char- 
acteristic -Millerstown stories in the 
Atlantic ^lonthl}- lor September. This 
time it is about the Squire of the 
town ; he is a bachelor of sixty years. 
The cage of non-support that is tried 
in his ot^ce is quite amusing-. It is fi- 
nally settled without engaging in the 
technicalities of the law. 



DANIEL BOONE AND THE WIL- 
DERNESS ROAD.— ];y H. Ad- 
dington Bruce. Cloth; illus- 
trated; 350 pp.; Price Si. 50 net. 
The ^lacmillan Company. New 
York. 1910. 
Aside from Lincoln, no frontiersman 
has of late figured more in general lit- 
erature than Boone, of Kentucky fame. 
The book is a brief and simple account 
of the noble and courageous pioneer 
and of the founding of the Blue Grass 
State. 

The material upon which to base a 
"Life" of Boone seems to remain rather 
scant; the few simple facts about him 
are soon related. Consequently, any 
account of him soon develops into a 
narrative of the times of Boone where- 
in Boone himself is occasionally almost 
forgotten. Happily, however, it is the 
avowed pur])ose of this author to give 
a life of Boone and also an historical 
study of one of the first, if not the first, 
territorial growth of the Lnited States. 
He makes clear Boone's citntributions 
to the development of the nation, and 
at the same time describes the progress 
of expansion in all its aspects. 

As for Boone, the book can hardly 
be said to contain anything new. which 
is due to the fact that many extensive 
researches ha\'e been made of late and 
published. The uncertainty regarding 
the place of Boone's birth is not cleared 
up, and it may never be. The author 



makes him a native of Schuylkill coun- 
ty. Pa., but he gives no reasons tor it. 
There are many who claim he was b«_^rn 
in Berks county, where his birth is re- 
corded in the records of the Friends' 
?^Ieeting at Oley ; but the Boone family 
is said to have attended this place of 
worship before and after their removal 
to Berks county; so the uncertainty re- 
mains. Claims have also been made 
that he was born in 3*Iontgomery coun- 
ty. And one must not forget the claim 
which the lUicks County Historical So- 
ciety set forth a few \-ears ago that 
r)Oone was a native oi that county. 
This controversy reminds one of the 
se\en pro\-erbial cities of the oriein 
that claimed the burial place oi Hr-mer. 
The book is entertaining reading ; 
and, though some important historical 
factors have been omitted, gives one a 
vivid picture of the frontier life on this 
dark and bloody ground, and at the 
same time of the making of the nati^'U. 
The style is vivid and historical. In 
general the sense oi proportion uas 
well used in treating the different 
topics. 

"Hearts Contending" 
A story with a distinctive tlavor is 
"Hearts Contending" by George 
Schock (Harper vl- Brothers. \ew 
YorkV A story which lifts itself out 
oi the common ruck oi American 
novels like a grim, granite pillar in a 
variegated garden. 

The scenes oi the no\el are laid in 
Pennsyhania, in a broad pastoral val- 
ley occupied chietly by men and wo- 
men of German bKxxl. The time is 
somewhat in the last quarter of the 
last century. Job Heilig of Heiligtlia! 
is the ]>atriarch oi the district. His 
wife Susanna finds for him a biblical 
l"»rotot_vpe in that i^ther Job of Vz. wr.o 



630 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



also was ''perfect and uprioht, and one 
that feared God and eschewed evil." 
Likewise he had great possessions: 
*'My husband Job owns the land from 
the Himnielberg to the Blaueburg, far 
up into the timber land — the mill is his 
also and the finest of stock and money 
upon money thereto. Everywhere he 
is looked to: in the church and out of 
it all wait for his opinion. There is no 
one in this country, not in the four 
counties around it like my man." 

Job Heilig has three sons and a 
daughter whose lives he attempts to 
dispose of after the ancient patriarchal 
fashion. And here is where the tragedy 
of the story asserts itself. For Heilig- 
thal is not Uz. 

Mr. Schock does not appear to tell 
the story. It unrolls itself like a fatal- 
istic scroll, sorrow following sorrow 
until the German patriarch, harassed 
and thwarted, cries aloud to his kins- 
folk, who labor with him in much the 
same fashion as did the earlier pa- 
triarch's "comforters": 'T was pre- 
pared for your charges. I thought that 
you would come to sit in judgment on 
me. What is your judgment to me 
now? My crops are wasted, my sons 
lie dead and dying; and now I feel that 
I am an old man. My children have 
brought my troubles on me — if it had 
been flood or lightning or any evidence 
of the wrath of God, I could have stood 
up under it; but through my own chil- 
dren ! And to be ashamed of them !" 

It will be seen that the form of mis- 
ery which this second Job endured is 
of a fashi(Mi befitting these more psv- 
chological da}-s as is the form of the 
recompense also. 

''Hearts Contending" will never be a 
"best-seller." Its slow action, its grey 
characterizaticMis of a people \vh'o 
dwell in a land that seems very far oii : 
its somewhat archaic cast of thought as 
of diction will safeguard it from any 
such position. 

But its characterizations, though 
quaint, are vital. It it moves slowlv it 



grips life as it moves. And so the book 
ought to make its way with a fit audi- 
ence which should not be too few. 

— Denver, Col., Daily. 



Interesting "Reminiscences" in Press 

2vlr. \\'il]iam Riddle, a nati\e of 
Lancaster City and County, has writ- 
ten his reminiscences of more than 
seventy years continuous residence in 
his bailiwick. This work of three hun- 
dred or more pages does not purport to 
be a history, chronicle or series of bio- 
graphies, but simply the results oi his 
own personal experience with such 
idealism as is permitted to the chroni- 
cler Avho seeks to make a faithful por- 
trait instead of mechanical photo- 
grap. Long time associated with the 
educational work of the County, as a 
pupil, director and teacher, and subse- 
quentlv engaged in the sale and distri- 
bution of school books, ^Ir. Riddle has 
been for more than a half century in 
close louch with e\'erythinQ- that has 
made for and has been related to the 
department of popular education. He 
has all the while been a public spirited 
citizen, mindful of the possibilities oi 
local self government, and often an ef- 
ficient part thereof. He has been a 
close observer, a constant reader, and 
often a reporter of the events and do- 
ings of his time. 

W. U. Hensel. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 
The Trade Union Label In- Ernest 
R. Spedden. Ph.D. The Johns Hop- 
kins Press, 1910. 

History of Reconstruction in Louis- 
iana by John Ri\se iMcklen. Johns Hop- 
kins Press. 1010. 

Bradley Family Reunion bv W". G. 
^lurdock, ^[ilt.Mi. Pa. 

The War by James H. Wood. Cap- 
tain. Co. *'b)." },--\\\ \'a. Infantry. Regi- 
ment. The I'Mdy Press Corporation, 
Cund)erland. Md. 

A History of the German Language 
by C. W. Super. 



REVIEWS AND NOTES 



631 



Country Sermons. 
New series, Volume 



Rev. F. Kuegele. 
V. Price $2.25. 



Augusta Publishing- Co., Crimora, Vir- 
ginia. 

Religious Bodies, 1906. Special Re- 
ports of the Census. Parts I and II. 

Genealogy of Johannes Baer, 1749- 
1910. 



Fest Schrift 70 jahrige Jul)el- Feier 



Paulus - Genieinde, 



Philadelphia 
the Shi- 



St., 
I'a. 

History and Genealogy of 
nier I'^amilies in America. 

Switzerland; Its Scenery, History 
and Literary Associations by Oscar 
Kuhns. 




Presbyterian Historical Society 

The "Jo^i^^^l" o^ this society for 
September, 1910, contains very inter- 
esting articles on John Heman Con- 
verse, LL. D., The Psalm-Book of the 
Reformed churches, and Glimpses of 
the Old Scottish Kirk. 



Pennsylvania-German Society 
This society will hold its Twentieth 
Annual Meeting at the Colonial Hotel, 
York, Friday, October 14, 1910. The 
"meeting has been arranged so as to 
avoid the expense to members remain- 
ing over night if they do not care to do 
so. An attractive program has been 
prepared. The Annual Banquet will be 
held at five o'clock in tlie afternoon.'' 



The Pennsylvania Federation of His- 
torical Societies 
The ''Acts and Proceedings" of the 
Fifth Annual r^Ieeting of the federa- 
tion, held January 6. 1910 has been is- 
sued. It is a neatly gotten-up bro- 
chure "of 51 pages, giving the report of 
the annual meeting, and quite valuable 
statistics of the members oi the Fed- 
eration for the year ending January 6, 
1910. 

History of Snyder County 
The "Middleburg FVxst" said a few 
weeks ago in answer v> a corresj^on- 
dent, " There is no history of Sny- 
der county published and none con- 



templated. There is plenty of historic 
lore and annals rich in historic value 
that should be preserved by publica- 
tion in book form.'' 

Why should not Brother Wagon- 
seller take up the matter and supply 
the needed volume?' The county needs 
a "History" revival. 



A Joint Pilgrimage 

The Historical Societies of Mont- 
gomery and lierks counties, made a 
joint pilgrimage September 24. 19 10. 
to the site of Washington's Encamp- 
ment at Faglcysville, Montgomery 
Co., Pa., Se:)tembcr iSth to 26. 1777. 

The Itinerary tcniched the Swamp 
churches, Wagner's House, the binh- 
place oi the late John F. Hartranft, 
Fagleysville, the Antes Mill. Henry 
Antes' grave. BertcMet Meimonite 
Meeting Hcnise and Burying- Ground, 
Xew Hanover Square. — all teeming 
with historic data. Addresses were 
made at various points during the day. 



Bucks County Historical Society 
The fall meeting of the Bucks Coun- 
ty Historical Society will be held at 
the Red Hill church, near Ottsville. 
on the line of the IMiiladelphia and 
EasiiMi tri^llev road, on Tuesday, Oc- 
tober 4th. 

The program ou timed for the meet- 
ting will comprise papers on "The 
Home of the Paxsons." bv Miss Marv 



632 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Paxson Roc,'-crs, of Bristol, postponed 

from the May meeting at liristol ; "The 

Tinicnm I'resbyterian Church,'' ])y 

Warren S. Ely, oi Doylestown ; "St. 

John's Catholic Church. Haycock." by 

James H. Fitzgerald, ^Icchanics \'al- 

ley; "Edward Marshall in Springfield; 

the Walk from Red Hill to the' Blue 

^fountain s," by Dr. J. J. Cawley. of 

: Springtown, and a paper on a local 

I subject by Dr. George M. Grimm, of 

i "Ottsville. 



EVENING SICSSION, 8 o'clock 

Presiding Officer W. U. Hensel, LL. D. 

Prayer Rev. Dr. H. H. Apple 

President of Franklin and Marshall College 

'•Ethnical Elements of the Pennsyl- 
vania Germans" Prof. Oscar Kuhns 
Wesleyan University, Middletown. Conn 

Doxology 

Informal Reception 

We expect to reprint some of the 
addresses in later issues of the maga- 
zine. 



Lancaster County Historical Society 
This society held a bi-cetennial cele- 
bration of the first settlement of the 
county Thursday, Se]3tember 8, 1910. 
at the Mennonite Brick ^^leeting 
House near W^illow Street on the tract 
acquired by the first settlers. 
The following was the program : 

MORNING SESSION 10 o'clock 
Organization Frank R. Diffenderfer, Litt. D. 

Chairman of Committee of Arrangements 

Address of Welcome 

Hon. Amos H. Mylin, Presiding 
Prayer 
Hymn — Adeste Fideles, "How Firm a 

Foundation" 
"The Meaning of Lancaster County's 

200 Years" H. Frank Eshleman. Esq. 
Dedication of Monument and Historic Tablet 

Presentation John A. Coyle, LL. D. 

Acceptance for the Descendants 

Hon. John G. Homsher 

Acceptance for the Church 

C. R. Herr, Trustee 
Doxology 
Benediction 



AFTERNOON SESSION, 2 o'clock 
Presiding Officer, Hon. John H. Landis 
Prayer 
Hymn 

Address: "Mennonite Influence Upon 
Mankind'" 
Hon. Samuel W. Penny packer, LL. D. 

Late Governor of Pennsylvania 

"The Old Home" Dr. .lohn H. Musser 

Philadelphia. Pa. 
Address: "The Pennsylvania Ger- 
man in Virginiii" 

Gen. (C. S. A.) John E. Roller 

President of the Pennsylvania German Society 



Enoch Brown Monument Association 
Twenty-six years ago a number of 
history-lovingand patriotic citizens of 
Franklin county met and formed an as- 
sociation for the purpose of commem- 
orating the massacre b}' the Indians of 
School Teacher P!noch Brown, and his 
class, which occurred near Conoco- 
cheague Settlement, now Greencastle. 
in the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The funds for the work were 
raised by subscriptions and a hand- 
some monument was erected on the 
site of the massacre. More than enough 
mone\' was raised for the work and the 
Enoch Brown ^IcMuiment Association 
found itself trustee of several hundred 
dollars. The association has been 
maintained and at its twenty-sixth an- 
nual meeting held recently it was re- 
ported that the treasurv contained 
the neat sum of $1397.82. It is some- 
thing out of the ordinary that the five 
men named as directors of the associa- 
tion at its formation still occupy their 
positions. Thev are the Rev. Dr. C\-- 
riis Cort, Overiea. :\[d. : Dr. A. H. 
Strickler, Waynesboro: D. Watson 
Rowe, Chambersburg; Colonel W. D. 
Dixon, St. Thomas, and Capt. R. 1. 
Boyd, Upton. 

At the meeting oi tlie asst^ciation ar- 
rangements were made iov extending 
the work further than ordinarily 
planned and it was voted to give sums 
oi m«Miev to the different sections of 
the county to preserve places of histor- 
ic interest, provided the citizens of tlie 
U^^alities raise by subscription certain 
amounts designated. In this work the 



HISTORICAL NOTES AND NEWS 



633 



association lias sought and received 
the assistance of the Kittochtinny His- 
torical Society. Two hundred and fifty 
dollars has l)cen appropriated to place 
a monument over the gra\es of the 
Renfrew sisters, who were killed by 
the Itidians on the banks of the Little 
Antietam, near Waynesboro, ])rovided 
the citizens of W aynesboro raise a like 
amount. The same olTer was made 
the citizens of Letterkenny township, 
to mark the site of Fort ^IcCord. Fort 
McCord was the oldest fort in the val- 
ley and for many years a base or sup- 
ply for pioneers and was used for de- 
fense against the redman. An Indian 
massacre occurred there, also. 

The story of the murder of the Ren- 
frew sisters is interesting. The two 
young women, who were members of 
one of the valley's pioneer families, 
hundreds of the name still living in 
this vicinitv, were washing clothes 



along the Antietam when two Indians 
appeared, killed them, took their 
scalps and made oft in a westerly di- 
rection. Se\eral experienced hunters 
and woodsmen of the community 
started in pursuit and came up with 
the Indians in IJedford cnmty, finding 
them eating the fruit of ilie wild 
cherry tree. The hunters agreed not 
to shoot until they could see the pits of 
the cherries drop from the mouths of 
the Indians. When they got close 
enough for this they fired and the red- 
men fell dead. The hunters cut otF 
their scalp locks and took. also, the 
scalps of the women. They returned 
to the Renfrew house just as the bodies 
were about to be buried and the scalps 
of the women and their mur'lerers 
were placed in the coi¥ins. The bodies 
rest in the ancient prixate burying 
ground on the Strickler farm, a mile 
east of ^^'avnesboro. 



GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES 

Conducted by Mrs. M. N, Robinson. Conlributions Solicited. Address, The Penna. German, Lititz, Pa. 



Mackinet Data Wanted 
I am trying to gather data about the 
Mackinett (also spelled Mackinet, 
Mackenet, ^Nlacknet, etc.) family 
wdiich settled in Germantown, Pa., in 
1724, and \vould be pleased to corre- 
spond with any one in position to sup- 
ply information. 

WALTER M. BEXXER, 

Telford. Pa. 



Relatives of Major Updegraff 
Wanted 

King & King, Washington. D C. de- 
sire to get into communication with 
the relatives of ^Fajor Updegratt, I'. 
S. A., who died on the loth day of 
June iSCf). lie was born in \'irginia. 

**On account of his service in the 
United States Armv his estate is en- 



titled to longevity pay. We would ap- 
preciate it \ery much if you can give 
us any information that will enable us 
to locate anv of his familv." 



Dillers in Ohio 
Athens, O.. Sept. 13, 1910. 
I note in recent numl)ers of your 
magazine, considerable space allotted 
to the Diller family. This reminds me 
that in my boyln^od hi^me in the south- 
ern part of Perry county, Ohio, there 
was a family by that naiue. The elder 
of this family was one John Diller, 
who is buried in the St. John's Lu- 
theran cemetery. Grandchildren of 
his still li\c in the vicinity. Another 
set oi grandchildren li\e in Kansas. 
\'erv trulv. 
C. L. ^lARTZOLFF. 



634 



THE PENiNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Druckenmiller Inscription 

In a secluded spot in a field on the 
farm of the late Jacob Xuss at Koch's 
School House, Upper ]\lilford town- 
ship, Lehigh county, Pa., lie the re- 
mains of a Revolutionary soldier and 
his wife, — Captain Truckenmiller and 
his wife Catharina. As there are many 
Druckenmillers settled in Pennsyl- 
vania they might be interested in the 
above. 

The inscriptions are as follows : 

**Hier ruhet 

Sebastian Truckenmiller 



Geboren den i Aug. 17 15. 
Gestorben den ist Feb. 
1795 Alt. 79 Jahr, 6 m. 
Leichcn Text Elmaz 26, 19, 20."' 

"Hier ruhet 

Catharina Truckenmiller, ein ge- 
borene Schmuk-bruchern geboren 
den 1st Jenner, 1719 gestorben d 30 
Sept. 1793. Alt 74 jahr 9 m. 7 da. 
Lied — Las die todten auferstehen den 
letzen tage. 

'Text 2 Tim. 4-7 and 8." 

JAMES J. HAUSER, 

Macungie, Pa. 



THE FORUM 

The P-G Open Parliament, Question-Box and Clipping Bureau — Communications Invited 



MEANING OF NAMES 



By Leonhard Felix Fuld, LL.M.,Ph.D. 
[EDITORIAL NOTE. Dr. Fuld 
has kindly consented to give a brief 
account of the derivation and meaning 
of the surname of any reader who 
sends twenty-five cents to the editor 
for this purpose.] 

54. SEAMAN 

SEAMAN is an English surname of 
occupation, denoting a sailor. The 
German is SEEMANN, Middle Eng- 
lish SAEA[OX. Anglo Saxon, SAL- 
MAN, Dutch ZEE^L\N, Icelandic 
SJOMATIIR, Swedish SJOE}.IAN 
and Danish SOE^IAND. The sur- 
name denotes a man whose occupation 
it is to cooperate in the navigation of 
a ship at sea ; a mariner, a sailor. The 
surname was applied to officers as well 
as to common sailors, although it is 
technically restricted to men below the 
rank of officer. 

55. HELNLY 
IIEINLY is derived from HEIN- 
RICH which means ruler of the house 
HEIN is an abbreviation of HEIN- 



RICH and HEINLELN of which 
IIEINLY is a corruption is a term of 
endearment, meaning "dear little son 
of HEINRICH." The etymology of 
the name HEINRICII is as follows: 
Old High German HAG, ^liddle High 
German HAC. This word means pri- 
marily an enclosure, and secondarily a 
home. See Tac. German 16. The de- 
rivation of HEIN RICH may be traced 
successivelv through HAGAN, HA- 
GANRIH.' HANREICH. H E I N- 
REICH, HEINRICH. 

There is a second possible deriva- 
tion of IIEINLY but very few sur- 
names have been derived in this way. 
HAIN or HEIN is in German a per- 
sonification of death, as for example 
HEIXZELMANXCHKN. meaning 
Kobolds or spirits. 

56. SCHXEEnELI 
The derivation of SCHXEEP.ELI is 
not connected at all with SC HXEE 
meaning snow. The surname is de- 
rived from SCHX.-Vr>EL meaning the 
beak of a bird. SCHXEEP.ELI is 
probablv derived from the diminutive 
form SCHXAEBELCHEX or the 
plural form SCHNAEBEL. The final 



THE FORUM 



63S 



I in SCHXEEBELI is of course the 
Latin genitive ending meaning "son 
of." 

The surname is undoubtedly derived 
in most cases from the name of an inn 
which had the sign of a beak. In a few 
cases however it is probably derived 
from the vulgar use of SCI IX ABEL 
to denote the mouth of a person. It 
thus came to indicate a man who spoke 
a great deal or whose speech was 
greatly liked or greatly disliked. 



Xorth Carolina life. W'e have the 
promise that we shall hear from him 
as his work progresses. Thanks- 



A Query 

Where was "Green Gardens" in 
Lancaster Countv? M. X^. R. 



List of French Soldiers 
There is said to be somewhere ex- 
tant a list of 46,000 names of French 
soldiers who came to America with 
LaFayette. Who can give information 
about the list? 



Index of Names, Vol. IX of the P.-G. 

One of our enthusiastic subscribers, 
J. C. Bechtold. of Steelton, Pa,, has 
finished an Index to Persons and Fam- 
ily X'ames mentioned in \'ol. IX of our 
magazine, of which there are approxi- 
mately 3500. 

The list can be secured for publica- 
tion. We would be pleased to get out 
a limited edition provided a sufficient 
number of orders at 25 cents can be se- 
cured to make the publication possible. 
We shall be pleased to hear from our 
readers on the subject. 



Germans in North CaroHna 
Prof. Charles L. Coon of the City 
Schools, \\'ilst>n, X'orth Carolina, is a 
great grandson of George Kuhn who, 
it is believed, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania and went to X'orth Carolina af- 
ter the Revolution. Some oi the fam- 
ily say George came from Saxony and 
went directly to Xorth Carolina. Prof. 
Coon is collecting original German 
records for a Historical Society to 
show the German contribution to 



Boosting a Home Town 
The American Flag Mfg. Co. boosts 
its home town in this fashion : 
"A City of R'esources is Easton, Pa., 
Only one hundred minutes from 

Broadway ; 
Built on hills at the Delaware River, 
Its summers are delightful : in winter 

no shiver. 
On the east end — map of the Com- 
monwealth, 
The greatest place on earth and noted 

for health ; 
Go there! Stay there! Do it now. we 
say, 

The dearest, the grandest, the best 
of P-A-." 



Music in Public Schools Traceable to 
Germany 
^^'hen Dr. Lowell Mason returned 
from his studies in Europe in 1S40, 
there was no stronger desire in his 
heart than to introduce the study of 
music into the public schools oi his 
native land, as he found it in all the 
schools of every grade in Germany. 
This became one of the most deter- 
mined purposes of his professional life, 
and, though he did not live to carry it 
out in full, the amount of success that 
crowned his efforts, in spite of preju- 
dice and opposition, as well from the 
musical as the unmusical, was. in his 
often-expressed opinion, the great 
achievement of his life. His first suc- 
cess was only to secure a half-hour re- 
cess from study, once a week, in some 
half a dozen schools in and about Bos- 
ton, in order "that he might amuse and 
interest the public by singing to and 
with them." It is now almost uni- 
versally admittetl that singing is so 
important an element in the emotional 
and moral atmosphere that no wise 
teacher is willing to do his work with- 
out it. 

Blodgett — quoted by Penna.-School 
lournal. 



<)36 



THE PEXNSYLVAXIA-GERMA^X 



An Old Teacher 

E. J. Reinhard, of Xazareth, who 
lias the distinction of having taught 
more continuous terms of public 
-School than any other teacher in the 
United States, was a much honored 
man Thursday at Stone Church when 
hundreds of his former scholars gath- 
ered about him, listened to a brief ad- 
dress and sang with him the songs 
they used to sing many years ago. 

Mr. Reinhard, who is 74 years of 
^ge, is at present teaching his 56th 
term in Upper Xazareth Township, 
For 24 terms he taught school and 
served as organist at Stone Church 
and thus many gathered Thursday to 
honor him. Among the other places 
lie taught was Shoenersville, 2 years ; 
Fatzinger, i; Basts, 4; Rittersville, i; 
Eushkill, 4; Upper Catasauqua. 2; 
Wennersville, 4; Kratzers, 12; Upper 
Nazareth, 2. He was also organist at 
Rittersville and East Allentown. The 
old teacher and former scholars gath- 
ered in front of the old school house 
and Mr. Reinhard expressed his grati- 
tude to be there and sing the old 
songs with them and added that it 
was 35 years since they practiced 
them. 

— Nazareth Item, Sept. 9, 1910. 



Penna.-German Plant Names 
An Allentown reader writes as fol- 
lows : ''I know all the plants except ten 
mentioned in the September number. I 
know quite a number more that are 
not given in your list. Twelve years 
ago I heard many people talk about a 
plant that they called "dausendgilda 
kraut'; they told me a plant would 
come up every seven years. I often 
wished I could see a plant or get the 
proper name for it. I was informed 
that it was found in old pasture fields 
or land that had not been cultivated 
for a long time." 

(Who can give us light on the plant 
referred to by our reader j" — Editi^r.") 

A Dauphin county reader says: The 
^rticle on Pennsylvania German Plant 
- ames in the current issue is espe- 



cial}' interesting to me because of my 
personal acquaintance with the collec- 
tor oi the specimens Frederick Knopf. 
I worked with him on the farm during 
harvest time and found him a very ec- 
centric but interesting old German. 
The name of plants under the heading 
Penna.-German, would more nearly be 
correct under the heading, German. I 
dare say that Mr. r^Icll would hear 
very few of the names pronounced as 
thcv are swelled. 



Coming to Their Own 

Signs multiply that, in the realm of 
literary appreciation, the possibilities 
of fiction and romance in the life of 
the people improperly styled "Pennsyl- 
\'ania Dutch" are coming to be real- 
ized. For generations their lack of 
self- assertion and possibly an insuf- 
ficient academic culture ha\-e tended 
to keep in the background their liter- 
ary and historical importance. Nearly 
every other notable element in the 
composite citizenship oi our country 
has had its own spokesmen and writ- 
ers, who voiced the real sentiment and 
inner life of their people. For the lit- 
erary artist who would give true ex- 
pression to and make faithful por- 
traiture of this life must be of it and 
must have come out of it. Such work 
as was done for the Scot by the great 
Sir Walter: for the English peasantry 
by George Eliot, and for an upper class 
in some of the works of ^Irs. Humphry 
A\'ard ; what Hawthorne on the psy- 
chological side and Mary \\'ilkins and 
a host of others on the more realistic 
side have done for Xew England: Ir- 
^'ing for Xew York ; Cal)le for Loui- 
siana ; P)ret Harte for the early Califor- 
nian ; "Charles Egbert Craddock" tor 
the mountain country from which she 
hails : James Lane Allen for Ken- 
tucky ; Thomas X' el son Page for \"\t- 
ginia : Piayard Taylor for Chester coun- 
ty, and a hundred great or minor ar- 
tists for this or that sect or section, 
none has yet adequately done for the 
Pennsylvania German. 

— Lancaster Intellicfcncer. 



THE FORUM 



637 



Pennsylvania in the Lead Education- 
ally 

''Evidently the Pension Foundation 
does not know that Pennsylvania led 
the world, led Massachusetts even, in 
the great puljlic school awakening of 
the tliirties; that even before Horace 
]\Iann gave ]\Iasachusetts its great 
public school leadership. Governor 
Wolf of Pennsylvania wrote the 
greatest of educational messages and 
that Thaddeus Stevens at Harrisburg 
made a greater speech for the public 
schools than ever was made, even by 
Horace ]\lann. This Pension Founda- 
tion seems not to know that Pennsyl- 
vania's poorest paid country school 
teachers get much better salaries than 
thousands of teachers in Xew Eng- 
land ; that the scholarship standards 
and professional training in several 
of the State Normal Schools of Penn- 
sylvania are fully equal to the best 
in ^Massachusetts, and that in the poor- 
est they are higher than any one of" 
eight Xormal schools in Xew Eng- 
land ; that X'ormal school principals 
in Pennsylvania get sixty per cent 
higher salaries than in Massachusetts; 
that the state of Pennsylvania gives 
more money to her public schools than 
all of the X>w England states com- 
bined ; that politics has played no part 
in state school administrations for six- 
teen years." 

(The above, by Dr. A. E. \\'inship. 
Editor of Journal of Education. Boston, 
and pubb"shed in the X'ational Maga- 
zine of Augnst. 19 10. a F>oston publi- 
cation, is noteworthy. The next time 
you are tempted to disown your 
''dutch" ancestry because people for- 
sooth point a finger oi scorn at the 
"dumb dutch" read Dr. W'inship's 
words again and proudly lift your 
head.) 



A Herrnhut Wedding 
There is most assurciUy no sugges- 
tion of worldli ness in a wedding cere- 
mony in the Herrnhut church, but no 
end of suggestions of other-worldli- 
ness. The guests came in and took 



their places just as at any other church 
service. There were no decorations of 
any kind, except a rug for the couple 
to kneel on, an embroidered cloth 
thrown over the resk, and the two 
chairs on which the bride and groom 
sat were twined with green. There 
was no bridal procession, — the bride 
and groom walked in quietly and took 
their seats on two chairs immediately 
in front of the minister's desk. The 
bridesmaids had previously to this 
come in and taken seats as in a 
church service. There was no wed- 
ding music, but to the sound o\ a very 
solemn prelude the minister walked 
in and took his place behind the desk. 
The minister (' remaining seated ) 
opened the scr\-ice by starting the 
hynni "Jesu, geh' voran." We have 
alas, often heard a wedding jokingly 
referred to as a funeral occasion, and 
have heard all manner of witticisms 
about the hardships of the married 
life, but this is the first time we have 
heard and seen a wedding ceremony 
handled with the solemnity and almost 
lugubriousness oi a funeral service. 
Doubtless the young couple were so 
engrossed in each other, or so accus- 
tomed to this sort oi thing, that they 
were able to begin their married life 
joyfully in spite of the imolied doleful 
suggestions. Then followed a ten min- 
ute address by the pastor, delivered 
while seated, another hymn, and then 
an exceedingly brief form of actually 
uniting the young people in marriage, 
— without the ring ceremony, — a pray- 
er, the benediction and another hymn. 
While the organ played another sol- 
enm voluntary, the couple quietly 
walked out of the church unattended. 
In some respects the funeral service of 
the day before seemed more joyful, be- 
cause the joy of the departed brother 
in going home to his Lord was strong- 
ly emphasized. This wedding was cer- 
tainly a solemn occasion. There can 
be no d(^ubt about that. We are in- 
formed, that the wedding dinner lasted 
iron] one to seven o'clock, when some 
additional addresses may ha\ e beoi. de- 
livered. — The Moravian. 



IP" 



•638 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Restoring a Worn-Out Farm 

A number of years ago a younc^ 
Pennsylvania Dutchman bought a 
three liundred acre farm in one of the 
southern counties of Indiana. This 
iarm had been run down until by the 
old methods employed it was not possi- 
ble to make a living on it, and the 
owner had been compelled to sell be- 
•cause of sheer poverty. 

The father -of the young man who 
bought the farm had become rich on 
<i farm most of which had been dug 
out of the hillside. He began gradually 
to improve the conditions of the soil 
by plowing a little deeper every time. 
He started a three-years' rotation of 
crops, plowing under the stubble on 
the corn land to add humus. He sowed 
clover every year on new ground. 

The Indiana farmer sold his be- 
longings at auction. When he left the 
place he had less than a dozen animals 
all told. The Pennsylvania man went 
in debt for a half-dozen cows, fifty 
head of sheep, and a dozen brood 
sows. In three years he had increased 
this number threefold or fourfold. He 
made arrangements with the livery 
stables in the country towns four miles 
distant to keep the manure hauled 
away from their back door, and for 
five years all his spare time both win- 
ter and summer was devoted to this 
task. 

The manure spreader was not known 
"at that time, bue he continued to pile 
the manure upon his acres by the fork- 
fuls, until his neighbors began to make 
fun of him. Some of them declared 
that he would destroy his farm by 
making it "manure sick;" but the 
Pennsylvania man smiled and kept his 
wagon going to the livery stables and 
back to the farm with its heavy load. 
■ He was among the first farmers in the 
state to buy a manure spreader when 
they came in style. 



An old apple orchard on the place 
at one time consisted of two hundred 
trees in good condition, but the Penn- 
sylvania man found less than one 
hundred alive, and many of these were 
so choked with sprouts and injured 
by insects that they bore nothing. He 
cut down all the dead trees and pa- 
tiently pruned the live ones, scraping 
away the dead bark, whitewashing the 
trunks. Spraying was too new for him 
then. Within five }'ears he had seven- 
ty-five healthy trees which produced 
big crops every other year with fair 
yields between. 

At first he hired two men to help 
him and he kept them busy winter and 
summer. Later he hired another and 
yet another and still there seemed to 
be more work to do than ever before. 

He plpwed out the idle fence rows, 
cleared up the wood lot, removing 
every dead tree. He opened up the 
water ditches and put wire fences in 
place of the old rail harbors for in- 
sects. 

The young farmer closely followed 
the efiiect that within six years after 
he had bought his worn-out old farm 
he had completely restored its fertility 
and ' transformed it into a thrifty, 
clean, well-managed, profitable farm. 

His corn yield had been brought up 
from fifteen bushels to eighty bushels 
per acre. He raised two hundred bu- 
shels of potatoes per acrefl His wheat 
ran from twenty to thirty-five bushels, 
and his oats crops were the largest in 
the township. He sold little grain, 
excepting wheat. All the rest was fed 
to cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry, and 
not a pound of fertility was allowed 
to escape. 

Today the farm is worth several 
times the sum he paid for it, and it is 
growing in productiveness and value 
every year. 

— R. S. Tavlor. in Tennessee Sun. 



639 



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OHIO 

M L Buch waiter — S — 11 

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MISSOURI 

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NEW YORK 
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J L Mover— 8 — 11 

To Oct. 1, 1910. 



640 

The "P-G" Program for 1911 

^he Pennsylvania-German, the only "popular" monthly magazine devoted to the people 
whose name it bears, announces the following attractive features for the year 1911. 

The Germans in the Southland and beyond the Alleghanies 

Prominent writers will discuss typical phases of the lives and activities of the early Germans 
and their descendants in the South Atlantic and in the North Central states. 

The Family Historian 

This department will be made a Roundtable, Forum or Open Parliament for all who are 
interested in the study of the history of German families. Contributions respecting early Ger- 
man immigrants and their descendants falling under any of the following heads will be accepted 
for publication : 

1 . Compact records of first three generations in America — giving birth, marriage, 
children, death, place of residence, activities, etc. etc. 

2. Brief sketches of prominent descendants. 

3. Original documents illustrative of past conditions. 

4. Noteworthy events in migration, settlement, early life, frontier experiences, etc. 

5. Pictures with description of buildings, heirlooms, old machinery, household utensils 
and furniture, old persons, (alone, in groups or by families.) 

6. Family traits and characteristics, etc. etc. 

The Dialect Department 

This department will be edited by Prof. E. M. Fogel, of the University of Pennsylvania. 
He will treat the dialect scientifically from a literary and historic standpoint. A phonetic nota- 
tion will be used. Original contributions in the dialect, folk poetry, folk rhymes, etc., will be 
given. Rev. A. C. Wuchter will contribute a series of sketches of home life in rhyme. 

Genealogical Data 

Iirpotant, original data of prime value to students of genealogy will be published. Especial- 
ly noteworthy will be the transcript of the oldest tombstone inscriptions in all the cemeteries of 
Berks county. Copied more than thirty years ago by Louis Richards, Esq., of Reading, these 
preserve many records which would otherwise have been irrecoverably lost. This will be a 
unique and very valuable feature. 

The Forum, Reviews, Notes and Queries 

These popular departments will be continued and made more interesting and valuable than 
before. 

General Articles 

Among the articles of a general nature may be mentioned the following : 

A Study of a Rural Community, by Charles William Super, Ph. D.. LL. D., e.x- 
President of the Ohio University, Professor, Translator and Author. 

The Adoption of the Public School System of Pennsylvania, by the Hon. C. Heydrlck, 
Franklin, Pa. 

Hans Herman; a Pennsylvania-German, (Fiction) by Austin Blerbower, the noted law- 
yer and author of Chicago. 

Reminiscences by the late L. A. Wollenwcber, recounting his experiences in eastern 
Pennsylvania, seventy years ago — vivid, charming, (translated from the German). 

Easton from a Trolley Window. 

Pen Pictures of Life in Eastern Pennsylvania by Daniel Miller, Reading, Pa., based 
on fifty years' experience as editor and publisher. 

Canal Lore by Edwin Charles, Middleburg, f^a. 

Dr. I. H. Betz, York. Pa., will continue his valuable and interesting sketches. 

Other equally interesting and valuable articles are in preparation. 



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Price of Ivlagazine, $2.00. As previously announced the price of (he ma.q-a- 
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Vol. XI 



NOVEMBER, 1910 



No. 11 



' 


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.^K< -V- ■; ;■::".;•;:;• 


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:f^;:'f^\ i^^ 1 







CASPER SCII\VKNKFKI.D VON OSSIG 

14%- 1562 



'y wM >» , w i i. « w 'f»'W^' ' ^r^yyvi P' iy.ij»jpi^^ ! 







VOL. Xi K^:^ I ' 






NOVEMBER, 1^10 









A iHuuthlo iHaaaEuu^ 



151 






aj. 







t AorEll bCHWENKFELU ,...•,..., 

The Jesuits a^iong the ScawENKFELDERs. 
Christopher Schultz .• 



^^zx-^} i The Conduct of the Schwemifklpeks du}:tng the il]:voLUTiuN-v;;v Wau 



D-j: 



"m^ 



The Hosknsack Academy 

Indian Chiefs of Fennsylva>;-!a. F'akinosa. 

Noah Weis, Wood Carver 

A. Statue to Genekal Pi:t£k Muhlenberg, 

The Old Ffjeman Ho.mestead 

Glimpses of Pionekk Life 

Vlsit to the Homestead or Henry Antes. 



^Y"}\ Falkker Swamp. The M.\kkle\ School Hou; 

i[.4y 



U~ 






DlK MUTTERS?SU)CIi 

Reviews and Notes 

Historical Notes and News 

Gf.neai OGiCAL Notes and Queiue^ 
The ForaJM 

EuITOiaAL .l.)t,rARTMENT ■ 



077 

f-;s4 

lux 



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Publishers; THC lXPRcSS PRIMING CO. Edi-or: H. W. KR!f:BEL btitr, Ps 

Cci;yi-,;hl IVi'J by il. W. Kri.be!, Enured n., ::t.conii Ci-i.io M.^:! Mit'.r- ui Iho Fo.-.w Othce ut Lra;^. Fa. 



Tn~ra^vrv' 



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■(■^v^^^TTi'^'^'^'^^rr^'^v;'":'''^^ 



642 



Casper Schwenkfeld 




ASPER Schwenkfeld, the 
oldest child in a family of 
four, was born of Catho- 
lic parents at Ossig near 
Liegnitz in Silesia, Ger- 
many, in 1490 (1489?) 
and died at Ulm, Decem- 
ber 16, 1 561. The family 
which was of the nobility and could 
trace the story of its fathers several 
hundred years, ended about 200 years 
after his birth. 

Taught by priests who bribed him 
with sugared cakes, he, as a Catholic, 
early learned to repeat his lessons of 
Romish praise and prayer; he later 
studied in Liegnitz, and at Cologne and 
other universities. 

Having prepared himself for his sta- 
tion, though his general culture may 
perhaps have been somewhat limited, 
he, while yet a young man, entered up- 
on the life of a courtier and as such 
served at several courts; — first, at the 
court of Duke Carl of Muensterberg, a 
grandson of King Podiebrad of Bo- 
hemia where the views of Huss were 
upheld and probably impressed on his 
receptive heart ; later, at the court of 
Duke Friedrich II of Liegnitz as Hof- 
rat or aulic councilor. 

During his courtier life which lasted 
quite a number of years, Schwenkfeld 
probably did not take a deep interest in 
the Bible, but God having touched his 
heart, he withdrew from court-life to 
become later at his request the canon 
of the church of St. John at Liegnitz 
where he preached and taught. Here 
he became an intense student of the 
Bible, theology, the Church Fathers, 
and the Greek language. When the 
advance wave of the Lutheran up- 
heaval struck Silesia, Schwenkfeld re- 
joiced; when Friedrich II embraced 
the Reformation, Schwenkfeld heartily 
encouraged him and threw his whole 
life into the movement, thus greatly 
aiding in the spread of the new light 



in Silesia for which he received the 
good wishes of Luther. 

The want of harmony between the 
theories of Luther and Schwenkfeld, 
recognizable in the two letters written 
by the latter in 1524, became an open 
and endless discord between the par- 
ties themselves a year later. Schwenk- 
feld saw that he could not agree with 
Luther in reference to the nature of 
Christ's presence in the Lord's Sup- 
per. Having talked and prayed the 
matter over with his friends, he after 
further earnest thought and prayer 
went v/ith letters of introduction to 
Bugenhagen and Justus Jonas to Wit- 
tenberg to lay his views before Luther, 
both orally and by books and manu- 
scripts. A talk lasting several days, 
followed, after which Schwenkfeld 
went home in good spirits to receive 
later a fiery letter from Luther in 
which among other things the charge 
was made that either the writer ( Lu- 
ther) or Schwenkfeld must be the 
bond-servant of the devil. The storm 
of persecution which thus began to 
show itself was destined under God's 
providence to blow about the heads of 
Schwenkfeld and his followers for 
more than 200 years and though on 
Penn's soil, a refuge was found in 
1734, its after-effects mny be seen and 
felt to this day. The system of doc- 
trine which Schwenkfeld had formu- 
lated at this time and which proved 
beyond doubt that he was a fearless, 
conscientious and profound thinker 
even then, was developed unaltered 
with the passing years and maintained 
untlinchingly in minutest detail to the 
hour of death. 

Silesia at this time was budding into 
new life and a rich soil into which the 
seeds of the Reformation might drop, 
lay ready. Schwenkfeld, having been 
repulsed by Luther, maintained his 
position by speech and pen. both in 
public and private with the aid of his 
bosom friend, Crautwald. He thus 



CASPER SCHWEXKFELD 



643 



won many adherents to his views and' 
there was a very promising prospect 
that Silesia beginning at Liegnitz 
would embrace the "Reformation by 
the Middle Way" as the movement un- 
der Schwenkfcld was termed. Fried- 
rich li and nearly all the ministers of 
Liegnitz having embraced the doc- 
trine, the University of Liegnitz was 
projected, partly organized, and put in 
operation, soon to be smothered by ad- 
verse influences beyond the control of 
its friends. Opposing forces were at 
work at the same time, however. The 
publication of one of Schwenkfeld's 
tracts by Oecolampadius helped to in- 
crease the wrath and zeal of Luther 
and the Lutheran ministers against 
Schwenkfeld. The issue of Schwenk- 
feld's defense of his views about the 
Lord's Supper without his own will or 
knowledge by Zwingli in Zurich in 
152S led the Bishop of Vienna to op- 
pose Schwenkfeld in writing which in 
turn led King Ferdinand to serve no- 
tice on Friedrich II of Liegnitz that he 
should punish the new teacher. 
Schwenkfeld upon this left home, vol- 
. untarily however and not as an exile 
by the will of the duke, to live away 
from home and its comforts, from 
friends and kindred, all the days of his 
life. The letter of pardon which 
brought with it a chance to return to 
his home which was offered by the 
King, was not accepted since it would 
have implied that he should reconcile 
himself to the church, its ottices, regu- 
lations, and sacraments, to teach only 
what the church taught, and to pub- 
lish nothing without the knowledge 
and acceptance of the King. 

Schwenkfeld lived thereafter i n 
Strassburg. Nurnberg, Augsburg. I'lm 
and other important centers, besides 
visiting friends and staying temporar- 
ily in many of the free and imperial 
cities of ScHith Germany, persecution 
following him wherever he went. From 
Strassburg he \vas exiled 1533, froiu 
Augsburg compelled to withdraw 1535, 
at Tuebingen after a colloquy peace 
and cessation from persecution was 



promised though not publicly promul- 
gated 1535, at Llm inquisition machin- 
ery was set in motion against him, 
happily set at rest however by the war 
of Smalcald. In 1558 he wrote that 
he was nowhere secure and that he 
could not move about without consid- 
erable danger. Decrees were issued 
against him , his books were confis- 
cated, and burned, his printers were 
forbidden to print, his booksellers for- 
bidden to sell his books. He was de- 
nounced in pulpit by priest and pastor, 
in church conference by almost every 
important gathering. Those who aided 
and comforted him placed themselves 
in jeopardy and at times suttered. 
Charges were brought by those even 
who by their own confession had 
scarcely seen his books or read his 
^\Titings ; calumnies were rehashed and 
revamped, nor could an honest 
searcher after the truth investigate 
for himself l^ecause the literature was 
suppressd. The church leaders ( fr.jm 
whom the persecution mainly ema- 
nated) semed to vie with each other 
in reproaching, reviling, defaming, 
calumniating, condemning and exe- 
crating. Fie was called ; — Ketzer. 
A\'iederteuffer, Secter. Rottengeist, 
ReinengeistAMnkel-kriecher. Sclileich- 
er, Meunchling, Stenckfeld, Frtz- 
ketzer, Schwaermer, Schelmen, \'er- 
fuchrcr, Xarren. Grillen-meister, un- 
.sinniger toller Teufel. Donatistcn. 
,\'alentinianer, Futychianer. 

And yet in spite of it all and per- 
ch?.nce at times on account 01 it all. he 
could not be silenced, he couKl not be 
teiupted to deu}- his Christ by d ^ing 
an unchristian act. or by betraying 
wh.it ho belie\ed Clirist .had taught 
him by his spirit, the common people 
could not be incited again^^t him. many 
princes and -lois^^s defended, him r ui 
had it UiU been (or strenuous strte 
measures, large sections of Silesia 
wmdd in all probability ha\o adopied 
the Reformation by the Middle \\"ay. 
He himself labored assiduously in the 
(.lefense oi his views. He preached, 
wrote, dictated to his friends, pub- 



644 



THE PEXXSYLVANIA-GERMAX 



lished books and indirectly through 
his adherents spread his doctrines, 
trusted messengers carrying messages 
back and forth. When the printing 
presses were closed against him, lov- 
ing and willing hands multiplied 
manuscript copies ; when misrepresen- 
tations were made, he sent books, 
tracts and letters, and sought oppor- 
tunity to explain and defend himself. 
When his "Feier-Abend" drew near 
and the shades of night began to fall, 
Schwenkfcld's soul was calm, peaceful 
and at rest. No undercurrent or eddy 
of ill-will, hatred, or revenge to others 



disturbed the surface and the grace of 
heaven was refiected from his entire 
being. As all through his life, he ex- 
emplified his motto: "Nil triste, 
Christo recepto." He spent his last 
days as he had spent a long and busy 
life, in his Father's business, praying, 
reading, talking about his Savior. 
Fully assured that his name was writ- 
ten in the Lamb's Book of Life, he 
committed himself into the hands of 
Him whom he had served so many 
years and thus fell asleep to awake in 
the land where there shall be no more 
death, neither sorrow, nor crvincr. 



NOTE BY THE EDITOR 

Should we be called upon to give a 
reason why we dcvc>te so much space 
in this issue to Schwenlcfeld we would 
refer the inquirer to the following 
words b} Rev. Dr. C. D. Piartranft, edi- 
tor of the Corpus Schwenkfeldianorum, 

"In Schwenkfeld we find the source of 
many characteristics of mcdern Protestant- 
ism; the function of the laity, the right of 
representation, the freedom of conscience, 
the separation of church and state, the ec- 
clesiola in ecclesia, and many another 
principle that is now potmt in all branches 
of Christendom, had their strongest cham- 
pion in him in the day when these were 
heretical principles and when their a:S?r- 
ticn was at the peril cf life: there is scarce- 
ly a religious school whether evangelical, 



pietistic or liberal, that has not drawn some 
formative impulse from him through a 
hitherto unobserved absorption." 

The appearance in the "Schwenkfel- 
dian" of the articles on the Jesuits bv 
Prof. Gerhard, and The Hosensac'k 
Academy by Prof. Brecht, read at the 
Gedachtniss Tag exercises September 
24, 1910. which we reproduce, was the 
immediate occasion for printing these 
papers at this time. \\'e have added 
sketches on Schwenkfeld. Christopher 
Schuitz and George Kriebel to throw 
additional light .on a phase of Pennsyl- 
vania life, not as widely and fully 
known as some others. We regret that 
lack of fpace prevents our dwelling on 
other aspects of Schwenkfeld history 
past and present. 



The Jesuits among the Schwenkfelders 

By Prof. Elmer Schultz Gerhard, Trenton, N. J. 



645 



n n 



irmri 



^ 



UST as the history of the 
American Revolution is the 
story of American life that 
never grows old, so the ac- 
count of the Jesuit perse- 
cution of the Schwenkfelders 
is the one story of Schv/enk- 
feld history that should 
never seem old to our people. 
It is an old, old story, but 
ever new. There is danger, however, that 
there are those of us to whom it may be 
only too new. The long vista of years since 
the perpetration of these outrages, the 
exigencies of a hurried life wherein all 
things become antiquated in a decade, and 
the seemingly inaccessibility of the subject 
matter hide from view the valued treasures 
of a historical past. 

This stoiy is being retold for the one 
hundred and seventy-sixth time; we have 
nothing new to add toitay. But it is well 
to stop on some memorial occasion like 
this to consider the herita-re that is ours; 
that we, too, may take from our honored 
forefathers increased devotion to the cause 
for which they gave the last full measure 
of devotion. It is well betimes to stop and 
even listen to the 

"choir invisible 
Of these, immortal dead who live again 
In minds made better by their presence." 
The persecutions that were visited upon 
our forefathers by the Jesuits simply indi- 
cate the spirit of the a;5e — des Zeitgeistes. 
It was an age of intolerance. The intoler- 
ant spirit was rife. It tried men's souls be- 
cause it made them decide wh9ther they 
were willing to die for the principles of 
faith and religion like Stephen of old. Great 
are the tales 

"Of faith fire-winged by martj'rdom." 
It was this intolerant spirit that drove 
thousands from their native land to seek 
new homes on a foreign shore, in order to 
obtain political and religious liberty. And 
not the least significant among them, we 
liope, were those of the good ship St. An- 
drew that sailed into port at Philadelphia, 
September 22, 1734. 

Our people were subjected to the basest 
persecutions for upwards of two hundred 
years. These two hundred years arrange 
themselves into several groups of activity. 
The one concerning us in the immediate 
present is the one of the Jesuit Mission. 

Whence this Jesuit Mission? Who sent 
it? Why was it sent? One of the causes, 



if not the chief cause, of the coming of the 
Jesuit Missionaries was the inability of the 
Lutherans to win the Schwenkfelders over 
to the Lutheran church. They had been 
trying this for over one hundred years. Be- 
ginning with the close of the seventeenth 
century, the spirit cf intolerance and per- 
secution relaxed a little, and the Lutherans 
made a desiderate effort to win thsm over 
by presenting this time the most alluring 
and attractive side of the controversy. And 
they did secure large numbers cf the 
younger generation. Through the respite 
from deeds of violence our people became 
somewhat indolent and indifferent, and the 
young people felt decidedlv secure. Urged 
on by the lusts of the flesh and turmoil of 
the world Religion was so represented by 
the Church, whether Protestant or Catholic. 
that one might reach Heaven by a single 
bound. Such a broad way and wide gate 
could not help being pleasing to the lusts 
cf the flesh. With their communion ser- 
vices the other denominations always gave 
full liberty to live an easy life and yet be 
secure of heaven. For it is a positive fact 
that the Lutheran ministers of the time 
held that the partaking cf communion was 
suflicient to secure the blessings and dis- 
pensations of heaven regardless of the life 
led in the flesh. 

For this reason the Lutheran ministers 
received manv Schwenkfelders into their 
church. From this time on our people 
gradually diminished so that by the year 
171 S there were or.ly hundreds where they 
used to be numbered by the thousands. Wirh 
the arrival of new ministers and the arising 
cf new lordships it was decided to bring 
about the utter ruin of the Schwenkfelders. 
The Lutheran ministers aroused the Gov- 
ernment in their favor and pointed out to 
the othcials that if they were supported the 
conversion cf the Schwenkfelders would be 
an easy matter: and all the while they were 
clamoring for some decree from the royal 
government that would permit them to 
force the Schwenkfelders into their church. 
The Emperor concluded that if these peo- 
ple could be v.-on over as easily as the Lu- 
theran ministers predicted he would force 
them to embrace the Catholic faith by send- 
ing missionaries among them. 

And though the Schwenkfelders were up 
to this time greatly reduced in numbers, 
their conversion to the Catholic faith was 
after all considered of sutTicient importance 
to enlist the attention of the Court. Nor 
was it dirticult to persuade the Emperor, 



646 



THPJ PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Charles the Sixth, that the Schweiikfelders 
were not protected by the Treaty of West- 
phalia, of 1G48, which treaty on the other 
band really regarded them as outlaws. So 
they were beyond the pale of the law, civil 
and religious; and were once more at the 
mercy of the persecutor's hand. For over 
two hundred years this handful of church- 
less, homeless, dauntless, but not Godless 
people was the prey of the hellhounds of 
the Reformation, and the barking and the 
howling have not ceased even unto this day. 
The government at Liegnitz was directed 
by the Imperial Court to send in an official 
report of these people and an account of 
their faith. Some of the leaders of the sect 
were summoned to appear before the au.- 
thorities at Liegnitz on May 19, 171S, at 
which time and place the Schwenkfelders 
w^ere given the first hearing before the Gov- 
ernment. The authorities were so lenient 
with them and they were questioned and 
listened to so courteously that these men 
shed tears of joy on their way back and 
th?.nked God that such mercy had been 
shown them. They little suspected the trials 
and sufferings that awaited them. A writ- 
ten declaration of their faith was also de- 
manded, this was submitted on May 25. of 
the same year. This declaration was sub- 
scribed to by the following persons: 
Balthasar Dietrich, 
Christopher Seipt and his brother, 
David Seibt, 
G'eorg Jackel, 
Georg Anders, 
Georg Weisz, 

Balthasar Hoffman and his brother, 
Christopher Hoffman. 'These two men 
were also members of the deputation 
sent to Vienna in 1721. 
Hans Jackel. 
'A second hearing was given them at Jauer 
on October 24, on which occasion Georg 
Hauptman had to deliver two declarations 
of his faith, both of which are still extant. 

It is without foundation when it is al- 
leged in the second volume of the "Life of 
Public Services of Frederick II," printed at 
Tiibingen, that the disturbances of Daniel 
Schneider at Goldberg had given occasion to 
this judicial hearing. With the disturb- 
ances at this place, which the Lutheran 
ministers started among themselves, the 
Schwenkfelders had nothing at all to do. 
Schneider was the Lutheran minister at 
Goldberg and tried to win the Schwenkfeld- 
ers by treating them kindly; and because of 
this kind disposition toward them he in- 
j curred the contempt and displeasure of his 
fellow Lutheran ministers, was thrown into 
! prison in the townhall in Breslau in April 
i 1704, and lost bis position. 
1 ^By the royal decree of September 16, 
1719, two Catholic priests were appointed as 
missionaries to the Schwenkfelders. They 



v/ere Johann Milahn, who was sent into the 
principality of Liegnitz and Carolus Re- 
gent, who was sent to that of Jauer. These 
were the agents of the Imperial Govern- 
ment to whom it entrusted one of two 
things — convert the Schwenkfelders to 
Catholicism, or blot them out of existence. 
The misleading and falsifying books that 
were issued about the Schwenkfelders at 
this time, the conduct of Schneider, of 
Neander and others were among the indi- 
rect causes that brought on the Mission. If 
however the direct cause can and is to be 
placed it must be placed upon Samuel 
Neander, the Lutheran minister at Har- 
persdorf. Failing in his efforts to convert 
the Schwenkfelders to the Lutheran faith 
he appealed to the magistracy for aid. Af- 
fairs turned out vastly different from what 
he had expected. Neander was a hot-headed 
fiery sort of a man who could hardly con- 
trol himself in his passion. He was warned 
at the time of his ordination with what sort 
of people he had to deal. But that made no 
difference to him. For soon after assuming 
the functions of his new position he an- 
nounced that he had vowed not to bury any 
of the Schwenkfelders as they had been 
buried formerly. He put his threat into 
practice. A funeral was no longer met by 
the choirboys. There was no tolling of bells- 
People had to wait a long time zt the 
church while those in the minister's house 
hung around in the windows and mocked 
those who attended the funeral. Finally 
Neander would appear with his choirboys 
singing "Ach wie elend ist unsere Zeit" out 
of derision. By and by he forbade the 
Schwenkfelders to bury their dead in the 
church yard. Fearing the bodies of their 
dead might be desecrated elsewhere they 
buried them on the "Viehweg" by night 
and drove cattle over the spot of the newly 
made graves so that all traces might be 
obliterated. 

These two missionaries had intended to 
enter upon their "apostolic" duties on the 
6th of December but the matter was delayed 
until the 20th. And when they did come 
they spread consternation among our peo- 
ple. Their reception into the quiet village 
of Harpersdorf" was rather ominous. No 
bells were rung to bid them welcome; not 
even the doleful sound of funeral tolling 
was heard. They had great trouble in find- 
ing Iodising, even the village inn refused 
them shelter. Finally, the fearless Milahn 
made short work of it and lodged with the 
Mayor. And Regent went to the house of a 
minister in Zobten. 

They were undaunted. They practiced the 
craftiness, cunningness. the artful decep- 
tion, and disguised nu-mness characterstic 
of the clan. Investigations began anew; 
hearings were held, the first one was held 
on December 2S at the house of George 



THE JESUITS AMONG THE SCHWEXKFELDERS 



e47 



Haiiptmann in Lauterseifen; six other 
Schwetikfelders were also present. They 
confiscated his library and removed it to 
Liegnitz. 

They began in a mild sort of way by 
showing kindness and leniency. At first 
they required only the men to attend church 
services. They had an idea that these peo- 
ple could be won by expounding to them the 
doctrines of Catholicii^m and in so doing re- 
fute those of Schwenkfeld. But the task 
was far more difficult than they had imag- 
ined, for these forefathers of ours were too 
well grounded in the teachings of the found- 
er who in the course of his thirty years of 
teaching and preaching had never con- 
tradicted himself. They refuted the argu- 
ments of the INIissionaries with evident 
ease. It is not simply bare assumption 
when it is said that neither the Lutherans 
nor much less the Catholics won ovVr one 
Schwenkfelder who understood Schwenk- 
feld's teaching. Becoming irritated because 
these "heretics" would not yield to their 
sophistry Milahn and Regent adopted 
harsher methods by compelling women and 
children to appear before them for instruc- 
tion in the Catholic religion. If parents re- 
fused to present their children for instruc- 
tion they were imprisoned; if imprisonment 
even failed to bring them forth, fines and 
extortions were resorted to. No marriage 
was allowed unless the contracting parties 
promised to bring up their offspring in the 
Catholic faith. Whoever went to another 
country to get married was imprisoned on 
returning; no, not even decent burial, in the 
church yard. No sorrowing friends were 
allowed to follow the remains of loved ones 
even to the Viehweg where hundreds of our 
people were buried. This brought the bur- 
ial matter exactly to the point where Nean- 
der tried to get it. According to Oberlehrer 
Schneider there are about two hundred 
graves of cur forefathers on the Viehweg in 
Harpersdorf; on that in Langenneundori, 
only sixty; and on that of Lauterseifen. 
only four. At this last named place a pub- 
lic highway was run directly over the 
graves; thus adding insult to injury. 

We have retained the word "'Viehweg" be- 
cause we do not believe the English lan- 
guage contains a term that will convey for 
us at least, the contempt, disgrace and hu- 
miliation associated with this word. Such 
places were really the dumping ground of 
the village; and here hundreds of our peo- 
ple were buried during the thirty years of 
the Mission. Time forbids us to go into 
the detailed incidents of fines and imprison- 
ments, excei)t to say that many a dog in 
America receives more decent burial than 
what those people received. 

In the meantime the Lutherans pulled 
harder than ever. A sort of rivalry si^rang 
up between them and the Missionaries as to 
which one could pervert the most Schwenk- 



felders. Convert them they could not. The 
Lutherans had clamored at the gates of the 
Imperial Government just a little too long. 
The prey which they tried to catch ever 
since the days of the Reformation they now 
saw slipping away from them. So they made 
one more desperate effort and promised 
the Schwenkfelders protection from the 
Catholics, but the Catholics soon put an end 
to that. 

In May 1721 a deputation of three men 
was sent to Vienna to plead for toleration. 
It consisted of the brothers Balthasar and 
Christopher Hoffman and Balthasar Horl- 
richter. This deputation remained five 
years at the Imperial Court at Vienna, and 
presented to the Emperor partly by writing 
and partly by getting on their knees before 
him no less than seventeen memorials. The 
Emperor always received them graciously 
and kindly and promised them cessation 
from violence, and that was all the satisfac- 
tion they received. We live, at least, we 
think we do, in a swift and enlightened age 
where everything is seemingly swift and 
enlightened excepi lustice. If it takes our 
Federal Government twenty years to bring 
grasping corporations within the clutches 
of the lav.', to say nothing cf holding the!:\ 
there, one need not wonder at the slowness 
and inefficiency of Justice in far ojf Silesia 
two hundred years ago. We must of course 
remember that the authorities and the of- 
fenders were all the time blowing into the 
same horn. 

Thorsands cf dollars were spent to main- 
tain this deputation at the Court, but it 
availed nothing — and the persecutions went 
on; our people were finally v.-arned even 
not to send in any more ni'^morials or peti- 
tions ; the bishopric of Breslau even de- 
manded that this band of heretics, i. e. the 
deinTtrtion. be removed from Court. 

The missionaries exercised guardianship 
over all orphan children of the Schwenk- 
felders; this could only add bitterness to the 
thoughts of the dying. And in order to pre- 
vent these people from escapins: from the 
awful position in which they were placed, 
they were forbidden to sell their property, 
or to leave the country for anv reason what- 
soever. Severe penalty was imposed for 
helping any Schwenkfelder to escape by 
purchasing his property. 

The last petition for mercy was handed 
in on July 2S, 172.'. and by September of 
the same year a decree was published by 
the Imperial Government that better prog- 
ress had to be made by the missionaries 
in converting the Schwenkfelders; that the 
mission should henceforth exercise all its 
power to accomplish the object in viewwirh 
the best ctYect. No one was allowed on 
threat of punishment to trespa.ss anmnr 
the Schwenkfelders for fear of seducing and 
perverting them; likewise no one was per- 
mitted to grant them shelter much less an 



64S 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



opportunity to hold meetings. Schwenk- 
felder books were burned up and confis- 
cated or destroyed. Greater stringency was 
to be exercised in requiring children to be 
brought to preaching and catechizing and 
even adults were held to it. P'ines and im- 
prisonment were imposed for failure to do 
so. No more petitions for mercy were to be 
handed in; and the missionaries must not 
be hindered in any form or manner, but 
shall be given assistance with all force and 
effect. 

The Jesuits tried by all manner of means 
and deceit to make their side of the work 
to look as favorable as possible, as if they 
were winning out and needed only permis- 
sion to use still more cruel methods. The 
representatives fled from the Court for f jar 
of treachery. A reward was offered for tak- 
ing Balthasar Hoffman prisoner. 
They used the power granted them with the 
utmost vigor. They were even assisted by 
the civil authorities in patrolling the high- 
ways in order that none of these doomed 
and distressed people might escape. To 
turn Catholic was not to be thought of, to 
turn Lutheran was no longer allowable; to 
sell property was impossible for they could 
give no clear title with it, and the highway 
was patroled by the enemy. 

Thus escape from the persecutor's hand 
seemed shut off wherever they turned — yet 
escape they must and escape they did. 

The departure took place about Easter 
1726. During March, April, and May about 
one hundred and seventy families made their 
way by night -from Harpersdorf, Armenruh, 
and Hockenau to Saxony. Here they set- 
tled mainly around Gorlitz and Berthels- 
dorf, and remained here for upwards of 
eight years under the protection of Count 
Zinzendorf. By this time the dogged and 
insatiable Jesuits had prevailed upon the 
Imperial Government to make arrangements 
with the elector of Saxony to have the 
Schwenkfelders returned, presumably with 
the desire to pervert some more, or to blot 
them entirely out of exi^^tence. This infor- 
mation was imparted to the Schwenkfelders 
by friends; they were fortunately allowed to 
remain until the next spring, and by that 
time they had made arrangements to leave 
the country. 

Inasmuch as they were prohibited from 
selling anything and as the police regula- 
tions were meant to prevent emigration they 
were compelled to leave all their property 
behind except what they could carry away 
on their backs or on the wheelbarrows. And 
the rest is — silence: we cannot even imag- 
ine the feelings with which they turned 
their backs upon their homes with all the 
traditions and associations that made them 
dear. 

After the Schwenkfelders had fled from 
Silesia in 1726 the Missionaries became 



very easy and gentle, because it was after 
all against the Emperor's will that these 
faithful subjects should be driven out. 

Father Milahn created quite an uproar 
the following fall, September 28. While en- 
tertaining a countess he had the fire 
kindled so strongly that the house in which 
he lodged caught fire and went up in flames 
together with thirty other dwellings and 
also the beautiful Lutlieran church. When 
Pater Milahn saw what he had done, he was 
of the opinion, and not without reason, that 
the many peoj^le who came from other vil- 
lages to help extinguish the fire, might sus- 
pect him very badly; so he quickly leit to- 
gether with his guests. A few weeks after- 
ward he came back and lodged with a 
farmer by the name of Balthasar Bachman. 
Milahn had previously driven a Schwenk- 
feider cut of the house which burned down. 

A chapel was also built on the property 
of Melchior Meschter, a Schwenkfelder who 
was driven out. Such money of orphr.ns as 
was invested in real estate was appropriat- 
ed by the mission who posed as guardians 
of orphan children. The money had been 
loaned out and when the chapel was built 
the borrowers of the money could redeem 
the debt by working at this sanctuary. The 
orphan children received nothing. The per- 
sonal property of orphans was divided and 
the affair settled so that no claimant could 
see what had become of things. 

It was also a clever ruse of Pater Regent 
that two Schwenkfelders had to act as 
watchmen over him every night, year in and 
year out. so that no harm might befall him! 

Toward the end of 1735 and the first part 
of 1736 the Mission began anew to be more 
grasping and thievish especially with the 
fatherless children. In consequence of this 
several more families fled to Saxony. 

In 1739, August 1. an Imperial Commis- 
sion arrived and investigated very sharply 
and minutely every circumstance concern- 
ing the mission together with the injuries 
that resulted from the same: how much fine 
these people hid paid, and why they did not 
want to become Catholic. A decree was is- 
sued saving that the remaining Schwenk- 
felders should continue in their faith until 
the Emperor had decided what to do. The 
Commission tried to comfort our people and 
also prohibited Neander from preaching: 
this interdiction gave him a furlough of 
twenty-eight weeks. 

But this small group of our people had to 
go through another trial, severe and excru- 
ciating. At Easter in 1740 the Emperor 
commanded that this old sore of Schwenk- 
foldian heresy had to be rooted out and put 
to an end. and that the Schwenkfelders were 
to be given one year's time to become Cath- 
olics. The heavy care and anxiety caused 
by this conmiand can only be imagined. The 
Lutherans became still more desperate and 



THE JESUITS AMONG THE SCHWEXKFE .DERS 



C49 



insistent to have our people unite with 
them; and with exceedingly fair words and 
promises offered th&m still greater protec- 
tion against the advances of the Catholics. 
Such admirable proposals were of course 
accepted by the irresolute and weak in 
faith. In almost every family two were 
against three, and three were against two; 
a man's enemies were those of his own 
house. There was a missionary in almost 
every house. Finally most of them went 
over to the Lutherans. The rest who did 
not wish to, and could not violate their con- 
sciences committed the matter to God's 
care and awaited the end. 

The Emperor Carl died in the autumn of 
1740. Silesia was conquered by Prussia and 
thus came under Catholic power. And 
strange to say, this new king actually is- 
sued a decree in March 1742 that no one 
should be persecuted or compelled to give 
up his faitli, and all who had fled to other 
countries should return and be assured of 
protection and religious freedom. So all 
schemes and forms of violence of the Cath-- 



olics had to be abolished. But Regent, the 
old dog, had to follow our people to Saxony, 
like a bloodhound, 

Modern history records some heart-rend- 
ing incidents and bitter experiences, but it 
may be dithcult to find one that is more des- 
picable, more contemptible, and more hu- 
miliating than this affair of the Jesuit Mis- 
sion among the Sc-hwenkfelders. 

Why these people were hounded for tv.o 
hundred years and were driven over the 
greater part of the face of Germany and fi- 
nally to a foreign strand, we cannot forget. 

Why the most prominent religious de- 
nominations of those days took it upon 
themselves to convert, pervert, seduce and 
annihilate a people intellectually, morally 
and si)iritually their equal to look unto their 
own salvation, we cannot understand. 

Why they were made to suffer such perse- 
cution, humiliation, and disgrace for a free 
Christianity, we do not know. But do we 
know what it meant then? Do we know 
what it means now? Do we appreciate it 
all as we ought? 



Christopher Schult: 




HRISTOPHER Schultz the 
youngest son of Melchior 
and Susanna Schultz was 
born in Xieder Ilarpcrs- 
dorf, Silesia, Germany. 
March 26, 1718 and died 
near Clayton, Berks Co., 
Pa., May 9, 1789. 
His parents were Schwenkfclders, 
which means that they belonged to the 
illustrious band of the confessors of the 
glory of Christ who for more than two 
centuries had been persecuted for 
righteousness' sake at and by the hands 
of professing followers of Jesus are 
common Savior. 

When Christopher was born, Charles 
VI, the Roman emperor and King in 
Germany, etc.. was laying his plans to 
make Catholics of the remaining 
handful of these people and soon after 
sent into the neighborhood, two Jesuits 
as missionaries to carry out his wishes. 
Until the flight in 1726, his parents and 
their fellow-believers passed through 
an experience that we today in our free 
America can not begin to realize. The 



Honorable C. Heydrick draws this pic- 
ture of the period. 

"When parents refused to present their 
children for instruction, (by the Jesuits) 
they were imprisoned: women were placed 
in the stocks and compelled to lie in cold 
rooms, in winter, without so much as straw 
under them; and when imprisonment failed 
to bring the people with their children to 
the missionary services, fines and extor- 
tions were added. Marriages were for- 
bidden unk .""s the parents would promise 
to rear their offspring in the Catholic faith, 
and when young people went into other 
countries to be married, they were im- 
prisoned for that on their return. The dead 
were not allowed Christian burial in the 
churchyards where their ancestors of the 
same faith for many generations had slept: 
friends were forbidden to follow the re- 
mains of loved ones to these ignominious 
resting places. Hundreds of Schwenkfelders 
were so buried at Harpersdorf, Langenneun- 
dorf and Lauterseifen during the twenty 
years that the mission was maintained. The 
missionaries claimed guardianship of all 
orphan children of Schwenkfelders. and 
thus the last hours of the dying were em- 
bittered bv the thought that their children 
nuist be educated in a faith that they them- 
selves abhorred. And to prevent escape 
from the horrible situation in which they 
were placed, the people were forbidden to 
sell their property, or under any prete.xt to 



650 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



leave the country, and severe penalties were 
denounced against any person who should 
assist a Schwenkfelder by purchasing his 
property or otherwise." 

His parejits were well-to-do farmers 
and loved Harpersdorf as the home of 
their fathers and grandfathers before 
them. New farm buildings were 
erected by them and thus the family — 
father, mother and three sons — were 
hoping to enjoy the many innocent 
pleasures of a rural life when this 
storm of evil and iniquity broke over 
their heads. 

During this period of trial his par- 
ents and others often met at the home 
of Christopher and discussed their 
condition. Der kleine Stoffel was al- 
lowed to be^ with them as he was only 
a little boy then but thus, though 
young, he stored away in his memory 
many of the sayings and prayers of 
these saints of God. His grandmother 
too at times told of the great deeds of 
the fathers and particularly of the 
Oelsner brothers who came into the 
neighborhood as little boys and who 
in later life were used of God as chos- 
en vessels of honor. I'he impressions 
of these early days must have been 
particularly vivid and remained all 
through life. \Mien he was past 68 he 
said in 1786: — *'I can recall quite dis- 
tinctly the circumstances, the condi- 
tion of the country and the afflictions 
for several years previous to the time 
of our flight from Silesia in 1726." — 
that is for several years before he be- 
came eight years old. 

When the parents saw that they 
could not remain unless they turned 
their backs on what their fathers had 
suffered and died for they called the 
three sons together and said to them : 
"Unless you turn Catholic, you can not 
remain here; where we shall go we know 
not. If you turn Catholic you may keep 
your house and home and the favor and 
respect of men. For your sake we would 
much rather enter on a road of misery. If 
you could resolve to do this, it would give 
us great pleasure in trust in Cod and to the 
glory of his name. He will find a way and 
place where we may found a home again." 
The three boys as one chose to flee 
rather than to turn Catholic. 



Upon this heroic decision of the 
children, the family decided to forsake 
home and all for Jesus' sake and pre- 
pared to go. Among the hundreds 
that fled they were the richest, but who 
would give up the Savior of his soul 
for dollars and dimes for -homes and 
acres of land? 

The preparations for flight were few 
and simple. They could not sell for 
none dared to buy; they could not 
carry away their household goods nor 
even travel the roads by day for sol- 
diers guarded the highways to prevent 
their escape. They probably as others 
had done according to tradition, some 
dark riight, the Saturday after Easter, 
1726, went to the barn, fed the cattle 
for the last time and parting from 
them in tears, shouldered the bundle 
of valuables and stole away in untrod- 
den paths — father, mother and three 
bovs — George, ^lelchior and Christo- 
pher — to dwell among strangers in a 
strange land like Abraham of old. 
Though all was thus given up for 
Jesus' sake, Christopher in after life 
looked back to this experience and 
said : 'AVe have never been sorry nor 
could we be sorry even though what 
we had to give tip on our part was not 
an unimportant item." 

His parents first went to Goerlitz 
where some other Schwenkfelder refu- 
gees had located and remained until 
November 1727 when they moved to 
Berthelsdorf where the great body of 
Schwenkfelders had found homes. Dur- 
ing the temporary stay at Goerlitz 
young Christopher was making ex- 
tracts from a Latin history of the ten 
persecutions of the early Christians. 
Even at this tender age he had a re- 
markable memory and judgment, ac- 
companied by a strong desire to study 
and to read and write his mother 
tcnigue. In Saxony for several years 
at least he was placed among strangers 
as a shepherd boy when he spent 
manv davs in the woods alone to com- 
mune with nature and to learn to love 
Nature's God. It was probably of these 



CHRISTOPHER SCHULTZ 



Got 



experiences tliat he sang in later life 
when he penned the words: 

"In deiner zarten Jugend, 
Liesz er dich spueren seine Tugend, 
Sein Lieb and Vaters Guete 
Legt sich an dein Gemuethe." 

His experiences were such that then 
if ever he could say, as he did say in 
substance: "It is well with my soul." 

He early learned to love the writings 
of Casper Schwenkfeld but found that 
he must acquire the Latin and Greek 
to read the Epistolaren intelligently. 
The very practical question arose, 
how and when and where can these 
languages be acquired? His good 
mother, jealous of the baby in the 
family though anxious to see him grow 
in wisdom and favor opposed his go- 
ing away for his education, saying: "If 
we send him to school, he will acquire 
the ways of the world." His father 
favored his studving and occasionally 
gave him money to buy school books. 
Every penny that young Christopher 
could acouire was likewise invested in 
books. His time for study he had to 
earn practically as he had a fixed 
amount of spinning to do per day. By 
extra exertion he managed to win 
spare time — two days each week — and 
secured leave to go to George Weiss 
to study Latin, Weiss later rejoiced 
to call himself the teacher of Christo- 
pher Schultz. There was a strong 
bond of attachment between these that 
even death and the grave could not 
break. The Greek and Hebrew lan- 
guages were acquired by the study of 
books aliuost exclusively. 

One of the school books used by 
Schultz is still preserved, the Reche- 
Buch, containing copies of his work 
in Arithemetic. From the title page we 
learn that the work was done in I'erth- 
elsdorf in the year 1731 when Christo- 
pher was 13 years old. We find there 
also these words : 

"Dies Buechlein ist mir lib 
wer mir es stilt dor isht ein Dib 
er sey en Horr odor Knecht 
so ist er an den Galgon gerecht." 
Lust und Lihe zu iedeni Ding 
macht alle Mueh und Arbeit gering." 



He worked out 150 pages and then 
wrote at the conclusion, "Finem feci 
cum auxilio Dei libro hoc." 

While Christopher was thus being 
grotmded in the languages, and other 
useful knowledge, in the faith of the 
fathers, and was learning to earn his 
daily bread by tending cattle, by spin- 
ning and weaving, death entered the 
household and called the mother away 
March 30, 1732, at the early age of 47 
when Christopher was but 14 years 
old. 

Although there had been rumors 
and surmisings that trouble was brew- 
ing for the Schwenkfelders, the com- 
munity was thrown into consterna- 
tion when notice was served one day 
in the spring of 1733 that in a year's ' 
time they Avould all have to migrate 
again. After extended investigation 
it was decided to go to Pennsylvania 
in the spring of 1734. Death invaded 
the family circle again (two months- 
before the contemplated migration) 
and took the father away from the 
boys. Feb. 15, 1734, leaving them 
homeless and parentless. but not hope- 
less nor friendless. 

The actual migration of the 
Schwenkfelders began on Tuesday, 
April 20, 1734 when the first family 
left Berthelsdorf for Pirna on the 
Elbe, the place of embarkation. We 
must not dwell on the experiences 
down the Elbe to Altoona. to Amster- 
dam, to Harlem to Rotterdam and 
then to sea to bid farewell forever to 
the Old World. His heart must have 
leaped with joy as on the seventeenth 
of September. 1734. he heard the wel- 
come words "Land, land." from the 
lips of the watcher at the mast and five 
days later the booming of cannon an- 
nouncing the arrival of another ship- 
load of immigrants at the port of 
Philadelphia. On the journey to 
Pennsylvania he was the diarist oi the 
company and made a full description 
of the voyage printed in the Erlaeuter- 
ung. This diary shows a German style 
and a maturity of thought in many- 
cases not attained bv older persons. 



652 



THE PENNSYLVAXIA-GERM/L\ 



.One of the first experiences of Chris- 
topher in America was to proceed to 
the court house in Philadelphia and 
before the proper officers to declare 
his allegiance to the King- of England 
and his fidelity to the province, which 
"was done on the twenty-third of Sep- 
tember. The following day, he joined 
his fellow immigrants in thanking God 
for his delivering him from the land of 
bondage. 

Without trying to trace all the 
steps, we may note the fact that by 
December 1734, David Seibt could 
write to his brother in Germany: "A\'e 
do not yet know if the spinning indus- 
try can be introduced and made self- 
supporting but the Schultzes (referring 
to the three brothers) intend to make 
an effort. " During 1735 Christopher 
worked as a journeyman weaver. By 
November of this year the three hroth- 
•ers had established themselves on a 
plantation of 150 acres located where 
Abraham Schultz now lives. The fol- 
lowing year 1736, they erected a two- 
story dwelling house. Their uncle and 
-guardian Casper Kriebel in Towamen- 
cin and their uncle George Schultz liv- 
ing three miles south of them gave 
them advice and financial aid, if such 
was needed. Here the three brothers 
toiled together almost ten years, 
■as weavers and implement makers. 

The house which the brothers erected 
was said to have been the first two- 
story house for many miles around. 
Melchior Xeuman was their carpenter. 
Because they had no saw-mill they 
were obliged to saw boards out of logs 
by hand. They rolled the logs on a 
frame and thus devised a rude saw- 
mill of their own, human muscle above 
and belo\y the log furnishing the mo- 
tive power. Christopher Krauss joined 
them and they began to push things. 
They toiled at the looms as weavers 
and won fame by their fine linen. They 
manufactured looms, various house- 
hold articles, wagonwheels <'>ut c^f three 
inch planks and traces f(^r the harness 
out of hemp. They tilled the fields ; 
they carried to market the product of 



their hands, the crops from the fields 
which tlie}- did not need and the finest 
grades of linen of which they sold 
some to the governor oi the state at 
eight shillings per yard. 

While the three brothers were thus 
pursuing their daily toils in breadwin- 
ning, it is known that the spiritual side 
of life was neglected in no way. Re- 
ligious services were held at their 
house, George Weiss the teacher and 
pastor visited them and wrote letters 
to them and a systematic study of the 
Bible and of Christian doctrine was 
kept up. During this time Christopher 
successfully withstood a vigorous at- 
tack on his theology by his cousin. Mel- 
chior Schultz who was a sharp rea- 
soner, a vigorous disputer and a firm 
friend of the writings of Jacob Boehme, 
a n author blacklisted b y earnest 
Schwenkfelders. Spangenberg was als :> 
laboring for the conversion of the 
Sch\\'enkfelders from 1736 to 1739 and 
Zinzendorf made his memorable attack 
on them in the winter and spring of 
1742. Although onl\- a young man 
then, letters still preserved show that 
Christopher was concerned for the wel- 
fare of the little flock even then. 

Among the many visitors who came 
and went at this house was Cupid the 
ubiquitous young god of love and the 
result was that the three brothers 
wooed and wedded — Melchior. 1741 : 
George, January. 1744 and Christopher 
in October, 1744. To show Christo- 
pher's consideration for his future wife 
it may be noted that three days before 
the marriage he by the knowledge and 
consent of his brothers drew up a will 
in due form bequeathing to her £20 in 
Pennsylvania currency. 

The time soon drew near when it 
became desirable for the brothers to 
separate and seek to dwell apart. Ac- 
cordingly December J". 1745. George 
and Christopher transferred their re- 
specti\'e shares of over 400 acres of 
land which tlie conr^any held, to their 
brother. Melchior who in turn sold iSo 
acres of the same to Christopher. Jan- 
uary 14, 1746. It was probably about 



CPIRISTOPFIER SCPIULTZ 



this time that Christopher moved to 
this land and established himself on the 
farm, adjoining the Schwenkfclder 
Meeting- hlouse, near Clayton, Pa., oc- 
cnpied until recently by a descendant 
of his, Jeremiah K. Schiiltz. From one 
of the Heintze letters it is learned that 
this tract, now such rich farm-land,was 
in 1742 still covered with forest and 
that in 1744, 100 apple trees were 
planted. 

Without forgetting or overlooking 
the means of earning a livelihood 
the toil on the farm, a duty from which 
the farmer may never escape, we will 
note some of the work of Christopher 
Schultz in other lines. In 1743 he col- 
lected and transcribed letters written 
by GeorgeWeiss. his esteemed teacher, 
friend and adviser. A little later, in 
1746, he made a copy of the Hexato- 
mus. a Study of the Epistle to the He- 
brews, by his pastor Balzer Hoffman. 
In 1748 in answer to a calumny about 

the views concerniner marria^re held bv 
00.. 

the Schwenkfelders published by ^I. 
Oettinger in an article on Job, a paper 
on Ehestand was prepared by several 
friends of whom Christopher Schultz 
probably was one. 1750 he began the 
writing of a series of historical notes 
which was kept up until 1775 and con- 
tinued later by some one else. These 
notes are of very considerable value in 
any stud}' of the period. About the 
vear 1753 a severe and serious sickness 
befell him, caused by a kidney trouble 
with which ho had to suffer many 
years in a very weak condition By the 
help of God and the use of much ex- 
pensive medicine and a very careful 
diet his health was finally restored to 
the great surprise of himself and e\'er\'- 
body else. He was als(^ frequently 
troubled with headache which at times 
became quite severe. 

In connecti(^n with the French antl 
Indian war, he was (piite active. He 
helped io raise and pa\' the Ikmuc 
guards sent out to defend the fr«MUK^r 
settlers in the Maxatawny valley. He 
assisted in preparing several tcnvnship 
wagons to do hauling for the provin- 



cial troops. Pie translated into Ger- 
man a sermon by a Xew England min- 
ister which treated of the war. He 
urged the raising of the £215 collected 
by the Schwenkfelders for the use of 
the Friendly Association to bring 
about peace with the Indians by pacific 
measures. He attended Indian treaties 
at Easton and Lancaster. His inlluence 
over the people at this time is shown 
by an amusing episode described as 
follows by Isaac Schultz : 

"Alarai on account of the Indians came 
at one time with such force across the hills 
into the lower valleys of Hereford that the 
residents suddenly began to prepare for 
flight. They gathered their valuables; the 
kneading-troughs with dough and flour in 
them were snatched from the wondering 
bakers and with the valuables placed on 
the wagons, the fires were extinguished; 
the guns were shouldered, and off they 
started along the Maxatawny road in the 
direction of Philadelphia. They stopped 
when they came to the top of a hill to wait 
for some neighbors. Here they were met 
by their friend Christopher Schultz when 
they decided to investigate the cause of the 
alarm. After looking into the matter they 
learned that they had followed a false ru- 
mor and returned home again. 

About the year 1770 he became 
troubled with very painful and itching 
eyes, rendering continuous reading or 
writing impossible — a great affliction 
to a book- worm such as he. 

When the reaction subsequent to the 
period of the Jesuit oppression set in, 
the condition of the public religious ex- 
ercises was at times at such a low ebb 
that it seemed as if the whole move- 
ment in this direction might come to 
aTi Qud. Christopher Schultz became 
a Moses to this little band to lead 
them into closer and more active 
union. One oi the earlier works in this 
direction was the publication oi the 
Neu - Eingerichtetes Gesangbuch o f 
I7()2. He did a great deal oi the work 
on it. contributetl several hymns and 
prepared the introduction. To illustrate 
the temper oi his soul we may tratislate 
the following words from Iris intro<luc- 
tion. 

It has been the obiect to gather beauti- 
ful .instructive and edifying hynnis. With 
respect to the beautiful or what may prop- 



■p 



<654 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



•erly be called the -beautiful in this connec- 
ton but few in our day agree nor would we 
dispute the taste and judgment of any one. 
With those however who find the beauty of 
.hymns in the high art of poesy, graceful 
words and ingenious flowery style or 
sounds pleasing to the ears, one hopes to 
win but scant credit through this collection. 
-Such will do well to look for these things 
elsewhere, though no innocent use of these 
things is disparaged. For ourselves we 
•chose to aim for what is beautiful before 
G'od in order that it may meet His favor 
•and glorify Him. With Him a pure sim- 
plicity is an ornament of beauty; this does 
not mean silliness nor ignorance but a one- 
ness of the heart with God. a condition in 
which the eye of the mind does not con- 
cern itself with what is pleasing to the 
world, the flesh and evil lusts thereof." 

In the Fall of 1762 a general Confer- 
ence was held by the Schwcnkfelclers 
to promote the welfare of their people 
as a religious body in which Christo- 
pher took a leading- part. A number of 
private houses was designated at which 
regular services were to be held there- 
after. His was one of them. He was 
also called upon at the conference to 
prepare his ]\IS. Catechism for the 
printer to be published for general use. 
This was issued in 1763. This same 
year he was appointed Catechist of 
the young for the Upper District. The 
following year we find him taking a 
leading part in the organization of 
their school system, advocating the 
schools, giving and soliciting money 
•and defending the cause of education 
against unfriendly criticism. About 
this time also he came to be looked 
upon as their regular minister and his 
services in this line were frequently 
called upon. At memorial day 1764 he 
took the leading part in the exercises 
of the day and this was kept up nuire 
than 20 years. In a collection of ser- 
mon otitlines by him these words are 
found dated March 1764, the funeral of 
an infant daughter of John Veakel ; — 
"Dies war mein crste fretie Abhand- 
lung bey oefYentlichen Leichen- Be- 
gaengnis." From this time on as long 
as healtli permitted he served as past*^r 
for the Upper District and was often 
called to the Lower District on a like 
■service. 



About this time a vigorous corre- 
spondence sprang up Detween the 
Schwenkfelders and their religious 
brethren in Silesia known popularly as 
the Heintze Correspondence. Hun- 
dreds of letters were exchanged, as 
many as 44 being sent in one package. 
The communications took a wide scope 
but even here Christopher took a part 
and wrote many of the most important 
letters. This correspondence opened 
the way in part for the publication of 
books and the Schwenkfelders em- 
braced the opportunity. During the 
winter months of 1768-69 Christopher 
with the aid of friends prepared the 
Eriaeuterung, a vindication of Casper 
Schwenkfeld and his followers and an 
exposition of the main lines of doctine 
— a book that, while it is not perfect. 
is a text-book today and in its particu- 
lar line has not its equal. It may be in 
place in this connection to call atten- 
tion to another literary work of Chris- 
topher Schultz. About the year 1775. 
he and several others agreed to meet 
for a few hours occasionally and take 
up a careful study of the whole system 
of Christian theology. As a basis they 
took Dr. John Jacob Rambach's Dog- 
matic Theology and studied the same 
in the light of their own system .01 
teaching, Christopher taking the lead 
and writing out the conclusions. The 
result of this work, continued eight 
years, was a book oi more than 000 
pages — a systematic theology, entitled 
"Compendium das ist kurze Zusam- 
menfassung und Imbegritt derer 
Christlichen Glaubens-Lehren."' 

A glimpse at the home life of this 
saint of God is afforded by these words 
written by David, one of his four chil- 
dren born between 174Q and 1759: 

"Neither through a light-hearted jesting 
nor on the contrary through a dry. lordlike, 
austere life did he at any time weaken the 
respect due a housefather and husband or 
lose the love of his children upon whom a 
stern look by him had more effect than 
many another parent can force from chil- 
dren by scoldings and ragings. He was at 
all times friendly and pleasant, quick in ar- 
riving at conclusions, never disheartened, 
kindlv affectioned and obliging to all with- 



CHFilSTOPHER SCHULTZ 



055 



out flattery, being neither a sycophant nor 
a double dealer CKein Fuchsschwaenzer 
•Oder Zvveiaechslcr.')." 

That he in spite of bodily aihnents 
Avas physically not a namby-pamby 
flabby weakling is evidenced by his 
leaving" home on horseback in the 
morning of April 17, 1773 at the age of 
55, riding to Reading, leaving there at 
2 P. M. and pushing on, accompanied 
by a few others, until 10:30 P. 'M. 
when he stopped at Madero's. The 
next day he pushed his way to Fort 
Augusta, the present Sunbury. The 
"third day he went as far as Sam Wa.\- 
lis's at the bend in the Susquehanna 
"below the present Williamsport where 
for the next few days surveys of land 
v\'ere made. 

It is but a natural result to have such 
^ man become a useful member of the 
civil community. Hence one need not 
be surprised to see Christopher write 
the wills of his neighbors, to settle up 
•estates as executor or administrator, to 
serve . as guardian, to arbitrate dis- 
putes. He could rejoice in the esteem 
and accpiaintanceship of the leaders in 
political affairs as well as of many of 
the leaders in the different churches in 
eastern Pennsylvania. His son in par- 
ticular mentions regard felt for him by 
the officers of the province represent- 
ing the English crown prior to the 
Revolution. Even . his neighbor Jo- 
Tiann Baptiste Ritter the priest of the 
Roman Catholic church came to him 
for advice. He enjoyed good neighbors 
because he was a good neighbor him- 
self but circumstances do not permit 
lis to linger on these things. 

A study of Christo{)her Schultz with- 
out making reference to his relation to 
the Revolutionary War would be mani- 
festly incomplete. This war brought 
perplexity, distress and many priva- 
tions to the Schwenkfelders, although 
they as in other cases fared better than 
others. They had secured permission 
to settle in Pennsylvania before the 
migration in 1734: they had pri>mised 
fidelity and faithful allegiance at land- 
ing; they had always sought to live as 
dutiful subjects should, mindful of the 



promises they had made. Parting even 
from an adopted country ga\-e ]jain to 
them, hence they hesitated at times in 
gi\'ing allegiance to the new svstem of 
government as it began to unfold it- 
self. Early in July 1774, Christopher 
attended a meeting of citizens of Berks 
ccjunty at which the following was 
adopted : 

"Resolved — that it is the earnest wish of 
this convention to see haimony restored 
between Great Britain and the colonies.... 
but if the British Adrainstration should at- 
tempt to force submission to the late arbi- 
trary acts of the British Parliament, in such 
a case we hold it our indispensable duty to 
resist such force and at every hazard to de- 
fend the rights and liberties of America." 

The actual breaking out of hostilities 
brouo-ht into bold relief the leading fac- 
tions ; — those favoring and those op- 
posing war with the mother country. 
Besides these two elements there was 
another class including the Schwenk- 
felders who from religious motives 
were opposed to all bearing of arms. 
These added another serious problem 
to the perplexities of those in power. 
The people in general could scarcely 
reconcile themselves to the feelings of 
the ''non-militants" and were often led 
to show their disapproval by acts of 
violence in private . life. A Schwenk- 
felder chronicler oi the times says: 

''For those citizens of the province who at 
the breaking: out of the war did not take up 
arms, the prospect was often full of fear and 
dread. The mad rabble said: 'if we must 
march to the field of battle, he who will not 
not take up arms nuist first be treated as 
an enemy." 

To illustrate the position of the 
Schwenkfelders with respect to the 
bearing of arms. and the conduct of the 
war in general we may quote the fol- 
lowing declaration antl agreement 
draftetl in all probability by Christo- 
pher Schultz. 

(Omitted, see pa*:e 660). 

A few weeks prior to this March 31, 
1777 Christopher Schultz was ap- 
pointed a Justice of the Peace. Was 
this a bribe in guise to stop his mouth? 
It is to be regretted that no positive 
reliable information has come to the 
writer's notice respecting the accep- 
tance or non-acceptance of this com- 



656 



TH E PEXX SYLVAN I A- GE RM AN 



mission. The case seems to be covered 
however by these words of his son 
David : 

"The office of justice was offered several 
times and he was begged to accept. He 
was told tliat if he would but give consent 
the commission would be brought to his 
door but he always refused to accept." 

Although great hardships had al- 
ready befallen the Schwenkfelders with 
many others, their lot was made much 
more grievous by the general militia 
act of 1777 passed to restrain the in- 
solence of Tories. This Test Law went 
into operation on the first of July 1777 
and before a month had passed was 
used to harass the Schwenkfelders. On 
the basis of the law George Kriebel one 
of their number was illegally impris- 
oned at Easton on charges preferred by 
his neighbors. On the twelfth of Au- 
gust his friend, Christopher Schultz, 
drafted a strong letter to his old-time 
friend, Sebastian Levan of 3ilaxatawny 
who as one of the members of the as- 
sembly had helped to pass the law. 
The next day he went to Philadelphia 
to appeal to the proper authorities and 
his appeal was not in vain for his cous- 
in was soon released from the Easton 
jail. Pie managed to so direct the 
thoughts of this people that not one ac- 
tually took up arms in battle among 
those who stood true to the profes- 
sions of the fathers. 

To show his fearlessness \\e will 
quote a sentence from said letter. He 
addressed Levan as a member of the 
assembly and criticised the law saying 
near the conclusion : 

."Even though I should lose my all, I 
would not for 10 such rich estates as yours 
tike part in such iniquitous proceedings. I 
am going to Philp.delphia tomorrow to see 
whsther restraint of tliis evil, may not be 
secured there, for thus we can not live." 

To show that his life was needlessly 
made bitter at times we may relate 
\ briefly a few incidents. December 13, 
I 1779 ^^^ ^vas appointed assessor of 
Hereford township by the county coni- 
j missioners. return to be made at Read- 
ing January 10, following. He was 
then 62 years c^ld troubled with asthma 
and in comfortable financial circum- 



stances, interested in religious work 
and not disposed to hanker after world- 
ly honors. In order, however, that the 
public business might ncjt suiter by de- 
lay he under strong protest notified 
the under sheriff that he would begin 
the work in the hope that some one 
else might be s"bstituted to finish the 
work. He started after the holidays, 
wlien deep snow fell making the hilly 
roads of Hereford impassible. He depu- 
tized his son, a taxpayer, to complete 
the work and delivered the return on 
or about February 20 to Adam Wit- 
man, one of the commissioners. When 
he was informed that the quota had 
been fixed, he protested against the 
proceedings, as unconstitutional. For 
a variety of reasons, probably spurred 
on by the "Langschwammer Calum- 
nianten" of whom he speaks in a letter 
"with sinister schemes" as Christopher 
.suggests, matters were made unpleas- 
ant for him. The commissioners 
brought charges against him ; that he 
did not administer the oath in form, 
that he sent his son to do part of the 
work ; they threatened to withhold the 
duplicate, to double the taxes of the 
township, to prosecute him. to impose 
fines, etc. Christopher secured help and 
appealed to the Supreme Executive 
Council in Philadelphia, May 19. who 
referred him to the Supreme Court 
shortly to meet in Reading, without en- 
tering into the case. He appealed again 
to Pr^\Mdent Reed oi the Supreme Exe- 
cutive Council for himself and taxpay- 
ers, against wrongs of the commission- 
ers towards him and the taxpayers. He 
was then summoned to ap'-)ear in 
Reading June 5 to show cause why 
fines, etc. should not be imposed. He 
appeared before the commisioners June 
4 for a hearing. The result was hx>^s of 
waq;es and p fine, how much I am not 
able to say. The last item is a letter 
written by Christopher, dateil June Q. 
in w hich he vigv^rously defends himself. 
saying in conclusion that though he 
had ample means and groumls for 
seeking redress and revenge, he hail 
more important duties than to fight 



CHRISTr-'iiER SCHULTZ 



657 



about such things. The case seems to 
have been an instance of misunder- 
standing, spitework and attempted hu- 
miliation of a noble and esteemed citi- 
zen. 

With respect to another bitter ex- 
perience the following may be consid- 
ered. In the 3^ear 1781 after Christo- 
pher's head had grown gray, even 
white in the service of the people and 
he had given a thousand evidences of 
his uprightness and unselfish purposes 
towards them in general and almost to 
each in particular under all manner of 
circumstances, he was accused of 
"Falschheit and Geitz" by liansz 
Yeakel of Hosensack, a respected 
member of the communit}- who was 
under the greatest obligations to him 
for particularly weighty services ren- 
dered gratis. The matter was talked 
about in private so long that it finally 
came to the knowledge of Christopher 
himself, who at first did not recognize 
it but finally in pain and sorrow 
opened his heart to some supposed 
faithful friends for advice. They were 
asked to investigate the cli. rge but 
they, instead of investigating, helped 
to spread the talk saving that there 
must probably be reasonable ground 
for the charge. The matter spread 
until his close friends almost doubted 
his veracity. A general conference 
was held of the conclusions of which 
no knoweledge seems available now, 
but from general knowledge of the man 
one feels that vindication and declara- 
tion of innocence were alone possible. 
■After-life shows that Christopher held 
their full confidence again, e\'en in the 
following year he towered head and 
shoulders over his felhnvs as a moral 
and intellectual Christian giant. 

We will for a moment consiiler the 
adoption of the church constitution by 
the Schwenkfelders and the conse- 
quent formation of the present organ- 
ization. It must be rememberetl that 
in taking this step these people en- 
tered upon a new period. The more di- 
rect occasion of this closer union is 
thus accounted for bv a writer. 



"Many were indifferent, mutual distrust 
seemed to fill some hearts and there was so 
much lukewarmness manifest that utter 
ruin seemed to stare in the face. There 
was great neglect in the fulfillment of or- 
dinary Christian duties. The children were 
remiss in Christian culture, the young 
people upon and after marriage showed 
scant attention to the doctrines of the 
fathers, many seemed to be surcharged with 
envy and calumny and indifference con- 
cerning many serious matters prevailed." 

In the movement for organization 
Christopher Schultz was the leading 
spirit and well earned the name father 
in this connection. Others indeed 
took important parts and should not 
be forgotten but he preeminently de- 
serves to be recognized for the leading 
place he filled. At the third constitu- 
tional convention held June I, 17S2, 
after some preliminary discussion, the 
proposed constitution as drawn up by 
Reverend Christopher was laid before 
the meeting under the name; — "\'or- 
schlag nuetzlicher Stuecke bey einer 
religioesen Gesellschaltt in christ- 
liches Bedencken zu nehmcn." This 
was adopted and has since been recog- 
nized as the Constitution. George 
Kriebel said on Memorial day 17S9 that 
Christopher told him that the constitu- 
tion was given as he first wrote it with- 
out changing a word and that he felt a 
movement in his heart as the same 
w^as put into his mind. Thoughts 
clamor for utterance here but we must 
repress them. 

Of his labors subsequent to the 
adoDtion of the Constitution, it may 
be observed that he was chosen a min- 
ister under it and acceptably per- 
formed the various duties of the office, 
lie revised his cathechism and reis- 
sued it in 17S4; he began by request 
to preach a series of semi-annual ser- 
mons on the sacraments, was called 
upon to prepare a book oi sermons -^n 
the gospel lessons fv^r the church 
year, and, as iov many years continued 
t(^ take an active part in the observance 
oi the Gedaechtniss-Tag. Flis book of 
sernn>ns was not prepared on account 
of lather duties and the weakness of 
old aqe. 



658 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



Calling to mind the mortality of his 
body, Christopher Schultz made a will 
dated F'ebruarv 12, 1784, replaced, 
however, by another drawn up Octo- 
ber 24, 1788 and probated after his 
death. From the earlier will we learn 
that he owned the old homestead of al- 
most 200 acres. 3 tracts each contain- 
ing over 300 acres in Westmoreland a 
lot in the town of Northumberland, an 
out-lot of 5 acres close by, a tract of 
349 acres in Buffalo township, North- 
umberland county and his brother 
Melchior's plantation of about 200 
acres which he had bought for his son 
Andrew to whom he had also ad- 
vanced several considerable sums of 
monev. God's love and care can not 
be determined on the basis of his giv- 
ing or withholding dollars and dimes, 
worldly honor and preferment and yet 
one can hardly avoid thinking of God's 
word : 

"There is no man that hath left house, or 
brethren, op sisters, or father or mother. 
or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake 
and the gospel's, but he shal 1 receive a 
hundredfold now in this time, houses and 
brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and 
children, and lands, with persecutions." 

It is to be regretted that we can not 
linger longer on these things, but your 
patience has been taxed sufficiently 
and we must seek to bring these frag- 
mentary remarks to a close. February 
1787 Christopher w^as attacked bv a 
stroke which so weakened his memory 
and thinking powers that he could not 
continue his classes for the instruction 
of the young and could not deliver set 
public addresses. Even at Gedaecht- 
niss-Tag 1787 he for the first time in 
2^ "ears took a seat in the audience 
without delivering his usual sermon. 
His condition improved, however, a 
little later so that by December 17S7 
he could resume some of his work. To 
quote the words of the Genealogical 
Record. "Father Schultz died on the 



9th of ^lay, 1789; the immediate cause 
of his death was apoplexy, although 
he had been indisposed some time pre- 
vious to the attack. His last words 
barelv audible to the familv, were: "A 
little while and ye shall not see me and 
again a little while and ye shall see me, 
because I go to the Father." The 
Rev. Christopher Hoffman preached 
the funeral sermon taking for his text 
the words of St. Paul ; — I have fought 
a good fight, I have finished my 
course, I have kept the faith. He lies 
buried in the cemetery located near his 
home below Clayton, Pa. 

Christopher Schultz was a humble 
Christian, one of those rare saints who 
can remain little even though the work 
grows big on their hands. He never 
spoke of his own views, guidance, feel- 
ings, experiences but according to his 
powers sought to make known his Sa- 
vior, Jesus Christ. His parents were 
not prophets but the name Christopher 
— Christ-bearer — was surely prophetic 
and they helped to make it such by 
their life, words and prayers. They 
exemplified the old words : Train up a 
child in the way he should go. In the 
present day it seems as if people said : 
Let a child like the neglected garden 
grow up as it chooses. Parents, do 
you know how utterly impossible it is 
for children to grow up clean and 
pure whose life principles are mud 
and soot. He was a man who in the 
evening of his life could look back over 
a busy and eventful past and say that 
he was not conscious of any act for 
which he had cause to feel ashamed. 
He was thoroughly grounded in the 
Bible and in Schwenkfeld theology 
and had the power of presenting clear- 
ly points and systems of doctrine. He 
was well versed in Church history, 
particularly of the Reformation period 
and had acquired considerable knowl- 
edge of Geography and Astronomy. 



659 



The Conduct of the Schwenkfelders during the 
Revolutionary War 




T IS the object of this paper 

I to give a partial account 

of the imprisonment of 
George Kriebel, mainly 
by giving extracts from 
official documents, with- 
out dwelling on these to 
any extent. 
Wlien the Schwenkfelders landed in 
America in 1734. tliey made this prom- 
ise of allegiance : 

"We having tiaiisportcd ourselves and 
families into this province of Pennsylvania, 
a colony subject to the crown of Great Brit- 
ain, in hopes and expectations of finding a 
retreat and peaceable settlement therein, do 
solemnlv promise and engage that we will 
be faithful and bear true allegiance to his 
present majesty King George the Second 
and his successors Kings of Grer.t Britain 
and will be faithful to the proprietor of this 
province and that we will demean ourselves 
peaceably to all His said ^Majesties" Sub- 
jects and strictly observe and conform to 
the laws of England and of this Province to 
the utmost of our power and the best of our 
understanding," 

George Kriebel who was less than 
two years old when this affirmation 
was made appeared before William 
Allen, Esq., Chief Justice of the Su- 
preme Court on the Tenth of April, 
1755, and took upon himself the duties 
of citizenship by making his affirma- 
tion of allegiance. 

The Schwenkfelders followed a 
■farming life, not caring to mingle in 
the affairs of state and seeking to live 
as law-abiding citizens. They checr- 
fullv paid their just dues to the state 
and rendered aid in various ways in 
the defense of the country against the 
common enemy. They held aloof from 
the larger public otfices^ncu that they 
regarded the holding oi public ofhce a 
\yrong or sin but because they pre- 
ferred freedom as Christopher Schultz 
wrote. With other religious sects they 
were opposed to ti'C taking- of oaths, to 
the taking up of arms in war and were 



thus placed in a very uncomfortable 
position when the Revolutionary W ar 
broke out. How they fared through 
the war is well expressed in a latter 
written to Germany by Abraham 
Schultz in 1783. He says: 

'"With reference to our people matters as- 
sumed a fearful aspect when the war broke 
out. He who would not take up arms was 
treated as an entmy of the country. Ter- 
rible threats were not wanting, rigorous 
treatment also often followed and those got 
through best who did not threaten when 
they suffered and did not revile again when 
they were reviled. Without claiming undue 
praise to ourselves, we may still say that 
our people got through easier than others 
that also did not resort to the use of arms: 
for to the praise of God we must say that 
he held his protecting had paternally over 
us so that in spite of terrible prospects, op- 
pressive want, severe threats and fints of 
the war it is still true of the most of us as 
we come together that we can say rio one 
has any special reason for complaint even 
though it cost hair at times as the saying 
goes. The friends of the war did not suc- 
ceed all through the war in forcing any of 
our people into the war although all males 
between the ages of IS and 53 were enrolled 
in the militia classes and were fined heavily 
for not taking part." 

What the government thought of the 
Schwenkfelclers during the most trying 
times of the war is shown by the fol- 
lowitig letter written to Colonel Wetz- 
el by the Supreme Executive Council 
in May 1778. 

"The Moravians and Schwenkfelders have 
been very urgent with Assembly to relax 
the Test and free them from the abjuration 
act. The claim of the King of Great Britain 
forbids anything like this being done at 
presenr. When that prince, shall renounce 
ins clrim it will be time enough to rec»Mi- 
sider the Test. However as these people are 
not to be feared either as to numbers or 
malice it is the wish of the government not 
to distress them any by any unequal fines or 
by calling them withont special occasion 
happens to t:ike the oath at all. The dis- 
abilities ensuing upon their own neglect are 
heavy and will without further pressing 
which may be termed rigor by people in 
general and persecution by themselves, op- 



660 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



erate. strongly against them. On these 
grounds we wish it understood that Council 
and Assembly desires to avoid any noises 
from the i)eople abo^■e mentioned and to 
have them dealt with as others in regard to 
the delinquency in the Militia/' 

In illustration .of the position taken 
by the Schwenkfelders at this time it 
may be in place to quote or translate 
two papers of the period still preserved. 
The papers are in the handwriting of 
Reverend Christopher Schultz and 
were undoubtedly copied and made use 
of although there are no signatures to 
the originals. The papers freely trans- 
lated read as follows: 

"A sincere declaration of some so-called 
Schwenkfelders in reference to existing 
Militia affairs May 1, 1777. We who are 
known as Schwenkfelders hereby declare 
that on account of scruples of conscience we 
can not take up arms and kill other men; 
we maintain also that in this country this 
is sufTiciently known as far as we are 
known. We have continued to enjoy this 
liberty of conscience hitherto by the favor 
of our legislative powers. We have com- 
forted ourselves and regarded ourselves as- 
sured that we might enjoy the same liberty 
in the future by virtue of the public Resolu- 
tion of Congress and our Assembly of the 
same time. We will gladly and willingly 
bear our 'share of all the common burdens 
and hardships with our fellow-citizens ex- 
cepting participation in the carrying of 
arms. In view of this we can not join or 
participate in the existing arrangements, al- 
though we would not withdraw from other 
demands of our government. 

Coschehoppe, ]May 2, 1777." 

"Whereas at the present time through a 
despicing of manifested divine mercies and 
through other sins heavy oppressions, great 
war disturbance and divers military regula- 
tions have been called forth and are in ex- 
istence. Whereas we have made a sincere 
declarafon with respect to existing militia 
arrangements that we can not take part in 
said arrangements on account of scruples of 
conscience. And whereas it is apparently 
to be expected that militia services will be 
exacted of many of our people by force and 
that they may be subjected to heavy taxes 
or fines in money on their refusal to >:onder 
such service; therefore we the undersi'?ned 
who hold to the doctrines of the sainted 
Casper Schwenkfeld and seek to practice 
and enjoy the same for themselves and their 
children by public worship and by instruc- 
tion of the young have mutually decided 
and agreed and pledged themselves together 
that they will, as bound by Christian duty 



mutually, carry in common and help each 
other to carry all fines in money that may 
be iniijosed on any of them or of their chil- 
dren on account of their refusal through 
conscientious scruples to rejider personal 
service in the war in which deadly weapons 
are carried and used and all those who are 
burdened on this account are to render 
their account to the managers of the Charity 
fund in order that proper steps may be tak- 
en to adjust the same. 

Coshehoppe, May 2, 1777." 

While the Schwenkfelders had thus 
agreed to stand together for their con- 
victions and help each to bear the bur- 
dens that might be brought upon them 
a law was passed that was bound to 
bring grief to them and occasion 
trouble. This law was the celebrated 
"Test Act" which brought great suf- 
fering to many people in Pennsyh'ania. 
The law required all male white inhab- 
itants above the age of i8 years to 
take the following oath of affirmation : 

"I do swear or affirm, that I will 

renounce and refuse all allegiance to George 
III, King of Great Britain, his heirs and 
successors, and that I will be faithful and 
bear true allegiance to the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, as a free and independent 
state; and that I will not at any time do or 
cause to be done any matter or thing that 
will be prejudicial or injurious to the free- 
dom or independence thereof, as declared by 
Congress and also that I will make known 
and discover to some one justice of the 
peace of the said state, all treasons or 
traitorous conspiracies which I now know or 
hereafter shall know to be formed against 
this or any other of the United States of 
America." 

The law also provided that every 
person refusing or neglecting to take 
and subscribe the said oath or affirma- 
tion shall during the time of stich 
neglect or refusal be incapable of hold- 
ing any office or place of trust in this 
state. ser\ing on juries, suing for any 
debts, electing or being elected, buy- 
ing, selling or transferring any la!uls, 
tenements or hereditaments and shall 
be disarmed. The law further says 
that every person wlu^ shall travel out 
of the county or city in which ho usual- 
1\- resides witjiout the certificate may 
be suspected to be a spy and to hold 
principles inimical to the United States 
and shall be taken before one oi the 



THE SCHWEXKFELDERS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 



6S1 



Justices who shall tender to him the 
oath or affirmation and upon his refusal 
to take the said oath or affirmation the 
justice shall commit him to the com- 
mon ^c^aol there to remain without bail 
until he shall take and subscril)e the 
said oath or produce a certificate tliat 
he has already done so. 

Having thus in a preliminary way 
touched upon the general condition of 
things we may pay attention to the par- 
ticular case of George Kriebel. At this 
time he was living in Kraussdale. He 
was thus a resident of Northampton 
county, for Lehigh county had at that 
time not been established. He was a 
man respected and respectable, highly 
esteemed by the community in general 
and by the Schwenkfelders in particu- 
lar. We will let him give the account 
of his commitment to jail himself by 
quoting the declaration which he made 
at- the time. 

"Mr. Limback has granted a warrant for 
my son Abraham Kriebel, who being but 17 
Years of age the 26 of May last past, for 
Fine for not exercising, which I refused to 
comply Avith; they sent George Welder, the 
constable, and had him, the said Abrahnm. 
arrested and ordered me to come along with 
him to the said Limback. Esqr., Jiisticeof the 
Peace, and told me also that Mr. Wetzel. Esqr., 
Lieutenant was also tlere; when we came 
there Mr. Limback called my son .c^braham, 
come here. So he went to him. Mr. Limback 

asked him says he, here is a warrant 

against you for £l-l?-6: have you anything 
to say against it? The Boy made no answer 
at all for he had never been before any 
magistrate before. Then Mv. Limback said 
unto him, The meaning is this, whether you 
be IS years old or not? The Boy answerel 
no. Are you sure of it? Y'es. Have you 
any evidence? Yes. Who is it? My father. 
Then ;Mr. Limback called me to come niirh. 
and asked me, Hod old is your Boy? He 
was 17 the 26 of last May I answered. Can 
you prove it, said Mr. Limback? Yes. sir, 
I can prove it by qualification or by writ- 
ings, just as you please. Well says ?.Ir. 
Limback your words may be well enough, 
but here is an act of Assembly, so that we 
can't take your evidence before you take 
the test prescribed in this act. Then I stopt 
a little and then said, I can not take the 
Test for the present time. Mr. Wetzel said. 
Why can't you take this Test now. I said, 
there are a few words in it which keep me 
backwards. Mr. Wetzel said, which words? 
I said, to renounce and refuse all allegiance 



to the King, his Heirs and Successors. Wet- 
zel said, why can't you gxve up the alle- 
giance to George the III, etc? 1 said, I have 
promised all allegiance to him when I was 
naturalized, and 1 am afraid I might be 
guilty of perjury before God, and in my 
conscience, and moreover it is veiy uncer- 
tain upon which side the victory will fall 
out, therefore I can't do it for the present 
time. Then Mr. Wetzel said, So do you de- 
clare yourself for George the III of Great 
Britcn? No sir, 1 dont declare myself for 
him, but because it is so uncertain upon 
what side God Almighty will bestow the vic- 
tory. Mr. Wetzel said. Then you wont take 
the Test? No sir, not at present I said. Mr. 
Wetzel. Then 1 do command the Justice that 
he shall immediately committ you to goal, 
and I will not depart from here untill I see 
you secured, and you shall not come clear 
from imprisonment at no rate, even if you 
pay me $1000 Cash upon the Xail, Mr. Lim- 
back said, well George you see I cant help 
it, I must draw a Mittimy for you and send 
you to Goal.... you better take the oath and 
stay at home. I said I cant do it yet but 
I will consider the matter and consult my 
friends about the same and a great many 
more words passed between us to the same 
purpose, among other things Mr. Wetzel said 
I will do my utmost to have all those that 
will not take this oath drove out of the 
Country. But sir, where shall they gv unto? 
I said. They may go unto Lord Howe, or 
wherever they please, leaving their estates 
behind, but shall never come back again 
amongst us. This he spoke in a very 
haughty manner, besides a great many 
words, which all to relate would be too 
troublesome. But these is the most materi- 
al of our discourse, which happened on the 
18 day of July, 1777. 

GEORGE KRIEBEL. 

N. B. I promised Mr. Wetzel and Lim- 
back that I would be true to the state, as 
much as wcr in my power in paying any 
lawful Taxes or other charges and in cart- 
ing or anything they should want, except 
in bearing arms, which was against my con- 
science. I were willing to do it." 

Thus in an illegal manner George 
Kriebel was hurried off to gaol and per- 
mitted to endure for righteousness' 
sake. Though a quiet, peaceful law- 
abiding citizen, he was treated as an 
enemy of the country. How soon he 
was taken away from his home re- 
ci^rds do not show. 

Roxerend Christopher Scludtz, like a 
true shepherd, took up the case of his 
frientl in the spirit of the agreement 
thev had formed in Mav and wrote a 



662 



THE PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN 



letter to his old friend Sebastian Levan 
of Alaxatawny. The whole letter is a 
masterpiece but we can only give a 
few extracts. Among other things he 
says : 

"I desire to talk with you as witli a mem- 
.ber of a house that gives laws to the in- 
habitants of a once free land Pennsylvania 
and also forces those laws upon the said 
inhabitants with the power of arms, fines, 
imprisonment and exclusion from all the 
rights of citizenship without taking counsel 
of their consciences. The recent Test act 
and the treatment of innocent, conscientious 

people show us this You know quite 

well that Pennsylvania was originally the 
property of such people who have conscien- 
tious scruples about killing other people 
and are very careful not to allow themselves 
to be drawn into anything, in which they 
should not be quite sure that they could 
continue in the truth and hold out to the 
end 2nd you know also quite well that a 
great many of these people are still about 
and form a great part of the most influen- 
tial, best established and least offensive in- 
habitants Does it not become evident 

that you regard these as the most worthless 
offal, that you seek to tread under foot and 
drive from the country. If this is not so 
why is my friend in the Easton jail and 
compelled to listen to the words, If you 
will not take the oath as we tell you you 
can not leave this jail until your family is 
delivered to the enemy and your property 
abandoned? Why do you rob us of all our 
rights of conscience and citizenship that 
nothing is to be ours, that we are to have 
no right to deal and move on God's earth, 
that we are not even to live, merely because 
we consider the peace of our minds and 
souls, because we are not willing to bind 
ourselves by oath to things that we must 
regard in the highest sense doubtful, when 
we do not even know whether we can hold 
out. This is the highest offense in the whole 
matter that you expect things of us and im- 
pose at the risk of all thnt one holds deir 
in life, things that no tyrant, or ^Nlohamme- 
dan or Turk much less Christian govern- 
ment ever demanded, that one under present 
most passionate war is to renounce alle- 
giance to a former lord before the matter is 
even decided 

We are freeholders no more, As witnesses 
we are no longer to be regarded; from our 
land we are not to depart until we are 
driven to Howe or into the wild sea: any 
one may beat, scourge, mock, abuse us as 
Satan may prompt him, but we are to find 
no help or protection under the present 
government except that we are to be placed 
in secure imprisonment to perish. And all 
because we will not promise under oath or 
its equivalent what we do not know whether 



we are able to carry out and what we there- 
fore can not do without offence to con- 
science Even were I to lose my all, I 

would not be a partaker in such unjust 
measures for ten such rich estates as yours. 
1 shall go to Philadelphia tomorrow to see 
whether restraint may be secured from that 
quarter for thus we can not live. 

NOTE. — In an article entitled "Bethlehem 
during the Revolution" J. W. Jordan quotes 
the following from Moravian minutes: 
"August 4, George Kriebel a Schwenkfelder 
was taken to Easton Jail because he re- 
fused to abjure the King." 

The prison records at Easton do not 
show when Kriebel was imprisoned 
nor when he was released, but the 
minutes of the Supreme Executive 
Council show that on the 15th of Au- 
gust a petition was received from 
Henry Funk and George Kriebel com- 
plaining that they have for some days 
past been coiined to the goal of North- 
ampton county by commitment of 
Henry Lumback, Esqr., and praying 
that a day might be appointed for the 
hearing of the said complaint. 

Action was taken as the following 
letter of the Supreme Executive Coun- 
cil to Henry Lumback shows : 

Philada., August 15. 1777. 
Sir, 

The Petition of Henry Funk and George 
Kriebel was this day laid before the Council 
representing that they have lately been ap- 
prehended in the county of their residence 
and committed to the goal of this county 
bv you, for refusing to take and subscribe 
the test required by the law of the state to 
be taken, and praying that a day might be 
appointed for the hearing of the complaint 
in order that they may obtain that liberty 
to which they apprehend they are entitled. 

The Council having taken the said peti- 
tion into their consideration have directed 
me to write to you on this subject and to 
remind you that the law is clear and ex- 
press as to the circumstances which shall 
justify the commitment of a person refus- 
ing or neglecting to take the test to 

wit, traveling out of the county or city In 
which he usually resides, without the cer- 
tificate. But from the representations of 
the petitioners they were not found travel- 
ing out of the county in which they usually 
reside nor does the contrary a]M"*^^^r by the 
commitment. It will therefore be highly 
proper for you to reconsider the case of the 
petitioners and if you find any difticulty 
arise therein, it will be adviceable to call to 
your assistance two other justices, and if 
after such conference, you shall still find 



THE SCHWEXKP^ELDERS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 



663 



any difficulty arise to prevent the enlarge- 
ment of the petitioners Council appoint the 
9 day of September for hearing both parties, 
but this there is reason to hope will not be 
found necessary. I am directed by the 
Council to desire you to be careful not to 
extend this law further than the words of 
it will justify, etc. 

How soon action was taken by the 
pustice, the writer can not say but it is 
reasonable to infer that Kriebel was re- 
leased from gaol before the 9th of Sep- 
tember because the records do not 
show that a hearing was held by Coun- 
cil on that day. 

In order that no wrong impression 
may be left with reference to the body 
of Schwenkfelders as a whole it is in 
place to quote the following words 
from a Schwenkfelder hstorian : 

It as also noteworty that in 1777 the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Pennsylvania prescribed 
a certain Test-act according to which 
many white inhabitants were called upon to 
give an oath or affirmation of renunciation 
and allegiance by loss of all the rights of 
citizenship and all protection by the gov- 
ernment. For a time matters assumed a 
serious appearance with respect to our 
people in view of the fact that the outcome 
of the war was uncertain, and people could 
not know that they would be able to live up 
to such allegiance. But when in 177S As- 
sembly made an attempt at the enforcement 
of the act by appointing a day when the 
said Test had to be taken or persons were 
forever to be excluded from the rights of 
citizenship, most of our people submitted to 
the same in consideration that the matter 
was only to be looked upon as a state affair 
and that it was demanded by the power that 
had to give protection to the community 



and that it was regarded in place to be sub- 
ject to the higher powers according to 
Romans XIII, 1. 

Lest some one may be tempted to 
think the Schwenkfelders were tories 
allow me to quote again from the let- 
ter of Christopher Schultz to Sebas- 
tian Levan, referred to above. He 
says : 

'"My dear friend, take this to mind for a 
quarter of an hour. You see one lying in 
his hidden chamber before his God confess- 
ing to the great Ruler the sins of himself 
and his people in burning tears, imploring 
mercy and forbearance through the only 
Atoner and Mediator and pleading for the 
renewal and bettering of the hearts of all 
the people, who out of a sense of the love 
with which God loves all men and gives 
them life and breath, will not take the life 
of his fellow-man. On the other hand you 
see one of our ordinary military gents, be 
he officer or private in his ordinary posture, 
as he is wont to show himself or as he exe- 
cutes his military duties 1 should like 

to know your conscientious judgment, which 
of these two is the better protector of his 
land? I believe that the former does as 
much by way of true protection as a whole 
battalion of the latter. I feel that I may 
tell you that protectors of the country like 
the former are yet to be found in our poor 
Pennsylvania, who indeed may make little 
ado with their exercises, but whom God has 
placed on his rolls, whose tears he counts 
and saves. O, my Sebastian guard your- 
self that you offend not these fathers and 
protectors of this country as I fear you 
have done with some of your recent acts." 

Who can say that such a man is a 
traitor, an enemy of his country? May 
the descendants of these patriots be as 
true to the real welfare of their countrv. 



664 



The Hosensack Academy 

By Prof. Samuel K. Brecht, Lansdowne, Pa. 



V 







ERY little is known concerning 
tlie education of the 
Schwenkt'eklers before their 
migration t o Pennsylvania. 
What is known is gleaned 
from letters and from biogra- 
phies of various ])ersons. that 
have been preserved. How- 
ever we have conclusive evi- 
dence that these men and 
women who left their Sileslan homes to 
seek freedom in thi